User:Adam Bishop/List of religious leaders in 1220

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Buddhism[edit]

Christianity[edit]

Roman Catholic Church[edit]

In 1220 the Roman Catholic Church was essentially distinct from the Eastern Orthodox Church, following the Great Schism of 1054. It was the religion of almost all of Europe, from Greenland to Sweden in the north, Poland and Hungary in the east, Italy in the south, and much of the Iberian peninsula in the west. The crusades had brought Roman Catholic church hierarchy to the Crusader states in the Holy Land and formerly Byzantine territory in Greece and the Mediterranean, and the Reconquista continued to restore Catholicism to Spain and Portugal. The temporal and spiritual power of the Church was perhaps at its height, following the reign of Pope Innocent III; Innocent had convened the Fourth Lateran Council five years earlier in 1215, and he "found himself on this occasion surrounded by seventy-one patriarchs and metropolitans, including the Patriarchs of Constantinople and of Jerusalem, four hundred and twelve bishops, and nine hundred abbots and priors."[1]

Rome and central Italy[edit]

Italy in the 12th and 13th centuries

The Pope's immediate suffragans included the suburbicarian dioceses:

There were also a large number of titular cardinal priests and deacons of the various churches in Rome:

Cardinal priests[edit]
Cardinal deacons[edit]
Papal States[edit]

The Pope was also the temporal ruler of the Papal States, which by 1220 extended north and east over the March of Ancona and the Duchy of Spoleto (Umbria), and he was thus in constant conflict with the Holy Roman Empire and the fledging northern Italian states. The struggle between the Guelphs and Ghibellines was well underway. A number of dioceses lay within the Papal States, directly subject to Rome:

Northern Italy, Corsica, and Sardinia[edit]

The dioceses and archdioceses to the north, in Tuscany, were also for the most part direct suffragans of Rome; the only archdiocese was Pisa, until the elevation of Florence in the 15th century, but Pisa was not the metropolis of the other Tuscan dioceses, which, due to their great antiquity, were dependent on Rome. The dioceses of Corsica, however, were politically and spiritually dependent on Pisa and Genoa at this time.[3][4] Sardinia had its own archdioceses at Sassari and Cagliari, although it was also politically dependent on Pisa.

The Republics of Genoa and Venice had long been independent city-states; Venice was particularly powerful at this time, having been responsible for the sack of Constantinople in 1204.

Milan and the other cities of Lombardy were embroiled in a long and bloody rebellion against Imperial authority. Milan was the head of the Lombard League, which gained rights of local jurisdiction for the Lombard cities, although they still technically owed allegiance to the Emperor. Ecclesiastically, Milan was also the centre of the Ambrosian Rite. Ravenna and the rest of the Romagna was also in revolt against the Empire.

Subject directly to Rome

Kingdom of Sicily[edit]

The Kingdom of Sicily by 1220 extended over Sicily and all of Italy south of the Papal States. It was at this time ruled by the Hohenstaufen Emperor Frederick II.

Subject directly to Rome

Holy Land[edit]

The First Crusade had established a Roman Catholic church hierarchy in the Holy Land; this was not exactly the same as the original ancient ecclesiastical hierarchy, as crusader Jerusalem was more prominent than Antioch and oversaw the ancient province of Phoenicia (Tyre, Beirut, et al.) which rightfully belonged to the latter patriarchate. Almost all of this territory had been lost by 1187, but a small strip of coastline was regained during the Third Crusade; otherwise many of these dioceses were in Muslim territory in 1220. Nevertheless they were not yet titular dioceses, as the ongoing Fifth Crusade promised (but ultimately failed) to re-conquer Jerusalem. The crusader presence in the eastern Mediterranean had also brought the Armenian Apostolic Church under Roman jurisdiction, although this would not last; the Maronite Catholic Church, however, rejoined the Roman church for good in the 1180s. In Cyprus, the Greek hierarchy still existed but a Latin archbishop, subject to the Patriarch of Antioch, ministered to the Latin inhabitants. Due to the ongoing Fifth Crusade, a Latin Patriarchate had also been established for Alexandria in Egypt.[6]

Jerusalem[edit]
Antioch[edit]
Egypt[edit]

France[edit]

The territory of the Kingdom of France was largely the same as that of modern France, although much of the eastern part of today's France was still part of the Holy Roman Empire. The English also held much of the west of France, but technically the English king controlled this territory as a vassal of the king of France. In the south, in the Languedoc, the Cathar heresy had taken root, and the Albigensian Crusade was underway. In 1317 Toulouse was raised to an archdiocese and a number of new dioceses were created in former Cathar territory; otherwise the ecclesiastical organization of France was essentially the same in 1220 as it would be until the French Revolution.

