Louie Louie

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

"Louie Louie"
Flip 321 Label.jpg
Single by Richard Berry
A-sideYou Are My Sunshine[1][2]
ReleasedApril 1957 (1957-04)
RecordedApril 1956
StudioHollywood Recorders
GenreRhythm and blues
Songwriter(s)Richard Berry
Richard Berry singles chronology
"Take The Key"
"Louie Louie"
"Sweet Sugar You"

"Louie Louie" is a rhythm and blues song written and composed by American musician Richard Berry in 1955, recorded in 1956, and released in 1957. It is best known for the 1963 hit version by the Kingsmen and has become a standard in pop and rock. The song is based on the tune "El Loco Cha Cha" popularized by bandleader René Touzet and is an example of Afro-Cuban influence on American popular music.

"Louie Louie" tells, in simple verse–chorus form, the first-person story of a Jamaican sailor returning to the island to see his lover.

Historical significance[edit]

The "remarkable historical impact"[3] of "Louie Louie" has been recognized by organizations and publications worldwide for its influence on the history of rock and roll. A partial list (see Recognition and rankings table below) includes the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, the Grammy Hall of Fame, National Public Radio, VH1, Rolling Stone Magazine, the National Endowment for the Arts, and the Recording Industry Association of America. Other major examples of the song's legacy include the celebration of International Louie Louie Day every year on April 11; the annual Louie Louie Parade in Philadelphia from 1985 to 1989; the LouieFest in Tacoma from 2003 to 2012; the ongoing annual Louie Louie Street Party in Peoria; and the unsuccessful attempt in 1985 to make it the state song of Washington.

Dave Marsh in his book Louie Louie: The History and Mythology of the World's Most Famous Rock 'n' Roll Song wrote, "It is the best of songs, it is the worst of songs",[4] and also called it "cosmically crude".[5] Music historian Peter Blecha noted, "Far from shuffling off to a quiet retirement, evidence indicates that 'Louie Louie' may actually prove to be immortal."[6] Rock critic Greil Marcus called it "a law of nature"[7] and New York Times music critic Jon Pareles, writing in a 1997 obituary for Richard Berry, termed it "a cornerstone of rock".[8] Other writers described it as "musically simple, lyrically simple, and joyously infectious",[9] "deliciously moronic",[10] "a completely unforgettable earworm",[11] "the essence of rock's primal energy",[12] and "the immortal international hit ... that defines rock 'n' roll."[13]

Others noted that it "served as a bridge to the R&B of the past and the rap scene of the future",[14] that "it came to symbolize the garage rock genre, where the typical performance was often aggressive and usually amateurish",[15] and that "all you need to make a great rock 'n' roll record are the chords to 'Louie Louie' and a bad attitude."[16]

Music historian and filmmaker Eric Predoehl of The Louie Report described the song as,[17]

Purity. It's just a very pure, honest rock 'n' roll song. It's a song of romantic ideals hidden amongst a three-chord melody. It's an idealistic song. It's a misunderstood song. It's a confusing and disorienting song. It's like a heartbeat.

Humorist Dave Barry (perhaps with some exaggeration) called it "one of the greatest songs in the history of the world".[18] American Songwriter summarized, "It might be the best-known rock song of all time. It might be the most important rock song of all time."[19]

The Kingsmen's recording was the subject of an FBI investigation about the supposed, but nonexistent, obscenity of the lyrics that ended without prosecution.[20] The nearly unintelligible (and innocuous) lyrics were widely misinterpreted, and the song was banned by radio stations. Marsh wrote that the lyrics controversy "reflected the country's infantile sexuality" and "ensured the song's eternal perpetuation",[21] while another writer termed it "the ultimate expression of youthful rebellion".[22] Jacob McMurray in Taking Punk To The Masses noted, "All of this only fueled the popularity of the song ... imprinting this grunge ur-message onto successive generations of youth, ... all of whom amplified and rebroadcast its powerful sonic meme ...."[23]

Original version by Richard Berry and the Pharaohs[edit]

Richard Berry was inspired to write the song in 1955 after listening to an R&B interpretation of "El Loco Cha Cha" performed by the Latin group Ricky Rillera and the Rhythm Rockers.[24] The tune was written originally as "Amarren Al Loco" ("Tie Up the Madman") by Cuban bandleader Rosendo Ruiz Jr. (also known as Rosendo Ruiz Quevedo), but became best known in the "El Loco Cha Cha" arrangement by René Touzet which included a ten-note "1-2-3 1–2 1-2-3 1–2" tumbao or rhythmic pattern.[25][26]

"Louie Louie" 10-note riff

In Berry's mind, the words "Louie Louie" "just kind of fell out of the sky",[24] superimposing themselves over the repeating bassline. Lyrically, the first person perspective of the song was influenced by "One for My Baby (And One More for the Road)", which is sung from the perspective of a customer talking to a bartender ("Louie" was the name of Berry's bartender).[27] Berry cited Chuck Berry's "Havana Moon" and his exposure to Latin American music for the song's speech pattern and references to Jamaica.[28]

Los Angeles-based Flip Records recorded Berry's composition with his vocal group the Pharaohs in April 1956 and released it in April 1957 as a single B-side of "You Are My Sunshine".[29] The Pharaohs were Godoy Colbert (first tenor), Stanley Henderson (second tenor, subbing for Robert Harris), and Noel Collins (baritone). Gloria Jones of the Dreamers provided additional backup vocals. Session musicians included Plas Johnson on tenor sax, Jewel Grant on baritone sax, Ernie Freeman on piano, Irving Ashby on guitar, Red Callender on bass, Ray Martinez on drums, and John Anderson on trumpet.[30][31]

Just prior to the song's release, Berry sold his portion of the publishing and songwriting rights for "Louie Louie" and four other songs for $750 to Max Feirtag, the head of Flip Records, to raise cash for his upcoming wedding.[24][32] The single was a regional hit on the West Coast, particularly in San Francisco, and when Berry toured the Pacific Northwest, local R&B bands began to play the song, increasing its popularity. The song was re-released by Flip in 1961 as an A-side single and again in 1964 on a four-song EP, but never appeared on any of the national charts. Sales estimates ranged from 40,000[33] to 130,000 copies.[34]

Other versions appeared on Casino Club Presents Richard Berry (1966), Great Rhythm and Blues Oldies Volume 12 (1977),[35] and The Best of Louie, Louie (1983). Although similar to the original, the version on Rhino's 1983 The Best of Louie, Louie compilation[36] is actually a note-for-note re-recording (with backup vocals by doo wop revival group Big Daddy)[37] created because licensing could not be obtained for Berry's 1957 version.[7] The original version was re-released on an obscure 1986 Swedish compilation,[30] but not until the Ace Records Love That Louie compilation in 2002 did it see wide distribution.[38][39]

In the mid-1980s, Berry was living on welfare. Drinks company California Cooler wanted to use "Louie Louie" in a commercial, but discovered it needed Berry's consent because he still owned the radio and television performance rights.[13] The company asked the Artists Rights Society to locate him which led to Berry's taking legal action to regain his rights to the song. The settlement made Berry a millionaire.[40]

While the title of the song is often rendered with a comma ("Louie, Louie"), in 1988, Berry told Esquire magazine that the correct title of the song was "Louie Louie" with no comma.[24][41] Pronunciation has varied widely from Berry's original "Lou-ee Lou-ee" to "Lou-eye Lou-eye" (Kingsmen, 1963), "Lou-ee Lou-eye-ay" (Angels, 1964), "Lou-eye Lou-way" (Sonics, 1966; Iggy Pop, 1972), "Lou-ee-a Lou-way" (Kinks, 1964; Motörhead, 1978), "Lou-way Lou-way" (Clarke/Duke Project, 1981), and others.

Cover versions[edit]

"Louie Louie" is the world's most recorded rock song,[42][43] with published estimates ranging from over 1,600[6] to more than 2,000[44][45] "with ever more still being released and performed".[46] It has been released or performed by a wide range of artists from reggae to hard rock, from jazz to psychedelic, from hip hop to easy listening. Peter Doggett labeled it "almost impossible to play badly"[47] and Greil Marcus proclaimed, "Has there ever been a bad version of 'Louie Louie'?"[48] "Radio Dave" Milberg on the Rare & Scratchy Rock 'n Roll podcast noted, "As long as there's rock and roll, there will be more remakes of 'Louie Louie' and more songs about its title character; and that's how it should be."[49]

The Kingsmen version in particular has been cited as the "rosetta stone" of garage rock,[38] the defining "ur-text" of punk rock,[50][51] and "the original grunge classic".[52] "The influential rock critics Dave Marsh and Greil Marcus believe that virtually all punk rock can be traced back to a single proto-punk song, 'Louie Louie'."[53]


Richard Berry was on the underbill for a concert in the Seattle-Tacoma area in September 1957 and his record appeared on local radio station charts in November 1957 [54] after "African American DJs Bob Summerrise and Eager Beaver started playing it on their radio shows out of Puyallup and Bremerton."[17] Local R&B groups like Ron Holden and the Playboys and the Dave Lewis Combo popularized "Louie Louie", rearranging Berry's version and performing it at live shows and "battle of the bands" events.[55][56]

Holden recorded an unreleased version, backed by the Thunderbirds, for the Nite Owl label in 1959.[57] As a leader of the "dirty but cool" Seattle R&B sound,[58] he would often substitute mumbled, "somewhat pornographic" lyrics in live performances.[59] Lewis, "the singularly most significant figure on the Pacific Northwest's nascent rhythm & blues scene in the 1950s and 1960s",[60] released a three chord clone, "David's Mood - Part 2", that was a regional hit in 1963.

The Wailers, Little Bill and the Bluenotes, the Frantics, Tiny Tony and the Statics, Merrilee and the Turnabouts, and other local groups soon added the song to their set lists.[61]


Rockin' Robin Roberts and the Wailers (1961)[edit]

"Louie Louie"
Etiquette ET-1 Label.jpeg
Single by Rockin' Robin Roberts
Released1961 (1961)

Robin Roberts developed an interest in rock 'n' roll and rhythm and blues records as a high school student in Tacoma, Washington. Among the songs he began performing as an occasional guest singer with a local band, the Bluenotes, in 1958 were "Louie Louie", which he had "rescued from oblivion"[7] after hearing Berry's obscure original single, and Bobby Day's "Rockin' Robin", which gave him his stage name.[62]

In 1959, Roberts left the Bluenotes and began singing with another local band, the Wailers, famed for their "hard-nosed R&B/rock fusion".[63] Known for his dynamic onstage performances, Roberts added "Louie Louie" to the band's set and, in 1960 recorded the track with the Wailers as his backing band.[64] The arrangement, devised by Roberts with the band, was "the first-ever garage version of 'Louie Louie'"[64] and included his "one of the true great moments of rock"[38] ad-lib "Let's give it to 'em, RIGHT NOW!!" Released as a single on the band's own label, Etiquette, in early 1961, it became a huge hit locally, charting at No. 1 on Seattle's KJR and establishing "Louie Louie" as "the signature riff of Northwest rock 'n' roll".[65] It also picked up play across the border in Vancouver, British Columbia, appearing in the top 40 of the CFUN chart. The popularity of the Roberts release effectively buried another "reasonably close to the Richard Berry/Ron Holden arrangement"[38] version put out at about the same time by Little Bill Englehardt (Topaz T-1305).[64]

The record was then reissued and promoted by Liberty Records in Los Angeles, but it failed to chart nationally.[66] The track was included on the 1963 album The Wailers & Co, the 1964 compilation album Tall Cool One, the 1998 reissue of the 1962 album The Fabulous Wailers Live at the Castle, and multiple later compilations.[67]

Roberts was killed in an automobile accident in 1967, but his "legacy would reverberate down through the ages".[65] Dave Marsh dedicated his 1993 book, "For Richard Berry, who gave birth to this unruly child, and Rockin' Robin Roberts, who first raised it to glory."[68]

The Kingsmen (1963)[edit]

"Louie Louie"
Jerden 712 Label.jpeg
Original release
Single by the Kingsmen
from the album The Kingsmen in Person
B-side"Haunted Castle"
ReleasedJune 1963 (1963-06) (Jerden)
October 1963 (1963-10) (Wand)
RecordedApril 6, 1963
StudioNorthwestern Inc.
GenreGarage rock[69]
  • Ken Chase
  • Jerry Dennon
The Kingsmen singles chronology
"Louie Louie"
Wand Re-issue
Wand 143 Label.jpeg
Second Wand release with "Lead vocal by Jack Ely" text

On 6 April 1963,[70] the Kingsmen, a rock and roll group from Portland, Oregon, chose "Louie Louie" for their second recording, their first having been "Peter Gunn Rock". The Kingsmen recorded the song at Northwestern Inc. Motion Pictures & Recording Studios at 411 SW 13th Avenue in Portland, Oregon. The one hour session cost either $36,[71] $50,[72] or somewhere in between[73] and the band split the cost.[74]

The session was produced by Ken Chase, a local disc jockey on the AM rock station KISN who also owned The Chase, the teen nightclub where the Kingsmen were the house band. The engineer for the session was the studio owner, Robert Lindahl. The Kingsmen's lead vocalist, Jack Ely, based his version on the recording by Rockin' Robin Roberts with the Fabulous Wailers, but unintentionally reintroduced Berry’s original stop-time rhythm as he showed the other members how to play it with a 1–2–3, 1–2, 1–2–3 beat instead of the 1–2–3–4, 1–2, 1–2–3–4 beat on the Wailers record.[75] The night before their recording session, the band played a 90-minute version of the song during a gig at a local teen club. The Kingsmen's studio version was recorded in one partial and one full take.[76] They also recorded "Jamaica Farewell" and what became the B-side of the release, an original "surf instrumental"[77] by Ely and keyboardist Don Gallucci called "Haunted Castle".[73] Producer Jerry Dennon's local Jerden label pressed 1,000 copies.[78]

The Kingsmen's version with its "ragged",[79] "sloppy",[80] "chaotic",[81] "shambolic, lumbering style",[82] complete with "manic lead guitar solo, insane cymbal crashes, generally slurred and unintelligible lyrics",[83] transformed the earlier Rockin' Robin Roberts version on which it was based into a "bumbling, bear-in-a-china-shop",[84] "gloriously incoherent",[85] "raw and raucous"[86] "stomping garage-rocker"[87] "so wrong it's right".[88] Ely had to stand on tiptoe to sing into a boom mike, and his braces further impeded his singing. The guitar break is triggered by a shout, "Okay, let's give it to 'em right now!", both lifted from the Roberts version.[89]

Critic Dave Marsh suggests it is this moment that gives the recording greatness: "[Ely] went for it so avidly you'd have thought he'd spotted the jugular of a lifelong enemy, so crudely that, at that instant, Ely sounds like Donald Duck on helium. And it's that faintly ridiculous air that makes the Kingsmen's record the classic that it is, especially since it's followed by a guitar solo that's just as wacky."[90] Marsh ranked the song as No. 11 out of the 1001 greatest singles ever made, describing it as "the most profound and sublime expression of rock and roll's ability to create something from nothing".[91] The Independent in Britain noted that it reinforced "a growing suspicion that enthusiasm was more important to rock 'n' roll than technical competence or literal meaning."[34]

In the 2002 Love That Louie CD booklet, Alec Palao wrote,[38]

This is truly the quintessential garage band moment, an audio-vérité snapshot that communicates directly what red-blooded grass roots American rock 'n' roll is all about ... the Kingsmen's 'Louie Louie' spills forth with a rush of teenage hormones: raw, untutored yet seemingly ready to take on the world.