Directly subject to Rome

Iberian peninsula[edit]

Subject directly to Rome:

British Isles[edit]

Ireland[edit]

Ireland was politically dominated by Anglo-Norman lords but the church retained its own organization established at the Synod of Kells-Mellifont in 1152.

England, Wales, and Scotland[edit]

England had been divided between the Archdioceses of Canterbury and York since the 8th century, although by 1220 York held only Durham, Carlisle, and Galloway as suffragans; Durham was a prince-bishopric and was largely independent. Aside from Galloway, the Scottish dioceses were immediately dependent on Rome until Glasgow and St. Andrews were elevated to archdioceses in the 15th century.

Wales was ruled by Llywelyn the Great and his clients, aside from the territories ruled by the Anglo-Norman Marcher Lords. The Welsh dioceses were suffragans of Canterbury.

England had been under papal interdict from 1208 to 1214, when the country was granted by King John as a papal fief to Innocent III. The church was actually governed by papal legate Guala Bicchieri, Cardinal priest of San Martino ai Monti.

Subject directly to Rome:

Frankish Greece[edit]

Unknown metropolitan

Holy Roman Empire[edit]

Burgundy[edit]
Lower Saxony[edit]
North Rhine-Westphalia[edit]
Saxony[edit]
Palatinate[edit]
Austria[edit]
Italy[edit]

Directly subject to Rome

Poland[edit]

Hungary[edit]

The Kingdom of Hungary had been Christianized in the 11th century, and at this time extended over modern Hungary, Romania, Croatia, and Bosnia.

The Transylvanian Diocese of Alba Iulia (Gyulafehérvár) and bordering dioceses in the Kingdom of Hungary (13th century)

Scandinavia[edit]

The Archbishop of Lund was Primate of Scandinavia until the area had been sufficiently Christianized to create separate archbishops for Norway and Sweden in the 12th century. From Scandinavia, Christianity was spread to Finland and the Baltic in the east. The North Sea and North Atlantic islands, including some of the British Isles under Norse domination, were subject to the Norwegian Archbishop of Nidaros, the modern Trondheim).

Directly subject to Rome

Military orders[edit]

Religious and mendicant orders[edit]

Abbots and abbesses[edit]

England[edit]

Benedictine:

Augustinian:

Cistercian:

Holy Roman Empire[edit]

Benedictine:

Cistercian:

Augustinian:

Praemonstratensian:

Abbesses

Other[edit]

Eastern Orthodoxy[edit]

Oriental Orthodoxy[edit]

Nestorianism[edit]