A significant error on the Kingsmen version occurs just after the lead guitar break. As the group was going by the Wailers version, which has a brief restatement of the riff twice over before the lead vocalist comes back in, it would be expected that Ely would do the same. Ely, however, missed his mark, coming in two bars too soon, before the restatement of the riff. He realized his mistake and stopped the verse short, but the band did not realize that he had done so. As a quick fix, drummer Lynn Easton covered the pause with a drum fill. The error "imbued the Kingsmen recording with a touching humility and humanity"[38] and is now so well known that multiple versions by other groups duplicate it.[86][92]

First released in May 1963, the single was initially issued by the small Jerden label, before being picked up by the larger Wand Records in October 1963. Herb Alpert and A&M Records passed on the distribution opportunity,[93] deeming it "too long" and "out of tune".[94]

Sales of the Kingsmen record were initially so low (reportedly 600) that the group considered disbanding. Things changed when Boston's biggest DJ, Arnie Ginsburg, was given the record by a pitchman. Amused by its slapdash sound, he played it on his program as "The Worst Record of the Week". Despite the slam, listener response was swift and positive.[95]

By the end of October, it was listed in Billboard as a regional breakout and a "bubbling under" entry for the national chart. Meanwhile, the Raiders version, with far stronger promotion, was becoming a hit in California and was also listed as "bubbling under" one week after the Kingsmen debuted on the chart. For a few weeks, the two singles appeared destined to battle each other, but demand for the Kingsmen single, backed by national promotion from Wand, acquired momentum and by the end of 1963, Columbia Records had stopped promoting the Raiders version.

It entered the top ten on the Billboard Hot 100 chart for December 7, and peaked at No. 2 the following week, a spot which it held for six non-consecutive weeks; it would remain in the top 10 throughout December 1963 and January 1964 before dropping off in early February.[96] In total, the Kingsmen's version spent 16 weeks on the Hot 100, selling a million copies by April 1964.[97] "Dominique" by the Singing Nun and "There! I've Said It Again" by Bobby Vinton prevented the single from reaching No. 1 (although Marsh asserts that it "far outsold" the other records, but was denied Billboard's top spot due to lack of "proper decorum".)[98] "Louie Louie" did reach No. 1 on the Cashbox and Music Vendor/Record World pop charts, as well as No. 1 on the Cashbox R&B chart.[99] It was the last No. 1 on Cashbox before Beatlemania hit the United States with "I Want to Hold Your Hand".[100] The Kingsmen version quickly became a standard at teen parties in the U.S. during the 1960s and, reaching No. 26 on the UK Singles Chart,[101] was the preferred tune for a popular British dance called "The Shake".[102] The first album, The Kingsmen In Person, peaked at No. 20 in 1964 and remained on the charts for over two years (131 weeks total) until 1966.[103]

Due to the lyrics controversy and supported by the band's heavy touring schedule, the single continued to sell throughout 1965 and briefly reappeared on the charts in 1966, reaching No. 65 in Cashbox, No. 76 in Record World, No. 97 in Billboard[104][105] and cracking the Top 40 in the Washington market.[106] Total sales estimates for the single range from 10 million[28] to over 12 million with cover versions accounting for another 300 million.[107]

Another factor in the success of the record may have been the rumor that the lyrics were intentionally slurred by the Kingsmen—to cover up lyrics that were allegedly laced with profanity, graphically depicting sex between the sailor and his lady. Crumpled pieces of paper professing to be "the real lyrics" to "Louie Louie" circulated among teens. The song was banned on many radio stations and in many places in the United States, including Indiana, where a ban was requested by Governor Matthew Welsh.[108][109][110][111] These actions were taken despite the small matter that practically no one could distinguish the actual lyrics. Denials of chicanery by Kingsmen and Ely did not stop the controversy. The FBI started a 31-month investigation into the matter and concluded they were "unable to interpret any of the wording in the record."[20] However, drummer Lynn Easton later admitted that he yelled "Fuck" after fumbling a drum fill at 0:54 on the record.[112][113][114][115]

By the time the Kingsmen version had achieved national popularity, the band had split. Two rival editions—one featuring lead singer Jack Ely, the other with Lynn Easton who held the rights to the band's name—were competing for live audiences across the country. A settlement was reached later in 1964 giving Easton the right to the Kingsmen name but requiring all future pressings of the original version of "Louie Louie" to display "Lead vocal by Jack Ely" on the label.[116] Ely released "Love That Louie" (as Jack E. Lee and the Squires) in 1964 and "Louie Louie '66" and "Louie Go Home" (as Jack Ely and the Courtmen) in 1966 without chart success. He re-recorded "Louie Louie" in 1976 and again in 1980, and these versions appear on multiple 60s hit compilations credited to "Jack Ely (formerly of the Kingsmen)" or "re-recordings by the original artists".

Subsequent Kingsmen "Louie Louie" versions with either Lynn Easton or Dick Peterson as lead vocalist appeared on Live & Unreleased (recorded 1963, released 1992), Live at the Castle (recorded 1964, released 2011), Shindig! Presents Frat Party (VHS, recorded 1965, released 1991), 60s Dance Party (1982), California Cooler Presents Cooler Hits (recorded 1986, released 1987),[117] The Louie Louie Collection (as the Mystery Band, 1994), Red, White & Rock (2002), Garage Sale (recorded 2002, released 2003), and My Music: '60s Pop, Rock & Soul (DVD, 2011).[118] A solo version by Peterson was also included on the 1999 Circle of Friends, Volume 1 CD.[119]

On 9 November 1998, after a protracted lawsuit that lasted five years and cost $1.3 million, the Kingsmen were awarded ownership of all their recordings released on Wand Records from Gusto Records, including "Louie Louie". They had not been paid royalties on the songs since the 1960s.[120][121]

When Jack Ely died on April 28, 2015, his son reported that "my father would say, 'We were initially just going to record the song as an instrumental, and at the last minute I decided I'd sing it.'"[122] When it came time to do that, however, Ely discovered the sound engineer had raised the studio's only microphone several feet above his head. Then he placed Ely in the middle of his fellow musicians, all in an effort to create a better "live feel" for the recording. The result, Ely would say over the years, was that he had to stand on his toes, lean his head back and shout as loudly as he could just to be heard over the drums and guitars.[123]

When Mike Mitchell died on April 16, 2021, he was the only remaining member of the Kingsmen's original lineup who still performed with the band.[124] His "Louie Louie" guitar break has been called "iconic",[125] "blistering",[126] and "one of the most famous guitar solos of all time".[127] Guitar Player magazine noted, "Raw, lightning-fast, and loud, the solo's unbridled energy helped make the song a No. 2 pop hit, but also helped set the template for garage-rock – and later hard-rock – guitar."[128]

Paul Revere & the Raiders (1963)[edit]

"Louie Louie"
Raiders Sande 45.jpg
Single by Paul Revere & the Raiders
from the album Here They Come!
B-side"Night Train"
ReleasedMay 1963 (1963-05) (Sandē)
June 1963 (1963-06) (Columbia)
RecordedApril 1963
StudioNorthwestern Inc.
Producer(s)Roger Hart
Paul Revere & the Raiders singles chronology
"So Fine"
"Louie Louie"
"Louie Go Home"

Paul Revere & the Raiders also recorded a "cleaner, more accomplished"[38] version of "Louie Louie", probably on April 11 or 13, 1963, in the same Portland studio as the Kingsmen.[129][130][131][132] The recording was paid for and produced by KISN radio personality Roger Hart, who soon became personal manager for the band. Released on Hart's Sandē label and plugged on his radio show,[129] their version was more successful locally. Columbia Records issued the single nationally in June 1963 and it went to No. 1 in the West and Hawaii, but only reached No. 103 on the Billboard Bubbling Under Hot 100 chart. The quick success of "Louie Louie" faltered, however, due to lack of support from Columbia and its A&R man Mitch Miller,[133] a former bandleader (Sing Along With Mitch) with "retrogressive taste"[134] who disliked the "musical illiteracy" of rock and roll.[135]

The Raiders version opened with a distinctive "Grab yo woman, it's-a 'Louie Louie' time!" followed by a sax intro similar to the Rockin' Robin Roberts version (guitar in later releases).[136][137] Another signature lyric was "Stomp and shout and work it on out". The original version also contains a scarcely audible "dirty lyric" when Mark Lindsay says, "Do she fuck? That psyches me up!" behind the guitar solo.[138]

Robert Lindahl, president and chief engineer of NWI and sound engineer on both the Kingsmen and Raiders recordings, stated that the Raiders version was not known for "garbled lyrics" or an amateurish recording technique, but, as one author noted, their "more competent but uptight take on the song" was less exciting than the Kingsmen's version.[139]

Live versions were included on Here They Come! (1965), Paul Revere Rides Again! (1983), and The Last Madman of Rock and Roll (1986, DVD). Later releases featured different lead vocalists on Special Edition (1982, Michael Bradley), Generic Rock & Roll (1993, Carlo Driggs), Flower Power (2011, Darren Dowler), and The Revolutionary Hits of Paul Revere & the Raiders (2019, David Huizenga).

The Raiders also recorded Richard Berry's "Have Love, Will Travel", a "'Louie Louie' rewrite",[140] and "Louie, Go Home", an answer song penned by Lindsay and Revere after Berry declined their request for a "Louie Louie" follow-up,[141] as well as "Just Like Me", a "first cousin to 'Louie Louie'".[142]

The Beach Boys (1964)[edit]

Surf music icons the Beach Boys released their version on the 1964 album Shut Down Volume 2 with lead vocals shared by Carl Wilson and Mike Love. Their effort was unusual in that it was rendered "in a version so faithful to Berry's Angeleno-revered original"[143] instead of the more common garage rock style as they "[paid] tribute to the two most important earlier recordings of 'Louie Louie' — the 1957 original by Richard Berry and the Pharaohs, and the infamously unintelligible 1963 cover by the Kingsmen".[144] Other surf music versions included the Chan-Dells in 1963, the Pyramids and the Surfaris in 1964, the Trashmen, the Invictas, and Jan and Dean in 1965, the Challengers in 1966, the Ripp Tides in 1981, and the Shockwaves in 1988.[145]

Otis Redding (1964)[edit]

Otis Redding's "spunky ... free-associating"[38] version was released on his 1964 album Pain in My Heart. Dave Marsh called it "the best of the era" and noted that he "rearranged it to suit his style" by adding a full horn section and "garbles the lyrics so completely that it seems likely he made up the verses on the spot" as he "sang a story that made sense in his life" (including making Louie a female).[146] Other versions by R&B artists included Ike & Tina Turner, the Tams, and Nat & John in 1968, Wilbert Harrison in 1969, the Topics in 1970, and Barry White in 1981.[145]

The Angels (1964)[edit]

With a version on their 1964 album A Halo to You, the Angels were the first girl group to cover "Louie Louie".[143] Their rendition was also one of the first to deliberately duplicate the Jack Ely early vocal re-entry mistake after the bridge. The Best of Louie Louie, Volume 2 included their version.[147]

A Minnesota girl group, the Shaggs, released a version as a 1965 single (Concert 1-78-65), and Honey Ltd. covered the song on a 1968 album and as a single (LHI 1216); however, the distinction of first girl group participation on a version of "Louie Louie" would go to the Shalimars, an Olympia girl group who provided overdubbed backing vocals in 1960 for a recording by Little Bill (Englehardt) released as a single in 1961 (Topaz 1305).[64]

Female solo artist versions in the 1960s included Maddalena in 1967, titled "Lui Lui", as a single (RCA Italiana 3413), Tina Turner in 1968, released in 1989 on The Best of Louie Louie, Volume 2, and "a sexiest-of-all version by smokey-voiced diva Julie London"[148] released as a single (Liberty 56085) and included on her 1969 album Yummy, Yummy, Yummy.[145]