Islam[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Fourth Lateran Council" from the Catholic Encyclopedia.
  2. ^ The titular church of S. Crisogono was occupied by Stephan Langton from 1206, but after his appointment to the see of Canterbury in 1207 he seems to have resigned it, retaining only the honorary title S. R. E. cardinalis (Klaus Ganzer, Die Entwicklung des auswärtigen Kardinalats im hohen Mittelalter, Max Niemeyer Verlag Tübingen 1963, p. 155)
  3. ^ "In 1121, on account of the jealousy of Genoa, the bishops of Corsica were made immediately dependent upon the Holy See, but Honorius II (1126) restored the former status of Pisa as their metropolitan; in 1133, however, Innocent II divided them between Pisa and Genoa, which was then made an archdiocese. Thereafter, Pisa received for suffragans also Populonia and two sees in Sardinia." (http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12110a.htm)
  4. ^ "In 1092 Pope Urban II made [Corsica's] bishops suffragans of the Archbishop of Pisa. In 1133 Innocent II, having granted the pallium to the Archbishop of Genoa, gave him for suffragans the Corsican Bishops of Mariana, Nebbio, and Accia, the Archbishop of Pisa retaining as suffragans the sees of Ajaccio, Aleria, and Sagona."(http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/04396b.htm)
  5. ^ According to the official website, "Dal Pontefice Pasquale II, nel Concilio di Guastalla del 1106, fu sciolta da quest’ultimo Metropolita [Ravenna] e rimase sottomessa direttamente alla Santa Sede." However, Konrad Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi vol. I: 1198-1431 (Regensberg, 1913), says it remained a suffragan of Ravenna.
  6. ^ Jean Richard, "The Political and Ecclesiastical Organization of the Crusader States", in A History of the Crusades, vol. V: The Impact of the Crusades on the Near East, eds. Norman P. Zacour and Harry W. Hazard, 1985.
  7. ^ The offices of the Archdiocese of Canterbury are found in Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: volume 2 - Monastic cathedrals (northern and southern provinces), Diana E. Greenway, Institute of Historical Research, 1971, available online
  8. ^ The offices of the Diocese of Bangor are found in Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae, 1066-1300: volume 9 - The Welsh cathedrals (Bangor, Llandaff, St Asaphs, St Davids), M.J. Pearson, Institute of Historical Research, 2003, available online.
  9. ^ The offices of the Diocese of Bath are found in Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae, 1066-1300: volume 7 - Bath and Wells, Diana E. Greenway, Institute of Historical Research, 2001, available online.
  10. ^ The offices of the Diocese of Chichester are found in Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae, 1066-1300: volume 5 - Chichester, Diana E. Greenway, Institute of Historical Research, 1996, available online.
  11. ^ Hennessy. Chichester Diocese Clergy Lists
  12. ^ Diana E. Greenway (1996). "Deans". Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: volume 5: Chichester. Institute of Historical Research. Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  13. ^ The offices of the Diocese of Ely are found in Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: volume 2 - Monastic cathedrals (northern and southern provinces), Diana E. Greenway, Institute of Historical Research, 1971, available online
  14. ^ The offices of the Diocese of Hereford are found in Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae, 1066-1300: volume 8 - Hereford, Diana E. Greenway, Institute of Historical Research, 2002, available online.
  15. ^ The offices of the Diocese of Lincoln are found in Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae, 1066-1300: volume 3 - Lincoln, Diana E. Greenway, Institute of Historical Research, 1977, available online.
  16. ^ The offices of the Diocese of Llandaff are found in Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae, 1066-1300: volume 9 - The Welsh cathedrals (Bangor, Llandaff, St Asaphs, St Davids), M.J. Pearson, Institute of Historical Research, 2003, available online.
  17. ^ The offices of the Diocese of London are found in Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: volume 1 - St. Paul's, London, Diana E. Greenway, Institute of Historical Research, 1968, available online.
  18. ^ The offices of the Diocese of Norwich are found in Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: volume 2 - Monastic cathedrals (northern and southern provinces), Diana E. Greenway, Institute of Historical Research, 1971, available online
  19. ^ He was appointed in 1215 but was not consecrated until 1222.
  20. ^ The offices of the Diocese of Rochester are found in Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: volume 2 - Monastic cathedrals (northern and southern provinces), Diana E. Greenway, Institute of Historical Research, 1971, available online
  21. ^ The offices of the Diocese of St Asaph are found in Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae, 1066-1300: volume 9 - The Welsh cathedrals (Bangor, Llandaff, St Asaphs, St Davids), M.J. Pearson, Institute of Historical Research, 2003, available online.
  22. ^ The offices of the Diocese of Saint David's are found in Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae, 1066-1300: volume 9 - The Welsh cathedrals (Bangor, Llandaff, St Asaphs, St Davids), M.J. Pearson, Institute of Historical Research, 2003, available online.
  23. ^ The offices of the Diocese of Salisbury are found in Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae, 1066-1300: volume 4 - Salisbury, Diana E. Greenway, Institute of Historical Research, 1991, available online.
  24. ^ Greenway, Diana E. "LIST 56 PREBENDARIES OF STRATTON". Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: vol. 4. Institute of Historical Research/British History Online. Retrieved 2008-06-02. 
  25. ^ The offices of the Diocese of Winchester are found in Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: volume 2 - Monastic cathedrals (northern and southern provinces), Diana E. Greenway, Institute of Historical Research, 1971, available online
  26. ^ The offices of the Diocese of Worcester are found in Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: volume 2 - Monastic cathedrals (northern and southern provinces), Diana E. Greenway, Institute of Historical Research, 1971, available online
  27. ^ The offices of the archdiocese of York are listed in Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: Volume 6 - York, Diana E. Greenaway, Institute of Historical Research, 1999, available online
  28. ^ The offices of the Diocese of Carlisle are found in Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: volume 2 - Monastic cathedrals (northern and southern provinces), Diana E. Greenway, Institute of Historical Research, 1971, available online
  29. ^ The offices of the Diocese of Durham are found in Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: volume 2 - Monastic cathedrals (northern and southern provinces), Diana E. Greenway, Institute of Historical Research, 1971, available online
  30. ^ The Bulgarian Patriarchate was in union with Rome from 1203-1235. A separate Orthodox Patriarch in union with Constantinople had been established at Ohrid.
  31. ^ "On the downfall of Henry, the bishopric became immediately subject to the Holy See..." (Catholic Encyclopedia, Lübeck. Eubel says it was a suffragan of Bremen.