The Kinks (1964)[edit]

"Louie Louie"
Song by the Kinks
from the EP Kinksize Session
ReleasedNovember 27, 1964 (1964-11-27)
RecordedOctober 18, 1964 (1964-10-18)
StudioPye, London
GenreRhythm and blues
Producer(s)Shel Talmy

The Kinks recorded "Louie Louie" on October 18, 1964. It was released in November on the Kinksize Session EP and on two 1965 US-only albums, Kinks-Size and Kinkdom. Live 1960s versions were released on bootlegs The Kinks in Germany (1965), Kinky Paris (1965), Live in San Francisco (1969), Kriminal Kinks (1972), and The Kinks at the BBC (2012). The Kast Off Kinks continue to perform it live, occasionally joined by Ray Davies at the annual Kinks Konvention.[149]

Sources vary on the impact of "Louie Louie" on the writing of "You Really Got Me" and "All Day and All of the Night". One writer called the two songs "sparse representations of a 'Louie Louie' mentality",[150] Another noted that the "You Really Got Me" riff is "unquestionably a guitar-based piece, [that] fundamentally differs from "Louie Louie" and other earlier riff pieces with which it sometimes is compared",[151] while another succinctly calls it "a rewrite of the Kingsmen's 'Louie Louie'".[152] A 1965 letter to London's Record Mirror opined, "Besides completely copying the Kingsmen's vocal and instrumental style, The Kinks rose to fame with two watery twists of this classic...."[153]

Dave Marsh asserted that the Kinks "blatantly based their best early hits" on the "Louie Louie" riff.[154] Other sources stated that Davies wrote "You Really Got Me" while trying to work out the chords of "Louie Louie" at the suggestion of the group's manager, Larry Page.[155] According to biographer Thomas M. Kitts, Davies confirmed that Page suggested that "he write a song like 'Louie Louie'", but denied any direct influence.[156]

Biographer Johnny Rogan noted no "Louie Louie" influence, writing that Davies adapted an earlier piano riff to the jazz blues style of Mose Allison, and that he was further influenced by seeing Chuck Berry and Gerry Mulligan in Jazz on a Summer's Day, a 1958 film about the Newport Jazz Festival. Rogan also cited brother Dave Davies' distorted power chords as "the sonic contribution that transformed the composition" into a hit song.[157]

Whether directly or indirectly, the Kingsmen version influenced the musical style of the early Kinks. They were huge fans of the Kingsmen’s "Louie Louie" and Dave Davies remembered the song inspiring Ray’s singing, saying in an interview:[158][159]

We played that record over and over. And Ray copied a lot of his vocal style from that guy [Jack Ely]. I was always trying to get Ray to sing, because I thought he had a great voice, but he was very shy. Then we heard The Kingsmen and he had that lazy, throwaway, laid-back drawl in his voice, and it was magic.

Alec Palao in the Love That Louie CD sleeve notes highlighted Davies' "supremely lecherous, almost drunken vocal" and suggested that "Davies drew from 'Louie' the urchin persona that populated so much of the Kinks' early work".[38]

The Sandpipers (1966)[edit]

After their No. 1 hit "Guantanamera", the Sandpipers, with producer Tommy LiPuma and arranger Nick DeCaro, "cleverly revived"[160] the same soft rock, smooth ballad, Spanish language approach with a "quiet, yet majestic",[38] "sweet interpretation"[161] of "Louie Louie", reaching No. 30 and No. 35 on the Billboard and Cashbox charts, respectively (the highest charting U.S. version after the Kingsmen). The success of their "smoky version"[162] heralded the entry of the ever adaptable "Louie Louie" into the MOR and easy listening categories and many followed: David McCallum and J.J. Jones (1967), Honey Ltd. (1968), Julie London (1969), Sounds Orchestral (1970) ("by far the best of the numerous easy listening interpretations"),[38] Line Renaud (1973), Dave Stewart and Barbara Gaskin (1991), and others released singles and albums featuring slower and mellower versions of what had previously been an up tempo pop and rock standard.[163]

Travis Wammack (1966)[edit]

With the only instrumental version to make the charts, Travis Wammack reached No. 128 on the Bubbling Under Hot 100 in April 1966.[164] An early guitar innovator and "precursor to guitar-hero shredding", his distinctive sound on "Louie Louie" was "liberally laced with fuzztone"[38] created by playing through an overdriven drive-in movie speaker.[165]

Released as a single (Atlantic 2322), the track was not included on Wammack's first album in 1972 or any thereafter. It appeared on a 1967 French release (Formidable Rhythm And Blues (Vol. 3)), but not again until two Wammack compilations, That Scratchy Guitar From Memphis (1987) and Scr-Scr-Scratchy! (1989). It was also included on two later various artists compilations, Love That Louie: The Louie Louie Files (2002) and Boom Boom A Go-Go! (2014).

Other notable 1960s instrumental versions included the Ventures and Ian Whitcomb in 1965, Ace Cannon and Sandy Nelson in 1966, Floyd Cramer and Pete Fountain in 1967, and Willie Mitchell in 1969.[145]

The Sonics (1966)[edit]

The Sonics released their "blistering makeover ... definitive punk arrangement"[38] as a 1965 single (Etiquette ET-23) and on the 1966 album Boom. Later versions appeared on Sinderella (1980) and Live at Easy Street (2016).

Described as a major influence on punk and garage music worldwide,[166] the group's characteristic hard-edged, fuzz-drenched sound and "abrasive, all-out approach"[167] "took the Northwest garage sound to its most primitive extreme"[168] and made their "Louie Louie" version ahead of its time. They also made it more "fierce and threatening"[169] by altering the traditional 1-4-5-4 chord pattern to the "darker, more sinister" 1-3b-4-3b.[38]

Mongo Santamaria (1967)[edit]

The "Watermelon Man", Cuban percussionist and bandleader Mongo Santamaria, returned "Louie Louie" to its Afro-Cuban roots, echoing Rene Touzet's "El Loco Cha Cha" with his conga- and trumpet-driven Latin jazz version. Originally released on the 1967 album Hey! Let's Party, it was also included on the 1983 compilation The Best of Louie Louie, Volume 2.[147] Other early Latin-flavored versions were released by Pedrito Ramirez con los Yogis (Angelo 518, 1965), Pete Terrace (El Nuevo Pete Terrace, 1966), Eddie Cano (Brought Back Live from P.J.'s, 1967), Mario Allison (De Fiesta, 1967), and Rey Davila (On His Own, 1971).

Latin American jazz/rock innovator Carlos Santana compared Tito Puente's 1962 "Oye Como Va" to "Louie Louie" saying, "... how close the feel was to 'Louie Louie' and some Latin jazz tunes" [170] and "... this is a song like 'Louie Louie' or 'Guantanamera'. This is a song that when you play it, people are going to get up and dance, and that's it."[171]

Frank Zappa and the Mothers of Invention (1967)[edit]

"Louie Louie" occurred repeatedly as an "idée fixe" in the musical lexicon of Frank Zappa and the Mothers of Invention in the 1960s; he categorized the riff as one of several "Archetypal American Musical Icons ... [whose] presence in an arrangement puts a spin on any lyric in their vicinity"[172] and used it initially "to make fun of the old-fashioned rock 'n' roll they had transcended".[7] Although he characterized the Kingsmen version as an "Animal House joke",[173][174] he had a higher opinion of Berry's opus, saying, "No one may not underestimate [sic] the impact of 'Louie Louie', the original Richard Berry version."[173][175]

His original compositions "Plastic People" and "Ruthie-Ruthie" (from You Can't Do That on Stage Anymore, Vol. 1) were set to the melody of "Louie Louie" and included Richard Berry co-writer credits.[176] Zappa said that he fired guitarist Alice Stuart from the Mothers of Invention because she couldn't play "Louie Louie", although this comment was obviously intended as a joke.[177]

At a 1967 concert at the Royal Albert Hall in London, Mothers of Invention keyboardist Don Preston climbed up to the venue's famous pipe organ, usually used for classical works, and played the signature riff (included on the 1969 album Uncle Meat). Quick interpolations of "Louie Louie" also frequently turn up in other Zappa works.[173]

Other 1960s versions[edit]


Iggy Pop (1972)[edit]

Iggy Pop (then known as Jim Osterberg) began performing "Louie Louie", "a song nearly as old and unkillable as Iggy himself",[202] "with his own version of the dirty lyrics"[203] in 1965 as a member of the Iguanas. Later with the Stooges and as a solo performer, he recorded multiple versions of the song. As the "godfather of punk", he inspired a host of punk rock successors, including many with their own versions as the song became a "live staple for many punk-rock bands of the 1970s".[204][205]

A 1964 instumental demo cut with Osterberg/Pop on drums was released on Jumpin' with the Iguanas (1995)[206] and a London rehearsal version from 1972 was released on Heavy Liquid (2005) and again on Born in a Trailer (2016). A 1973 live version was released on The Detroit Tapes (2009). Metallic KO (1976) featured a provocative version with impromptu obscene lyrics from the last performance of Iggy and the Stooges in 1974 at the Michigan Palace in Detroit where, according to Lester Bangs, "you can actually hear hurled beer bottles breaking on guitar strings".[207] ("55 Minute Louie-Louie", released in 2017 by Shave on their High Alert digital album, commemorated the occasion.) Consequence called this version "a rock standard blown up from the inside out" and said, "The band’s cover of 'Louie Louie' somehow both honors their rock ‘n’ roll forebears and spits on their legacy. In other words, it's punk at its best."[208]

Pop later wrote a new version with political and satirical verses instead of obscenities that was released on American Caesar in 1993. One lyric in particular captured Pop's long term relationship with the song: "I think about the meaning of my life again, and I have to sing "Louie Louie" again."[209] Far Out Magazine called it "the best version of the song out there".[210] It was used during the opening credits of Michael Moore's Capitalism: A Love Story and as an ending song in Jim Jarmusch's Coffee and Cigarettes in which Pop took part as himself. The Just Dance video game also featured this version performed by a dancing Iggy Pop avatar.[211]

Multiple live versions were released on Nuggets (recorded 1980, released 1999), Where The Faces Shine - Volume 2 (recorded 1982, released 2008), The Legendary Breaking Point Tour (recorded 1983, released 1993), Kiss My Blood (1991, VHS), Beside You (1993), and Roadkill Rising (1994).

Toots and the Maytals (1972)[edit]

"Louie Louie" journeyed to its lyrical Jamaican destination with a reggae version "as soulful as it gets"[38] by Toots and the Maytals. A shorter version was released as a 1972 single in Jamaica (Jaguar J.49) and the U.K. (Trojan TR-7865) with a longer version included on the 1973 Funky Kingston album, described by rock critic Lester Bangs writing in Stereo Review as "Perfection, the most exciting and diversified set of reggae tunes by a single artist yet released".[212]

A BBC reviewer said, "The goofy garage anthem becomes both fiery sermon and dance-til-you-drop marathon. And, thanks to Toots’ soulman’s disregard for verbal meaning, the words are, if anything, even harder to discern than in the Kingsmen's version."[213] Rolling Stone wrote, "And it passes the toughest test of any 'Louie Louie' remake — it rocks hard"[214] while Hi-Fi News & Record Review cited its "incomprehensible majesty" and "crazy vigour" that made it "the best version ever".[215] Another author, writing about the song's use in a scene in This Is England noted, "A black Jamaican band's cover of a black American song, made famous by a white American band, seems an appropriate signifier of the racial harmony that [director Shane] Meadows seeks to evoke ...."[216]

The group performed the song frequently in concert and a live version appeared on the 1998 various artists album Reggae Live Sessions Volume 2. Toots Hibbert also performed it solo and with other acts, most notably the Red Hot Chili Peppers and the Dave Matthews Band.[217]

"Brother Louie" (1973)[edit]

Although musically not a true cover version, "Brother Louie", Errol Brown and Tony Wilson's song about an interracial romance, was termed by Dave Marsh as "one of the truest heirs Richard Berry's 'Louie Louie' ever had" based on its theme of separated lovers and its minor key reprise of the chorus.[218] The original release by Hot Chocolate reached No. 7 on the UK singles chart. A cover version by Stories was a No. 1 hit in the U.S. later the same year.[218] In 1993, the Quireboys' version reached No. 31 in the UK.

Patti Smith (1975)[edit]

Multiple live versions by Patti Smith, the "punk poet laureate",[219] were released in the mid-1970s on bootleg albums Let's Deodorize The Night, Teenage Perversity & Ships In The Night, In Heat, and Bicentenary Blues, usually as a medley in which Lou Reed's "Pale Blue Eyes" would "sacrilegiously segue" into "Louie Louie".[145][220][221] Her cover version has been described as tapping "directly into the primal, urchin-like spirit of rock's renaissance".[222]

Jon the Postman (1977)[edit]

Described as "a committed and omnipresent figure on the punk and post-punk scene in Manchester",[223] Jon the Postman became known for waiting until headline bands like the Buzzcocks, the Fall, and Warsaw (later Joy Division)[224] had finished their sets (sometimes before they had finished) before mounting the stage in a drunken state, grabbing the microphone, and performing his own versions of "Louie Louie".[225][226] The first occurrence was at a Buzzcocks concert at the Band on the Wall venue on May 2, 1977,[227] which he described:

I think the Buzzcocks left the stage and the microphone was there and a little voice must have been calling, 'This is your moment, Jon.' I've no idea to this day why I sang 'Louie Louie,' the ultimate garage anthem from the 60s. And why I did it a cappella and changed all the lyrics apart from the actual chorus, I have no idea. I suppose it was my bid for immortality, one of those great bolts of inspiration.[228] For some reason it appeared to go down rather well. I suppose it was taking the punk ethos to the extreme – anyone can have a go. Before punk it was like you had to have a double degree in music. It was a liberation for someone like me who was totally unmusical but wanted to have a go.[229]

A version of the song by The Fall with Jon on vocals appeared on the Live 1977 album which was described by Stewart Home as taking "the amateurism of the Kingsmen to its logical conclusion with grossly incompetent musicianship and a drummer who seems to be experiencing extreme difficulty simply keeping time".[226] A version with his group Puerile was included on the 1978 album John the Postman's Puerile.

Motörhead (1978)[edit]

"Louie Louie"
Louie Louie Motorhead.jpg
Single by Motörhead
from the album Overkill (re-issue)
B-side"Tear Ya Down"
Released25 August 1978 (UK) [230]
StudioWessex, London
  • Neil Richmond
  • Motörhead
Motörhead singles chronology
"Louie Louie"

"Louie Louie" was Motörhead's first single for Bronze Records in 1978, following their initial release on Chiswick Records in 1977. A "rough-edged cover of the garage rock warhorse"[231] with Clarke's guitar emulating the Hohner Pianet electric piano riff, it was released with "Tear Ya Down" as a 7" vinyl single. Supported by a "back-breaking" touring schedule, the "high-octane" version reached No. 68 on the UK Singles Chart.[232]

The track also appeared on the CD re-issues of Overkill (1996) and The Best of Motörhead (2000). On 25 October 1978 a pre-recording of the band playing the song was broadcast on the BBC show Top of the Pops,[233] and was subsequently released on the 2005 album BBC Live & In-Session. Another live 1978 version was released on Lock Up Your Daughters (1990) and a 1978 alternate studio track appeared Over the Top: The Rarities (2000). The 2005 "deluxe edition" of Overkill included the original version, the BBC version, and two alternate versions.

National Lampoon's Animal House (1978)[edit]

Bluto Blutarsky (John Belushi) performing "Louie Louie" in National Lampoon's Animal House forever cemented the song's status as a "frat rock" classic and a staple of toga parties. Belushi may have insisted on singing "Louie Louie" because he associated it with losing his virginity, but, according to director John Landis, it was included in the screenplay by soundtrack producer Kenny Vance long before Belushi was involved with the project because "... it would be the song the Deltas would sing".[234]

In the film, the Deltas were clearly aping the Kingsmen version complete with slurred dirty lyrics, but the setting was 1962, a year before the Kingsmen recording. Although Richard Berry released his original version of the song in 1957, and the song had been popular with local bands in the Northwest following Rockin' Robin Roberts' 1961 single, the mythical Faber College was based on Dartmouth College in the Northeast U.S., so the use of "Louie Louie" was an anachronism.[234]

The Kingsmen version was heard during the film along with a brief live rendition by Belushi with Tim Matheson, Peter Riegert, Tom Hulce, Stephen Furst, Bruce McGill, and James Widdoes. A separate version by Belushi played during the credits and was included on the soundtrack album. The Belushi version was also released as a single (MCA 3046) and reached No. 89, No. 91, and No. 91 on the Billboard, Cashbox, and Record World charts, respectively.

Another actor from the film, DeWayne Jessie as Otis Day of Otis Day and the Knights, included a version on the VHS release Otis My Man in 1987. The film's soundtrack producer Kenny Vance (formerly of Jay and the Americans) also released a version with his group The Planotones on the 2007 album Dancin' And Romancin'.

Bruce Springsteen (1978)[edit]

Bruce Springsteen has had a long association with "Louie Louie", playing it at multiple concerts and guest appearances, and commenting often on its significance.

From the 1979 No Nukes concert:[235]

Rock is primarily about longing. All the great rock songs are about longing. "Like A Rolling Stone" is about longing; 'How does it feel to be without a home?' — "Louie, Louie"! You're yearning for –'Where's that big party that I know is out there, but I can't find it'.

From the 2018 soundtrack album for Springsteen on Broadway (spoken intro to "Tenth Avenue Freeze-Out"):[236]

There is no love without one plus one equaling three. It's the essential equation of art. It's the essential equation of rock 'n' roll. It's the reason the universe will never be fully comprehensible. It's the reason "Louie Louie" will never be fully comprehensible. And it's the reason true rock 'n' roll, and true rock 'n' roll bands, will never die.

He has said that "Born in the U.S.A." was "the most misunderstood song since 'Louie Louie'",[237] and one critic characterized The River as "Less Kierkegaard, lots more Kingsmen".[238]

The first known recorded performance was on September 9, 1978, at the University of Notre Dame on the Darkness Tour, followed by other tour performances in 1978, 1981, 2009, and 2014. He also played the song in guest appearances with other groups in 1982 (at the Stone Pony with Cats on a Hot Surface) and 1983 (at The Headliner in Neptune, NJ with Midnight Thunder). Song "snippets" are frequently played within other songs: "High School Confidential", "Twist and Shout", "Glory Days", and "Pay Me My Money Down".[239]

Multiple concert bootleg albums included a live "Louie Louie" version: Reggae 'N' Soul (1988), Notre Dame Game (1981), Rockin' Days (1983), Rock Through the Jungle (1983), Rock & Roll Is Here to Stay (1990), Clubs' Stories (1994), Songs for an Electric Mule (1994), Lost & Live (1995), The Boss Hits the Sixties (2009), Satisfaction (2014), Charlotte, NC 04/19/14 (2014), Who´s Been Covered by the Boss (2014), Saginaw 1978 (2015), and High Hopes Tour 2014 (2018).

E Street Band drummer Max Weinberg played "Louie Louie" on his 2017 live Jukebox show,[240] and guitarist Nils Lofgren credited some of his success to "I just happened to play 'Louie Louie' a little different than the other guys."[241] Steven Van Zandt remembered it as the record that changed his life, saying, "That's where it all started."[242]

More recently, Springsteen included the Kingsmen's version in a curated "frat rock" playlist on the 25th episode of his From My Home to Yours Sirius XM radio show in July 2021.[243]

Other 1970s versions[edit]


Black Flag (1981)[edit]

"Louie Louie"
Black Flag - Louie Louie cover.jpg
The cover features Black Flag's singer Dez Cadena and some of his improvised lyrics to "Louie Louie".
Single by Black Flag
B-side"Damaged I"
Released1981 (1981)
GenreHardcore punk
LabelPosh Boy

The Hermosa Beach, California, hardcore punk band Black Flag released a "raw",[259] "rubbished"[260] version of "Louie Louie" as a single in 1981 through Posh Boy Records. It was the band's first release with Dez Cadena as singer, replacing Ron Reyes who had left the group the previous year. Cadena would go on to sing on the Six Pack EP before switching to rhythm guitar and being replaced on vocals by Henry Rollins.[261][262]

Bryan Carroll of AllMusic gave the single four out of five stars, saying, "Of the more than 1,500 commitments of Richard Berry's 'Louie Louie' to wax ... Black Flag's volatile take on the song is incomparable. No strangers to controversy themselves, the band pummel the song with their trademark pre-Henry Rollins era guitar sludge, while singer Dez Cadena spits out his nihilistic rewording of the most misunderstood lyrics in rock history."[263]

You know the pain that's in my heart
It just shows I'm not very smart
Who needs love when you've got a gun?
Who needs love to have any fun?

The single also included an early version of "Damaged I", which would be re-recorded with Rollins for the band's debut album, Damaged, later that year.[263] Demo versions of both tracks, recorded with Cadena, were included on the 1982 compilation album Everything Went Black.[264]

The front cover art shows the main verse of the lyrics to "Louie Louie" over a photograph by Edward Colver featuring Black Flag's third singer Dez Cadena. Both tracks from the single were included on the 1983 compilation album The First Four Years, and "Louie Louie" was also included on 1987's Wasted...Again.[265][266] A live version of "Louie Louie", recorded by the band's 1985 lineup, was released on the live album Who's Got the 10½?, with Rollins improvising his own lyrics.[267]

Continued touring, line-up changes, and occasional reunions resulted in multiple recorded live versions with various lead singers Keith Morris, Dez Cadena, Henry Rollins, Ron Reyes, and Mike Vallely.

Stanley Clarke and George Duke (1981)[edit]

A duo of "jazz rock fusioneers",[268] bassist Stanley Clarke and keyboardist George Duke, included a "killer version"[269] "funk cover"[270] on The Clarke/Duke Project, a 1981 album of eight original compositions and one cover. The song's combination of narration and singing within a storytelling structure elicited a variety of critic's reactions ranging from "appealing"[271] and "imaginative adaptation"[268] to "probably the funkiest version of 'Louie Louie' ever recorded".[272] One Allmusic reviewer called it "a truly bizarre rendition"[273] while another lamented that the Clarke/Duke version "criminally, never made it onto any of the various artists collections that showcased the legendary Richard Berry tune."[270]

A single was also released in Europe (cut to 3:38 from the album's 5:05 length).[274] The album was nominated for a 1982 Grammy Award for Best R&B Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals.

Barry White (1981)[edit]

Disco king Barry White created Richard Berry's "all-time favorite" version[275] as he "reworked and revamped"[276] the original to create a "Latin-tinged"[277] rendition that "took the song from pure rock 'n' roll to pure moan 'n' groan".[275] Not all reaction was positive, however, as CD Review dismissed it as "blasphemy" and "disco-fied".[278]

White commented,

I'm gonna sing just like Richard Berry. I'm gonna do this song that this black guy wrote. Everybody thinks that these white guys recorded it, but a black guy did this.[279]

Dave Marsh summarized Berry's reaction,

In White's arrangement, "Louie Louie" emerges as an up-tempo Latin groove, driven by timbales and congas and punctuated by brilliant trumpet riffs, while White supplements the chorus with the plaintive interpolation "Comin' home, Jamaaaica!" Richard Berry loved it because White's version finally brought to life his original vision of "all the timbales and congas going, and me singing 'Louie Louie'." "Barry White did it exactly the way I wanted to do it," Berry enthused, "I loved it."[275]

The track was released on White's 1981 Beware! album, and also as 12" and a 7" single (shortened from 7:14 to 3:35).[280] White also performed it on Soul Train on September 19, 1981.[281]

The Fat Boys (1988)[edit]

The Fat Boys with producers Latin Rascals brought "Louie Louie" up to date in 1988 with a hip hop version which reached No. 89 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart and No. 46 on the UK Top 100. Their rap, with rewritten lyrics, "chronicled a pursuit of the song's real words".[282] Dave Marsh in 1993 called their version "the last great 'Louie Louie' to date".[282]

The Fat Boys version was released on the Coming Back Hard Again album on the Tin Pan Apple label, and also on a 12" single (5:42 and 3:50 edits) and a 7" single (3:50 edit). The 2009 compilation album Fat Boys On Rewind included it as well.[283] Notable live performances in 1988 included Club MTV and the MTV Video Music Awards. The music video, directed by Scott Kalvert, was a parody of Animal House with food fights, dancing girls, and togas.

The year 1988 also saw multiple rap and hip hop releases with "Louie Louie" sampling (see Use in sampling section below).

Other 1980s versions[edit]


Coupe de Ville (1990)[edit]

Written by Mike Binder and directed by Joe Roth, Coupe de Ville featured an extended scene discussing possible interpretations of the "Louie Louie" lyrics and a closing credit montage of multiple "Louie Louie" versions.

Hearing the Kingsmen version on a car radio sparks an extended debate among the three Libner brothers (Patrick Dempsey, Arye Gross, Daniel Stern) about the lyrics and whether it is a "hump song", a "dance song", or a "sea chanty" with the eldest and most worldly brother arguing for the last interpretation.[293][294] As the Los Angeles Times noted, "Joe Roth obviously knows the importance of the "Louie Louie" lyric controversy".[295]

Multiple versions played during the closing credits: Richard Berry, the Rice University Marching Owl Band, the Sandpipers, Les Dantz and his Orchestra,[296] the Kingsmen, and Young MC’s "Louie Louie House Mix" (a remix of the Kingsmen version with samples from Richard Berry and the Rice University MOB). The movie trailer also used the Richard Berry and Kingsmen versions.

The soundtrack album, released by Cypress Records on vinyl, CD and cassette, included the Kingsmen and Young MC versions. A 12" EP (Cypress Records V-74500) was released with four tracks: "Louie Rap", "Louie Vocal Attack", "Louie Louie House Mix", and "Louie DePalma Mix" (all "featuring Maestro Fresh Wes" and "produced by Young MC").

A music video of "Louie Louie House Mix", credited to "Various Artists (featuring Young MC)", was concurrently released and included appearances by Robert Townsend ("It’s a hump song!"), Kareem Abdul Jabbar ("It’s a dance song!"), Martin Short, Young MC, and others.

The inclusion of the Kingsmen's "Louie Louie" is a bit of an anachronism in that the film takes place on a trip from Detroit to Florida during the summer of 1963. The initial release of the Kingsmen version on the regional Jerden label was in May 1963, but no significant national radio airplay and chart activity (or lyrics controversy) occurred until October and its national chart debut was not until early November.[297]

The Three Amigos (1999)[edit]

The first release by the Three Amigos (Dylan Amlot, Milroy Nadarajah, and Marc Williams) was their cover of "Louie Louie". The 12" EP, titled Louie Louie, included "Original Mix", "Da Digglar Mix", "Wiseguys Remix", and "Touché's Bonus Beats". Released in July 1999, the "Original Mix" version reached No. 15 on the UK Singles Chart, higher than the Kingsmen's No. 26 in 1964, and to date remains the last "Louie Louie" version to appear on the US or UK charts.[298]

The group's logo paid tribute to the logo of the Kingsmen.[299]

Other 1990s versions[edit]




Summary of charting versions[edit]

Year Artist Peak chart positions Label Album
Billboard Hot 100 [104] Cashbox Top 100 [104] Record World[104] Canada [a] U.K.[325]
1963 The Kingsmen 2 [b] 1 1 1 23 [c] Wand 143 [d] The Kingsmen In Person[e]
Paul Revere and the Raiders 103 [f] Columbia 42814 [g] [h][i]
1966 Travis Wammack 128 [j] Atlantic 2322 [h]
The Kingsmen 97 [k] 65 76 Wand 143 [l] The Kingsmen In Person[e]
The Sandpipers 30 [m] 35 30 29 [n] A&M 819 Guantanamera
1975 Goddo 75 [o] A&M 398 [h]
1978 Motörhead 68 [p] Bronze BRO 60 [h]
John Belushi 89 [q] 91 91 99 [r] MCA 40950 Animal House
1988 The Fat Boys 89 [s] 46 [t] Tin Pan Apple 871010 Coming Back Hard Again
1999 The Three Amigos 15 [u] Inferno CDFERN 17 [v]
Table notes
  1. ^ CHUM chart 1963-1964. RPM chart 1965 and later.
  2. ^ Entered chart November 9, 1963, and remained for 16 weeks; peaked in February 1964. Dave Marsh asserts that "Louie Louie" "far outsold" the No. 1 record "Dominique", but that "proper decorum" was a factor in keeping it from Billboard's top spot.[98]
  3. ^ Entered chart January 30, 1964, for seven weeks.
  4. ^ Released on regional Jerden label in April 1963. Released nationally on Wand label in October 1963. Peak chart position reached in February 1964.
  5. ^ a b Crowd noise overdubs added to simulate live version.
  6. ^ Entered "Bubbling Under" chart November 9, 1963, for three weeks.
  7. ^ Released on regional Sandē label in April 1963. Released nationally on Columbia label in October 1963.
  8. ^ a b c d Included on later reissue/compilation.
  9. ^ Live version included on Here They Come! (1965).
  10. ^ Entered ""Bubbling Under" chart April 9, 1966, for one week.
  11. ^ Entered chart May 14, 1966, for two weeks.
  12. ^ Same version re-issued as "Louie Louie 64-65-66".
  13. ^ Entered chart October 22, 1966, for seven weeks.
  14. ^ Entered chart October 17, 1966, for nine weeks.
  15. ^ Entered chart August 2, 1975, for six weeks.
  16. ^ Entered chart September 16, 1999, for two weeks.
  17. ^ Entered chart September 30, 1978, for four weeks.
  18. ^ Entered chart October 21, 1978, for three weeks.
  19. ^ Entered chart October 15, 1988, for three weeks.
  20. ^ Entered chart November 5, 1988, for four weeks.
  21. ^ Entered chart July 3, 1999, for six weeks.
  22. ^ Released as a CD single and on Louie Louie, a 12", four-song EP

"Louie Louie" compilations[edit]

Foreign language versions[edit]

Shortly after the Kingsmen's version charted in late 1963, the first international covers appeared. Since the original lyrics were notoriously difficult to discern, the translations were often inaccurate or adapted to a different storyline. Early foreign language versions included:[331]

  • Los Apson (Mexico), as "Ya No Lo Hagas", on a 1963 single (Peerless 1263) and a 1964 album Atrás De La Raya
  • Joske Harry's and the King Creoles (Belgium), on a 1963 single (Arsa 107)
  • Les Players (France), as "Si C'Etait Elle", on a 1964 single (Polydor 1879) and a 1964 EP (Polydor 27 129)
  • Los Supersónicos (El Salvador), on a 1965 single (DCA 1082) and eponymous album
  • Pedrito Ramirez con Los Yogis (US), on a 1965 single (Angelo 518)
  • I Trappers (Italy), as "Lui Lui Non Ha", on a 1965 single (CGD 9606)
  • Los Corbs (Spain), as "Loui Loui", on a 1966 EP (Marfer M.622)
  • Les Zèniths (Canada), on a 1966 single (Première 825)
  • Maddalena (Italy), as "Lui Lui" on a 1967 single (RCA Italiana 3413)
  • Los Yetis (Colombia), on a 1968 album Olvidate

In 1966 the Sandpipers, a US group, released a slower tempo Spanish language version that reached No. 30 on the Billboard Hot 100 and was covered that same year in German by Die Rosy-Singers.[332]

The 1983 compilation The Best of Louie, Louie featured a Russian version by Red Square,[36] and in 1997 an entire album of Spanish covers, The First Louie Louie Spanish Compilation, was released with versions by the Flaming Sideburns, the Navahodads, Los DelTonos, and eight others.[328] Other Spanish versions were released by Los Hermanos Carrion (Mexico), as "Alu, Aluai" on a 1971 album Lagrimas de Cristal Que Manera de Perder, Los Elegantes (Spain), as "Luisa Se Va" on a 1985 album Paso A Paso,[333] and Desperados (Spain), on a 1997 album Por Un Puñado De Temas.

In 1988, Michael Doucet released a "great vocal treatment"[334] of "Louie Louie" in Cajun French on the Michael Doucet and Cajun Brew album.[328] CD Review characterized his version as "oddly appropriate".[335]

More recent non-English efforts included:

Answer songs, sequels, and tributes[edit]

"Louie Louie" has spawned a number of answer songs, sequels, and tributes from the 1960s to the present:[49]

  • "Louie Go Home", 1964, Paul Revere & the Raiders (Columbia 4-43008); also recorded in 1964 by Davie Jones & The King Bees (David Bowie) as "Louie Louie Go Home" and by The Who in 1965 as "Lubie (Come Back Home)".
  • "Love That Louie", 1964, Jack E. Lee & The Squires (RCA 54-8452)
  • "Louie Come Home", 1965, The Epics (Zen 202)
  • "Louie Come Back", 1965, The Legends (Shout! Northwest Killers Volume 2, Norton NW 907)
  • "Louise Louise", 1966, H.B. & The Checkmates (Lavender R1936)
  • "Louie Go Home", 1966, The Campus Kingsmen (Impalla V 1481); different song from the Raiders version
  • "Louie Louie's Comin' Back", 1967, The Pantels (Rich RR-120)
  • "Louie Louie Louie", 1989, Henry Lee Summer (I've Got Everything, CBS ZK 45124)
  • "Louie Louie Got Married", 1994, The Tentacles (K Records IPU XCIV)
  • "Louie Louie (Where Did She Roam)", 1996, Thee Headcoats (SFTRI 335)
  • "Ballad of the Kingsmen", 2004, Todd Snider (East Nashville Skyline, Oh Boy Records OBR-031)
  • "Louie Louie Music", 2012, Armitage Shanks (Louie Louie Music EP, Little Teddy LiTe765)
  • "I Love Louie Louie", 2014, The Rubinoos (45, Pynotic Productions 0045)
  • "55 Minute Louie-Louie", 2017, Shave (High Alert, digital album)
  • "I Wanna Louie Louie (All Night Long)", 2020, Charles Albright (Everything Went Charles Albright, digital album)

Parodies and rewrites[edit]

Due to the song's distinctive rhythm and simple structure, it has been used often as a basis for parodies and rewrites. Documented releases include:

  • "Lilly Lilly" by Slim Jim. Satirized the mumbled vocals of the Kingsmen version. Released on a 1965 single (Laurie 3226) produced and co-written by Ernie Maresca.[338][339]
  • "Lewis Lewis" by the Rain Kings. Self-released on a 1966 EP with lyrics rewritten by group members Doug Dossett and Steve Lowry.[340][341]
  • "Plastic People" by Frank Zappa (with Richard Berry co-writer credit). Included on Absolutely Free in 1967 and on You Can't Do That on Stage Anymore, Vol. 1 in 1988.[342][173]
  • "Pharaoh Pharaoh". Written in 1971 by Tony Sbrana. Released on multiple religious music albums (often with added verses).[343][344]
  • "Wal-ly Wal-ly" by Wally George. Political satire version released in 1984 on a 12" mini-LP (Rhino RNEP 612).[345][346]
  • "Ruthie-Ruthie" by Frank Zappa (with Richard Berry co-writer credit). Recorded in 1984 and released on You Can't Do That on Stage Anymore, Vol. 1 in 1988.[342][173]
  • "Bernie Bernie" by The Bleacher Bums (with Richard Berry writer credit). Ode to Bernie Kosar released by Leaky Records on cassette and vinyl single in 1987.[347]
  • "Christmas Christmas" by Mojo Nixon. Released on the Punk Rock Christmas compilation in 1995.[348][349]
  • "Santa Santa" by The '60s Invasion. Released on the 2012 album Incense & Chia Pets: A 60's Christmas Celebration.[350]
  • "Buddy Buddy". Ode to Oklahoma basketball star Buddy Hield written and recorded by Eric Kiper in 2015.[351]
  • "Jedi Jedi". Star Wars parody released online by Boyish Good Looks in 2018.[352]

Lyrics controversy and investigations[edit]

As "Louie Louie" began to climb the national charts in late 1963, Jack Ely's "slurry snarl"[353] and "mush-mouthed",[354] "gloriously garbled",[355] "legendarily manic", [356] "punk squawk"[38] vocals gave rise to dark rumors about "dirty lyrics". The Kingsmen initially ignored the rumors, but soon "news networks were filing reports from New Orleans, Florida, Michigan, and elsewhere about an American public nearly hysterical over the possible dangers of this record".[83] The song quickly became "something of a Rorschach test for dirty minds"[357] who "thought they could detect obscene suggestions in the lyric".[358]

In January 1964, Indiana governor Matthew E. Welsh, acting on multiple complaint letters, determined the lyrics to be pornographic because his "ears tingled" when he listened to the record.[359][360] He referred the matter to the FCC (which declined to act) and also requested that the Indiana Broadcasters Association advise their member stations to pull the record from their playlists. The National Association of Broadcasters also investigated and deemed it "unintelligible to the average listener", but that "The phonetic qualities of this recording are such that a listener possessing the 'phony' lyrics could imagine them to be genuine."[361] In response, Max Feirtag of publisher Limax Music offered $1,000 to "anyone finding anything suggestive in the lyrics",[362] and Broadcasting magazine published the actual lyrics as provided by Limax.[363] Scepter/Wand Records commented, "Not in anyone's wildest imagination are the lyrics as presented on the Wand recording suggestive, let alone obscene."[364]

The following month an outraged parent wrote to Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy alleging that the lyrics of "Louie Louie" were obscene, saying, "The lyrics are so filthy that I can-not [sic] enclose them in this letter."[365][366] The Federal Bureau of Investigation investigated the complaint,[367] and looked into the various rumors of "real lyrics" that were circulating among teenagers.[368] In June 1965, the FBI laboratory obtained a copy of the Kingsmen recording and, after 31 months of investigation, concluded that it could not be interpreted, that it was unintelligible at any speed,[369] and therefore the Bureau could not find that the recording was obscene.[20] Over the course of the investigation, a "folk legend of modern times that has yet to be bettered for sheer inanity",[38] the FBI interviewed Richard Berry, members of the Kingsmen, members of Paul Revere and the Raiders, and record company executives. The one person they never interviewed was the man who actually sang the words in question, Jack Ely, whose name apparently never came up because he was no longer with the Kingsmen.[368][370][371]

By contrast, in 1964 the Ohio State University newspaper The Lantern initiated an investigation in response to a growing campus controversy. Working with local radio station WCOL, a letter was sent to Wand Records requesting a copy of the lyrics. The paper printed the lyrics in full, resolving the issue, and resulting in booking the Kingsmen for the fall homecoming entertainment.[372]

In a 1964 interview, Lynn Easton of the Kingsmen said, "We took the words from the original version and recorded them faithfully",[360] and group member Barry Curtis later added, "Richard Berry never wrote dirty lyrics ... you listen and you hear what you want to hear."[17] Richard Berry told Esquire Magazine in 1988 that the Kingsmen had sung the song exactly as written[24] and often deflected questions about the lyrics by saying, "If I told you the words, you wouldn't believe me anyway."[373][374]

A history of the song and its notoriety was published in 1993 by Dave Marsh, including an extensive recounting of the multiple lyrics investigations,[375] but he was unable to obtain permission to publish the song's actual lyrics[376] because the then current owner, Windswept Pacific, wanted people to "continue to fantasize what the words are".[377] Marsh noted that the lyrics controversy "reflected the country's infantile sexuality" and "ensured the song's eternal perpetuation"; he also included multiple versions of the supposed "dirty lyrics".[21] Other authors noted that the song "reap[ed] the benefits that accrue from being pursued by the guardians of public morals"[378] and "Such stupidity helped ensure 'Louie Louie' a long and prosperous life."[379]

The lyrics controversy resurfaced briefly in 2005 when the superintendent of the school system in Benton Harbor, Michigan, refused to let a marching band play the song in a local parade; she later relented.[380][381]

Cultural impact[edit]

The Who[edit]

The Who were impacted in their early recording career by the riff/rhythm of "Louie Louie", owing to the song's influence on the Kinks, who were also produced by Shel Talmy. Talmy wanted the successful sounds of the Kinks' 1964 hits "You Really Got Me", "All Day and All of the Night", and "Till the End of the Day" to be copied by the Who.[143] As a result, Pete Townshend penned "I Can't Explain", "a desperate copy of The Kinks",[382] released in March 1965. In 1979 "Louie Louie" (Kingsmen version) was included on the Quadrophenia soundtrack album.

The Who also covered the 1964 Lindsay-Revere sequel "Louie Go Home" in 1965 as "Lubie (Come Back Home)".

"Psyché Rock" and Futurama[edit]

In 1967 French composers Michel Colombier and Pierre Henry, collaborating as Les Yper-Sound, produced a synthesizer and musique concrète work based on the "Louie Louie" riff titled "Psyché Rock".[383] They subsequently worked with choreographer Maurice Béjart on a "Psyché Rock"-based score for the ballet Messe pour le temps présent. The full score with multiple mixes of "Psyché Rock" was released the same year on the album Métamorphose. The album was reissued in 1997 with additional remixes including one by Ken Abyss titled "Psyché Rock (Metal Time Machine Mix)" that, along with the original, heavily influenced Christopher Tyng's Futurama theme song.[384][385]

Radio station marathons[edit]

In the early 1980s, KPFK DJs Art Damage and Chuck Steak began hosting a weekly "Battle of the Louie Louie" contest featuring multiple renditions and listener voting.[13] In 1981, KFJC DJ Stretch Riedle broadcast a full hour of various versions. Soon after, KALX in Berkeley responded and the two stations engaged in a "Louie Louie" marathon battle with each increasing the number of versions played. KFJC's Maximum Louie Louie Marathon topped the competition in August 1983 with 823 versions played over 63 hours, plus in studio performances by Richard Berry and Jack Ely.[386][387]

During a change in format from adult-contemporary to all-oldies in 1997, WXMP in Peoria became "all Louie, all the time," playing nothing but covers of "Louie Louie" for six straight days.[388] Other stations used the same idea to introduce format changes including WWSW (Pittsburgh),[326] KROX (Dallas), WNOR (Norfolk), and WRQN (Toledo).[389] In 2011, KFJC celebrated International Louie Louie Day with a reprise of its 1983 event, featuring multiple "Louie Louie" versions, new music by Richard Berry and appearances by musicians, DJs, and celebrities with "Louie Louie" connections.[390] In April 2015 Orme Radio broadcast the First Italian Louie Louie Marathon, playing 279 versions in 24 hours.[391]

Use in movies[edit]

Various versions of "Louie Louie" have appeared in the films listed below.[392]

Year Title Version(s) On OST
1969 Zavolies (Ζαβολιές) [a] Fotis Lazaridis Orchestra n/a Greece release
1972 Tijuana Blue [b] Kingsmen n/a
1973 American Graffiti Flash Cadillac No [c]
1978 National Lampoon's Animal House Kingsmen, John Belushi Yes [d]
1979 Quadrophenia Kingsmen Yes [e]
1983 Heart Like A Wheel Jack Ely No
Nightmares Black Flag Yes
1984 Blood Simple Toots and the Maytals No
1986 The Cult: Live In Milan [f] The Cult No Italy release
1987 Survival Game [g] Kingsmen n/a Also in trailer
The Return of Sherlock Holmes Cast (uncredited bar band) n/a TV movie
1988 The Naked Gun: From the Files of Police Squad! Marching Owl Band [h] Yes
Love at Stake Kingsmen No
1989 Fright Night Part 2 Black Flag No
1990 Coupe de Ville Kingsmen, Young MC [i] Yes
1991 Reality 86'd Black Flag n/a
1992 Jennifer 8 Kingsmen No
Passed Away Kingsmen Yes
Dave Cast (Kevin Kline) No
1993 Wayne's World 2 Robert Plant Yes[j]
1994 A Simple Twist of Fate Cast (party singalong) No
1995 Mr. Holland's Opus Cast (student band instrumental) No
Man of the House Kingsmen n/a
1996 Down Periscope Cast (Kelsey Grammer and others) n/a
1997 My Best Friend's Wedding Kingsmen No
1998 ABC - The Alphabetic Tribe [k] Kingsmen, Sandpipers n/a Swiss release
Wild Things Iggy Pop No
2001 Say It Isn't So Kingsmen No
2002 La Bande du drugstore Full Spirits Yes France release
24 Hour Party People John The Postman, Factory All Stars No UK release
2003 Old School Black Flag Yes
Coffee and Cigarettes Richard Berry, Iggy Pop Yes
2004 Friday Night Lights Cast (marching band instrumental) No
2005 Guy X Kingsmen n/a
2006 This Is England Toots and the Maytals Yes UK release
Bobby Cast (Demi Moore) [l] Yes
2009 Capitalism: A Love Story Iggy Pop n/a
2010 Lemmy Motörhead n/a UK release
Knight and Day Kingsmen[m] No
Tournée Nomads, Kingsmen Yes [n] France release
2012 Best Possible Taste: The Kenny Everett Story [o] Kingsmen n/a UK TV movie
2013 Il était une fois les Boys King Melrose Yes Canada release
Her Aim Is True Sonics, Wailers n/a Sonics version also in trailer
2014 Desert Dancer Jack Ely No UK release
2018 A Futile and Stupid Gesture Kingsmen n/a
2020 The Way Back Cast (pep band instrumental) No
2021 Penguin Bloom Kingsmen n/a Australia release

The Kingsmen version was used in television commercials for Spaced Invaders (1990), but did not appear in the movie.[p] The Kingsmen version also appeared on More American Graffiti (1975) and Good Morning Vietnam (1987) compilations, but was not used in either movie.

Movie table notes
  1. ^ Zavolies at IMDb
  2. ^ "Tijuana Blue Soundtrack (1972)". ringostrack.com. Ringostrack.
  3. ^ Not on the 1973 OST album or the 1979 More American Graffiti album.
  4. ^ The Kingsmen version is heard in the film. The John Belushi version is on the soundtrack album.
  5. ^ Only included on the 2000 CD reissue. Not on the 1979 LP or 1993 CD reissue.
  6. ^ The Cult: Live in Milan at IMDb
  7. ^ Survival Game at IMDb
  8. ^ In the film the USC Trojan Marching Band is shown but the Rice University MOB version is heard.
  9. ^ The Kingsmen version occurs during the film. The Young MC "Louie Louie House Mix" (feat. Maestro Fresh Wes) plays during the credits and samples versions by Richard Berry, the Kingsmen, and the Rice University Marching Owl Band. Both versions are on the soundtrack album
  10. ^ Also included on the Sixty Six to Timbuktu compilation album.
  11. ^ ABC – The Alphabetic Tribe at IMDb
  12. ^ Imitation of 1969 Julie London version.
  13. ^ Used as a cell phone ringtone by Roy Miller (Tom Cruise) character.
  14. ^ Nomads version only.
  15. ^ Best Possible Taste: The Kenny Everett Story at IMDb
  16. ^ YouTube: Spaced Invaders TV Spot 1990 [393]


Music critic Dave Marsh wrote a 245-page book about the song, Louie Louie: The History and Mythology of the World's Most Famous Rock 'n Roll Song, Including the Full Details of Its Torture and Persecution at the Hands of the Kingsmen, J.Edgar Hoover's F.B.I, and a Cast of Millions.[394]

Use in video games[edit]

Early video games with chiptune versions of "Louie Louie" included California Games and Donkey Konga. Since its introduction in 1987, California Games has been ported to more than a dozen gaming platforms, resulting in multiple unique "Louie Louie" versions based on different or improved programmable sound generator (PSG) chips. "Back 2 Back", composed by Hideki Naganuma for Sonic Rush, borrows the "Louie Louie" riff for its main section.

More recent rhythm action games featured individual artist versions including Rocksmith (Joan Jett), Just Dance (Iggy Pop), and Rocksmith 2014 (Motörhead).[211]

Use in ringtones and apps[edit]

"Louie Louie" has long been a popular downloadable ringtone, starting with early MIDI versions, then audio track excerpts, and then full audio tracks. Tom Cruise in Knight and Day (2010) used the Kingsmen version as a ringtone/movement reminder.[395]

In 2015 Microsoft Messenger introduced the Zya Ditty app which allowed users to create short text-to-autotune music videos using a library of pre-licensed songs including "Louie Louie" and others.[396] In 2017 ByteDance acquired Musical.ly and merged it with TikTok to deliver app functionality for creating short lip-sync and music videos. TikTok's current Commercial Music Library of 150,000+ pre-licensed songs includes "Louie Louie" versions by the Kingsmen, the Kinks, Otis Redding, Motörhead, Young and Restless, and the Most.[397]

Use in audio sampling[edit]

The earliest known sampling of "Louie Louie" (Kingsmen version) was "Flying Saucer" by Ed Solomon in 1964 (Diamond 160), one of many "break-in" records popular in the 1960s.

Beginning in 1988, multiple rap and hip hop artists used audio samples of the keyboard intro and chorus of the Kingsmen version.[398]

Marching and concert band arrangements[edit]

In the 1980s, due to the widespread availability of sheet music arrangements, "Louie Louie" became a staple of concert, marching, and pep bands for middle schools, high schools, and colleges and universities in the U.S. The earliest known high school band albums with a song version were the Evanston Township High School's Hi-Lights 1965 and the Franklin High School Choir, Orchestra, and Stage Band's 1966 Bel Cantos Concert. The first college band album was the USC Trojan Marching Band's Let The Games Begin in 1984.[145] Early big band releases included Dick Crest (Would You Believe - The Dick Crest Orchestra) and Neil Chotem (Neil Chotem and his Orchestra), both in 1968.

Although not commercially released, an example of the song's influence was the 2000 performance by the Dover High School Band joined on saxophone by Bill Clinton (who played in a jazz trio named the Kingsmen at Hot Springs High School, and at whose 1964 graduation dance the actual Kingsmen performed).[401][402][403]

Washington State Song[edit]

In 1985, Ross Shafer, host and a writer-performer of the late-night comedy series Almost Live! on the Seattle TV station KING, spearheaded an effort to have "Louie Louie" replace "Washington, My Home" by Helen Davis as Washington's official state song.[404] A "groundswell of public support" followed including support from the Kingsmen, Paul Revere and the Raiders, and the Wailers, an appearance by Shafer on Dick Clark's TV's Bloopers & Practical Jokes, and a Dubious Achievement Award from Esquire.[405]

Picking up on this initially prankish effort, Whatcom County Councilman Craig Cole introduced Resolution No. 85-12 in the state legislature, citing the need for a "contemporary theme song that can be used to engender a sense of pride and community, and in the enhancement of tourism and economic development". His resolution also called for the creation of a new "Louie Louie County". While the House did not pass it, the Senate's Resolution 1985-37 declared April 12, 1985, "Louie Louie Day". A crowd of 4,000, estimated by press reports, convened at the state capitol that day for speeches, singalongs, and performances by the Wailers, the Kingsmen, and Paul Revere & the Raiders. Two days later, a Seattle event commemorated the occasion with the premiere performance of a new, Washington-centric version of the song written by composer Berry.[406] After a spirited debate, the legislature ultimately preserved "Washington, My Home" as the state song while also adopting Woody Guthrie's "Roll On, Columbia, Roll On" as the official folk song. "Louie Louie" remains the "unofficial state rock song".[407]

Although the effort failed in the end, a cover of Berry's rewritten version was released in 1986 by Jr. Cadillac and included on the 1994 compilation The Louie Louie Collection.[327] The "state rock song" was played following "Take Me Out to the Ball Game" during the seventh-inning stretch at all Seattle Mariners home games from 1990 up until the 2022 season.[408]

International Louie Louie Day[edit]

April 11 (Richard Berry's birthday) is celebrated as International Louie Louie Day[409][410] and is listed by Chase's Calendar of Events, the National Special Events Registry,[411] and other sources. This date was chosen as the most significant date for the observance of International Louie Louie Day from a list of "Louie Louie"-related dates occurring in April, including:

April 13, 1957 – Release of Richard Berry's original single.[412]

April 6, 1963 – The Kingsmen recorded the version that made "Louie Louie" famous.[413][414]

April 11 or 13, 1963 – Paul Revere and the Raiders recorded their competing version in the same studio.[129]

April 1, 1985 – First annual WMMR Louie Louie Parade in Philadelphia.[415][389]

April 12, 1985 – "Louie Louie Day" proclaimed by the state of Washington.[415]

April 14, 1985 – "Louie Louie Day" proclaimed by the mayor of Seattle.[416]

April 2, 1986 – "Louie Louie Day" proclaimed by the state of Oregon.[417]

April 10, 1998 – The Kingsmen won a historic legal case against Gusto Records/GML, regaining ownership and royalty rights to all their recordings.[418]

April 28, 2015 – Death of Kingsmen vocalist Jack Ely.[122]

April 24, 2020 – Death of Kingsmen front man Lynn Easton.[419][420]

April 16, 2021 – Death of Kingsmen guitarist Mike Mitchell.[124]

Support for International Louie Louie Day and other "Louie Louie"–related observances is provided by the Louie Louie Advocacy and Music Appreciation Society (LLAMAS).[421][422] and "Louie Louie" fans worldwide. Commemorations of International Louie Louie Day have included newspaper articles,[423] magazine stories,[424][425] and radio programs with discussions of the song's history and playlists of multiple "Louie Louie" versions.[426][427][428]


The City of Tacoma held a summer music and arts festival from 2003 to 2012 in July named LouieFest. The event began in 2003 as the "1000 Guitars Festival" and featured a group performance of "Louie Louie" open to anyone with a guitar. The event was renamed LouieFest in 2004. Members of the Wailers, Kingsmen, Raiders, Sonics and other groups with "Louie Louie" associations regularly made appearances. The grand finale each year was the "Celebration of 1000 Guitars" mass performance of "Louie Louie" on the main stage.[429][430]

Louie Louie parades[edit]

The largest "Louie Louie" parade, organized by WWMR deejay John DeBella, was held in Philadelphia from 1985 to 1989 with proceeds going to leukemia victims.[431] DeBella described it as "... a parade for no reason ... and the no reason would be 'Louie Louie'."[432] It regularly drew crowds in excess of 50,000, but was ultimately cancelled due to excessive rowdiness.[433] The Leukemia Society subsequently joined with local radio stations to sponsor similar parades in over 40 cities.[326]

Peoria, Illinois has held an annual "Louie Louie" street party and festival every year since 1988. The Children's Hospital of Illinois is the most recent charitable beneficiary.[434]

Louie Louie sculpture[edit]

A sculpture titled "Louie Louie, 2013" by Las Vegas-based artist Tim Bavington is displayed on the lobby wall of the Edith Green - Wendell Wyatt Federal Building in Portland, Oregon. The work is constructed of 80 colored glass and acrylic panels representing the waveforms of the song using Bavington's concept of sculpting sound waves. [435][436]

Louie Louie hotel room[edit]

A hotel room in the McMenamins Crystal Hotel in Portland, Oregon has a "Louie Louie" theme including a painting representing the song by artist Jonathan Case and lyrics on the walls.[437] The hotel is a block away from the site of the 1963 Kingsmen and Raiders recordings.

The Louie Awards[edit]

The Seattle Times annually bestows its Louie Awards upon "those who - through conscious act, rotten luck or slip of the tongue - stretch the limits of imagination or tolerance or taste in the Great Northwest."[438]

Recognition and rankings[edit]

Summary of "Louie Louie" rankings and recognition in major publications and surveys.

Source Poll/Survey Year Rank
Rock & Roll Hall of Fame Hall of Fame Singles 2018 None[439]
Rock & Roll Hall of Fame Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll 1995 None[440]
National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences Grammy Hall of Fame 1999 None[441]
National Public Radio The 300 Most Important American Records of the 20th Century 1999 None[442]
Smash Hits, James E. Perone The 100 Songs That Defined America 2016 None[443]
The Wire Magazine The 100 Most Important Records Ever Made 1992 None[444]
Mojo Magazine Ultimate Jukebox: The 100 Singles You Must Own 2003 #1[445]
The Ultimate Playlist, Robert Webb The 100 Greatest Cover Versions 2012 #1[446]
Paste Magazine The 50 Best Garage Rock Songs of All Time 2014 #3[447]
Rolling Stone Magazine 40 Songs That Changed The World 2007 #5[448]
All Time Top 1000 Albums, Colin Larkin The All-Time Top 100 Singles 2000 #6[449]
Q Magazine The Music That Changed the World 2004 #10[450]
VH1 100 Greatest Songs of Rock and Roll 2000 #11[451]
The Heart of Rock and Soul, Dave Marsh The 1001 Greatest Singles Ever Made 1989 #11[452]
Rolling Stone Magazine The 100 Best Singles of the Last 25 Years 1989 #18[453]
Los Angeles Magazine LA's Top 100 2001 #19[454]
Rock and Roll, Paul Williams The 100 Best Singles 1993 #22[455]
VH1 100 Greatest Dance Songs 2000 #27[456]
NME Magazine Top 100 Singles of All Time 1976 #43[457]
Acclaimed Music Best of All Time Lists 2001 #44[458]
Mojo Magazine 100 Greatest Singles of All Time 1997 #51[459]
Rolling Stone Magazine The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time 2010 #54[460]
Rolling Stone Magazine The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time 2004 #55[461]
NEA and RIAA Songs of the Century 1999 #57[462]
Mojo Magazine Big Bangs: 100 Records That Changed The World 2007 # 70[463]
Pitchfork Magazine The 200 Best Songs of the 1960s 2006 #154[464]
Rolling Stone Magazine The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time 2021 #156[324]
NME Magazine The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time 2014 #157[465]
WCBS-FM Top 1001 Songs of the Century 2005 #184[466]


  1. ^ Flip 321 was re-released in 1961 with "Louie Louie" as the A-side and "Rock, Rock, Rock" as the B-side. The reissue was covered in the April 10, 1961 issue of Billboard magazine (p. 38) and reviewed in the April 15, 1961 issue of Cash Box magazine (p. 10).
  2. ^ As reported by Steve Propes, a scarce variety exists with the title misprinted as "Louie Lovie" on the label. More info at https://www.louielouie.net/blog/?p=292.
  3. ^ Doll 2017, p. 296.
  4. ^ Marsh 1993, p. 3.
  5. ^ Marsh, Dave (2006). Bruce Springsteen on Tour: 1968-2005. Bloomsbury USA. p. 23. ISBN 978-1596912823.
  6. ^ a b Blecha, Peter (April 1, 2007). "Garage Rock Anthem "Louie Louie" Turns 50". The Seattle Times. Retrieved July 21, 2019.
  7. ^ a b c d Marcus, Greil (2015). Mystery Train: Images of America in Rock 'n' Roll Music. New York: Plume. p. 362. ISBN 978-0142181584.
  8. ^ Pareles, Jon (January 25, 1997). "Richard Berry, Songwriter of 'Louie Louie,' Dies at 61". The New York Times.
  9. ^ Forest, Michael (2019). "Primal and Spontaneous: Neil Young's Aesthetics of Authenticity". In Douglas L. Berger (ed.). Neil Young and Philosophy. Lexington Books. p. 15. ISBN 978-1498505123.
  10. ^ Blake, Mark (2006). Punk: The Whole Story. London: DK. p. 238. ISBN 978-0756623593.
  11. ^ McLucas 2010, p. 56.
  12. ^ Morales, Ed (2007). Living in Spanglish: The Search for Latino Identity in America. St. Martin's Press. p. 155. ISBN 978-1429978231.
  13. ^ a b c Reagan, Rhino (1983). The Best of Louie, Louie: The Greatest Renditions of Rock's #1 All Time Song (LP liner notes). Los Angeles: Rhino Records.
  14. ^ Hess, Mickey (2009). Hip Hop in America: A Regional Guide. Greenwood Press. p. 289. ISBN 978-0313343216.
  15. ^ Rosenberg, Stuart (2009). Rock and Roll and the American Landscape: The Birth of an Industry and the Expansion of the Popular Culture, 1955-1969. iUniverse. p. 112. ISBN 978-1440164583.
  16. ^ Marshall, James (February 1993). "Blue Light Special". Spin Magazine. p. 82.
  17. ^ a b c Nelson, Rick (August 24, 2003). "It's 'Louie Louie' Time". The News Tribune. pp. D1–D5.
  18. ^ Barry, Dave (2012). Dave Barry's Book of Bad Songs. Kansas City: Andrews McMeel Publishing. p. 46. ISBN 978-1449437589.
  19. ^ Uitti, Jacob (March 31, 2023). "Who Wrote The Seminal Classic Rock Song "Louie Louie"? Hint: It's Not Who You Think". American Songwriter. Retrieved April 4, 2023.
  20. ^ a b c "The Lascivious 'Louie Louie'". The Smoking Gun. Retrieved February 18, 2009.
  21. ^ a b Marsh 1993, pp. 118–119.
  22. ^ Perone, James E. (October 17, 2016). Smash Hits: The 100 Songs That Defined America. ABC-CLIO. p. 143. ISBN 978-1-4408-3469-1.
  23. ^ McMurray, Jacob (2011). Taking Punk to the Masses: From Nowhere to Nevermind. Los Angeles: Fantagraphics. p. 1. ISBN 978-1606994337.
  24. ^ a b c d e Greene, Bob (September 1, 1988). "The Man Who Wrote 'Louie Louie'". Esquire. No. 110. pp. 63–67.
  25. ^ Marsh 1993, p. 31.
  26. ^ Sublette, Ned (2007). "The Kingsmen and the Cha-Cha-Chà". In Eric Weisbard (ed.). Listen Again: A Momentary History of Pop Music. Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0822340416.
  27. ^ Marsh 1993, pp. 31–33.
  28. ^ a b Blecha, Peter (1989). The Best of Louie Louie (liner notes). Rhino Records. R1 70605.
  29. ^ Reuss, Jerry (2019). "The Kingsmen - Louie Louie". Jerryreuss.com. Retrieved May 6, 2022.
  30. ^ a b Dawson, Jim; Topping, Ray (1986). Richard Berry "Louie Louie" (LP liner notes). Stockholm: Earth Angel JD-901 – via Discogs.
  31. ^ Predoehl, Eric (November 6, 2018). "RIP: The Last of Richard Berry's Pharaohs". The Louie Report. Retrieved July 22, 2022.
  32. ^ Predoehl, Eric (December 22, 2019). "RIP: Dorothy Berry, high school sweetheart + first wife of Richard". The Louie Report. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
  33. ^ McCann, Ian (October 8, 2018). "Louie Louie — why the influential garage classic was investigated by the FBI". Financial Times. Retrieved April 11, 2023.
  34. ^ a b Williams, Richard (June 26, 1993). "'Louie Louie': written on lavatory paper and sold for only dollars 750: Richard Williams on a rock 'n' roll classic that sold 300m and inspired a generation". The Independent. Retrieved April 11, 2023.
  35. ^ This re-recording, produced by Johnny Otis with session guitar by Shuggie Otis, also appears on Shuggie Otis In Session: Great Rhythm & Blues (2002) and Pioneers of Rhythm & Blues Volume 5 (2008).
  36. ^ a b c Hamilton, Andrew. Various artists: The Best of Louie Louie, Vol. 1 - Review at AllMusic
  37. ^ Warner, Jay (1992). The Da Capo Book of American Singing Groups: A History 1940-1990. Boston: Da Capo Press. p. 522. ISBN 0-306-80923-0.
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Palao, Alec (2002). Love That Louie: The Louie Louie Files (CD liner notes). London: Ace Records.
  39. ^ a b Marsh 1993, pp. 41–42, 195.
  40. ^ Kelner, Martin (October 21, 1993). "Louie, Louie. Oh, oh . . .: Until a soft drinks company tracked him down, Richard Berry was living on welfare in the slums of LA". The Independent, 21 October 1993. independent.co.uk. Archived from the original on January 25, 2012. Retrieved September 8, 2011.
  41. ^ Greene, Bob (January 29, 1997). "The Whole Story of 'Louie Louie', Down to the Punctuation". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May 7, 2023.
  42. ^ Clewley, John (January 28, 2014). "Big Ban Creates Hot Hit". Bangkok Post. Retrieved February 28, 2023.
  43. ^ Curry, Jessica (June 20, 2019). "Richard Berry: Los Angeles Native Turned Tacoma Icon". Tacoma Music History. Retrieved February 28, 2023.
  44. ^ Stokes, Paul (April 30, 2015). "10 Great Versions of Louie Louie". Mojo Magazine. Retrieved February 28, 2023.
  45. ^ Predoehl, Eric (November 10, 2008). "Little Bill & the Bluenotes (2008) – LOUIE of the Week". Santa Cruz, CA: The Louie Report. Retrieved September 30, 2019.
  46. ^ Murray, Samuel (2022). "The Kingsmen, 'Louie Louie' (1963)". In Sarah Hill (ed.). One-Hit Wonders: An Oblique History of Popular Music. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1501368424.
  47. ^ Doggett 2015, p. 434.
  48. ^ Hamlin, Andrew (July 16, 2021). "Mr. Jimbo Metastasizing, or, You Can't Aways Death What You Want: Griel Marcus on the Doors". Seattle Star. Retrieved October 31, 2021.
  49. ^ a b Milberg, Dave; Deutsch, Ken (September 15, 2021). "The History of "Louie Louie" - Part 3: Answer Songs, Sequels, and Tributes". Rare & Scratchy Rock 'n Roll (podcast).
  50. ^ Osgerby, Bill (1999). "'Chewing out a rhythm on my bubble-gum': The teenage aesthetic and genealogies of American punk". In Roger Sabin (ed.). Punk Rock: So What?: the Cultural Legacy of Punk. London: Routledge. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-415-17030-7.
  51. ^ Soulsby, Nick (August 31, 2016). "Proto-punk: 10 records that paved the way for '76". The Vinyl Factory. Retrieved August 26, 2021.
  52. ^ Azerrad, Michael (2010) [April 16, 1992]. "Seattle: An Inside Tour of the Decade's Greatest Scene". In Rolling Stone (ed.). The '90s: The Inside Stories from the Decade That Rocked. New York: Harper Collins. ISBN 978-0061779206.
  53. ^ Kallen, Stuart A. (2012). The History of Alternative Rock. San Diego: Lucent Books. p. 12. ISBN 978-1420507386.
  54. ^ Blecha 2009, pp. 3–4.
  55. ^ Marsh 1993, pp. 58–61.
  56. ^ Blecha 2009, p. 106.
  57. ^ Blecha 2009, p. 91.
  58. ^ Cross, Charles R. (2006). "Spanish Castle Magic". Room Full of Mirrors. Hachette Books. p. 76. ISBN 978-1401382810.
  59. ^ Givens, Linda Holden (2009). Holden On To Family Roots. Xlibris. p. 112. ISBN 978-1477160817.
  60. ^ Blecha, Peter (July 22, 2008). "Lewis, Dave (1938–1998): Father of Northwest Rock". HistoryLink. Retrieved February 7, 2022.
  61. ^ Marsh 1993, p. 61.
  62. ^ Blecha, Peter (November 30, 2009a). "Roberts, "Rockin' Robin" (1940-1967)". Historylink.org. Retrieved November 30, 2021.
  63. ^ DiFranco, Aaron; Goggins, Jan (2004). The Pacific Region: The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 364. ISBN 978-0313085055.
  64. ^ a b c d Blecha 2009, p. 116.
  65. ^ a b Blecha 2009, p. 119.
  66. ^ Blecha 2009, p. 118.
  67. ^ The Fabulous Wailers discography at AllMusic
  68. ^ Marsh 1993, p. v.
  69. ^ Stiernberg, Bonnie. "The 50 Best Garage Rock Songs of All Time". Paste. Retrieved May 15, 2016.
  70. ^ Peterson 2005, p. 45; Blecha 2009, p. 137.
  71. ^ Peterson 2005, p. 47.
  72. ^ Blecha 2009, p. 138.
  73. ^ a b Marsh 1993, p. 98.
  74. ^ On September 5, 2013, the city of Portland dedicated a plaque at the site to commemorate the event. (Cheesman, Shannon (September 5, 2013). "Everybody sing! 'Louie Louie, oh no, me gotta go'". Retrieved February 25, 2014.) An earlier version placed by the Oregon Historical Society had been stolen shortly after its dedication in 1993.
  75. ^ Marsh 1993, p. 15.
  76. ^ Peterson 2005, pp. 45–57.
  77. ^ Chapman, Rob (2015). "The Savant-Garde: Surfadelica, Girl Groups and Garage Land". Psychedelia and Other Colours. London: Faber & Faber. ISBN 978-0571282753.
  78. ^ Marsh 1993, p. 99.
  79. ^ Moores, JR (2022). Electric Wizards: A Tapestry of Heavy Music, 1968 to the Present. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1789144499.
  80. ^ Stanton, Scott (2003). "The Legends". The Tombstone Tourist. New York: Gallery Books. p. 31. ISBN 978-0743463300.
  81. ^ Brennan, Matt (2020). Kick It: A Social History of the Drum Kit. London: Oxford University Press. p. 190. ISBN 978-0190683863.
  82. ^ Doggett 2015, p. 332.
  83. ^ a b Blecha, Peter (1988). "The Kingsmen: Portland's Rock Royalty". Northwest Music Archives. Retrieved February 8, 2022.
  84. ^ Stanley, Bob (2014). "America Strikes Back: The Birds and Folk Rock". Yeah! Yeah! Yeah!:The Story of Pop Music from Bill Haley to Beyoncé. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0393242706.
  85. ^ Doggett, Peter (2015). Electric Shock: From the Gramophone to the iPhone – 125 Years of Pop Music. London: Random House. p. 282. ISBN 9781448130313.
  86. ^ a b c McLucas, Anne Dhu (2010). "Oral Tradition in American Popular Music". The Musical Ear: Oral Tradition in the USA. Ashgate. p. 57. ISBN 978-0754663966.
  87. ^ Unterberger, Richie; Hicks, Samb (1999). "Seattle Rock in the 1960s". In Jennifer Dempsey (ed.). Music USA: The Rough Guide. London: Rough Guides. p. 447. ISBN 978-1858284217.
  88. ^ Milano, Brett (March 16, 2023). "The Greatest Debut 45 Records In History". uDiscovermusic. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  89. ^ Marsh 1993, p. 67.
  90. ^ Marsh 1999, p. 14.
  91. ^ Marsh 1999, p. 12.
  92. ^ Harris, Emily (September 25, 2020). "10 Times Studio Mistakes Created Music Magic". Reverb.com. Retrieved May 6, 2020.
  93. ^ Uitti, Jacob (August 2021). "Herb Alpert Talks Passing on the Kingsmen, Loving the Beatles, and Recording His New LP". American Songwriter.
  94. ^ DeYoung, Bill (November 28, 2022). "The Catalyst interview: Herb Alpert". St. Pete Catalyst.
  95. ^ Lifton, Dave (August 8, 2015). "How the Kingsmen Stirred Up Controversy With 'Louie Louie'". Ultimate Classic Rock. Retrieved December 26, 2020.
  96. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2001). Joel Whitburn Presents Billboard Top 10 Singles Charts. Menomonee Falls, WI: Record Research, Inc. pp. 69–72. ISBN 0-89820-146-2.
  97. ^ Murrells, Joseph (1978). The Book of Golden Discs (2nd, illustrated ed.). London: Barrie & Jenkins. p. 131. ISBN 0-214-20480-4.
  98. ^ a b Marsh 1993, p. 123.
  99. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2004). Top R&B/Hip-Hop Singles: 1942–2004. Menomonee Falls, WI: Record Research. p. 328.
  100. ^ Hoffmann, Frank (1983). The Cash Box Singles Charts, 1950-1981. Metuchen, NJ & London: The Scarecrow Press, Inc. p. 835.
  101. ^ Betts 2005, p. 439.
  102. ^ Lazell, Barry (November 29, 1986). "Why Louie Louie won't lie down" (PDF). Music Week. Retrieved December 24, 2021.
  103. ^ Whitburn, Joel (1996). Joel Whitburn's Top Pop Albums. Menomonee Falls, WI: Record Research Inc. ISBN 0-89820-117-9.
  104. ^ a b c d Whitburn, Joel (2015). The Comparison Book Billboard/Cash Box/Record World 1954-1982. Ann Arbor: Sheridan Books. ISBN 978-0-89820-213-7.
  105. ^ "Louie, Louie Returns Again" (PDF). Cash Box. April 30, 1966. p. 52.
  106. ^ "Top Sellers in Top Markets". Billboard. May 14, 1966. p. 52.
  107. ^ Beale, Lewis (September 5, 1986). "After 23 years, 'Louie Louie' cooler than ever". Los Angeles Daily News/Lewiston Journal.
  108. ^ Fagggen, Gil (February 1, 1964). "Indiana Gov. Puts Down 'Pornographic' Wand Tune" (PDF). Billboard magazine. Retrieved May 15, 2019.
  109. ^ Blecha, Peter (February 15, 2003). "Louie Louie – the Saga of a Pacific Northwest Hit Song". HistoryLink. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
  110. ^ Milstein, Phil (June 28, 2006). "Seconds". Stylus Magazine. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
  111. ^ Higgins, Will (January 2, 2019). "That time Indiana teens ratted out dirty 'Louie Louie' lyrics, and the FBI got involved". Indianapolis Star. Retrieved March 2, 2019.
  112. ^ Blecha 2009, p. 138; Marsh 1993, p. 97.
  113. ^ Attig, Rick (August 4, 1987). "Ex-Kingsman brings act to C.O." The Bend Bulletin. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
  114. ^ Mikkelson, Barbara & David P. "Did ‘Louie Louie’ Drummer Yell ‘F*ck’ During Recording?" at Snopes.com: Urban Legends Reference Pages.
  115. ^ Corn-Revere, Robert (2021). "Ya Got Trouble: Censorship and Popular Music". The Mind of the Censor and the Eye of the Beholder: The First Amendment and the Censor's Dilemma. Cambridge University Press. p. 143. ISBN 978-1107129948.
  116. ^ Blecha 2009, p. 156.
  117. ^ Marcus, Greil (2015). "The Village Voice, 1986-1990". Real Life Rock: The Complete Top Ten Columns, 1986-2014. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 10. ISBN 9780300196641.
  118. ^ Stabler, Clay. "Kingsmen Discography". The Kingsmen Official Site. Retrieved August 25, 2021.
  119. ^ Circle of Friends, Volume 1. Hollywood: MainStreet Entertainment 60153CD. 1999.
  120. ^ Stern, Christopher (November 9, 1998). "Kingsmen reign - High court grants royalties, tapes of 'Louie'". Variety.
  121. ^ "Lawsuit info at Louielouie.org". Archived from the original on March 12, 2013.
  122. ^ a b "Jack Ely dies at 71; vocalist on the Kingsmen's 'Louie Louie'". Los Angeles Times. April 30, 2015. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
  123. ^ Dubois, Steven; Rogers, John (April 28, 2015). "'Louie Louie' Singer Jack Ely Dies in Oregon at 71". Huffington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
  124. ^ a b Kreps, Daniel (April 18, 2021). "Mike Mitchell, Guitarist on the Kingsmen's 'Louie Louie,' Dead at 77". Rolling Stone. Retrieved April 18, 2021.
  125. ^ Seah, David (April 19, 2021). "Mike Mitchell, Co-Founder of Kingsmen and Guitarist on Louie Louie, Dies at 77". Guitar.com. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
  126. ^ Owen, Matt (April 19, 2021). "Mike Mitchell, The Kingsmen co-founder and Louie Louie guitarist, dies aged 77". Guitar World. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
  127. ^ Beaumont-Thomas, Ben (April 19, 2021). "Mike Mitchell, guitarist on the Kingsmen's Louie Louie, dies aged 77". The Guardian. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
  128. ^ Maxwell, Jackson (April 19, 2021). "Mike Mitchell, Guitarist and Co-Founder of The Kingsmen, Dead at 77". Guitar Player. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
  129. ^ a b c Blecha 2009, p. 139.
  130. ^ "ON THIS DAY IN 1963 ROGER HART PRODUCED LOUIE LOUIE-RAIDERS VERSION!". Stumptown Blogger. April 11, 2011.
  131. ^ Following the death of Kingsmen singer Jack Ely, Mark Lindsay tweeted on April 28, 2015, "To settle it once and for all: Jack Ely/The Kingsmen recorded Louie Louie 3 days BEFORE the Raiders."
  132. ^ Charlie Gillett in The Sound of the City: The Rise of Rock and Roll (p. 314) said the groups "recorded it on successive days" but cited no source.
  133. ^ Priore, Domenic (March 24, 2011). "The Tall Cool Tale of Paul Revere & the Raiders: A Conversation with Mark Lindsay and Paul Revere". Sundazed. Retrieved April 4, 2023.
  134. ^ Pollock, Bruce (2017). "1961-1964". America's Songs III: Rock!. Taylor & Francis. p. 59. ISBN 978-1317269649.
  135. ^ Predoehl, Eric (August 2, 2010). "RIP: Mitch Miller, the Anti-LOUIE". The Louie Report. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
  136. ^ Marsh 1993, p. 96.
  137. ^ A similar 1965 version by Don and the Goodtimes opens with a sax intro and "Grab yo Louie, it's-a woman woman time!"
  138. ^ Quaglieri, Al (2019). The Essential Ride '63-'67 (CD sleeve notes). Paul Revere & the Raiders. New York City: Columbia Records. p. 6.
  139. ^ Bovey, Seth (2019). Five Years Ahead of My Time: Garage Rock from the 1950s to the Present. London: Reaktion Books. p. 40. ISBN 978-1789140941.
  140. ^ Marsh 1993, p. 39.
  141. ^ Marsh 1993, p. 174.
  142. ^ Hann, Michael (October 6, 2014). "Paul Revere – five great songs from one of America's 60s rock legends". The Guardian. Retrieved March 21, 2023.
  143. ^ a b c Marsh 1993, p. 144.
  144. ^ Doll 2017, p. 266.
  145. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Marsh 1993, pp. 208–238.
  146. ^ Marsh 1993, p. 145.
  147. ^ a b c Koda, Cub. The Best of Louie Louie, Vol. 2 - Various Artists at AllMusic. Retrieved November 4, 2022.
  148. ^ Evans, Mike (2006). "The Strange Story of 'Louie Louie'". Rock'n'Roll's Strangest Moments: Extraordinary But True Tales from 45 Years of Rock & Roll History. London: Portico Books. ISBN 978-1849941815.
  149. ^ Predoehl, Eric (November 29, 2018). "Ray Davies & the Kast Off Kinks – LOUIE of the Week". The Louie Report. Retrieved October 29, 2021.
  150. ^ Friedlander, Paul (2018). Rock And Roll: A Social History. New York: Avalon Publishing. p. 315. ISBN 978-0813343068.
  151. ^ Perone, James E. (2009). Mods, Rockers, and the Music of the British Invasion. ABC-CLIO. p. 107. ISBN 978-0275998608.
  152. ^ Sullivan, Steve (2013). Encyclopedia of Great Popular Song Recordings Volume 1. Scarecrow Press. p. 858. ISBN 978-0810882959.
  153. ^ Donald, Alex (January 23, 1965). "Louie – A Pop Yardstick!" (PDF). Record Mirror. London. Retrieved December 24, 2021.
  154. ^ Marsh 1993, p. 143.
  155. ^ Hasted, Nick (2011). You Really Got Me: The Story of the Kinks. London: Omnibus Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-1849386609.
  156. ^ Kitts, Thomas M. (2008). Ray Davies: Not Like Everyone Else. London: Routledge. p. 41. ISBN 978-0415977692.
  157. ^ Rogan, Johnny (2015). Ray Davies: A Complicated Life. New York: Random House. p. 137. ISBN 978-0099554080.
  158. ^ Hasted 2011, p. 28.
  159. ^ Black, Johnny (September 2000). "The Kinks: Hellfire Club". Mojo Magazine. No. 82.
  160. ^ "Spotlight Singles - Top 60". Billboard. October 8, 1966. p. 16.
  161. ^ Swift, Richard (2006). "Volume 7: Rich, Young and Pretty". In Colin Larkin (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Popular Music. New York: Muze. p. 248. ISBN 978-0195313734.
  162. ^ Lanza, Joseph (2004). Elevator Music: A Surreal History of Muzak, Easy-Listening, and Other Moodsong (Revised and Expanded ed.). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0472089420.
  163. ^ Marsh 1993, pp. 147, 208–238.
  164. ^ Whitburn, Joel (1992). Joel Whitburn's Bubbling Under the Top 100 1959-1985. Menomonee Falls, WI: Record Research Inc. ISBN 0-89820-082-2.
  165. ^ Wake, Matt (July 3, 2018). "Meet the unsung Muscle Shoals guitarist who's also a snake hunter". AL.com. Retrieved March 7, 2023.
  166. ^ Good, Dave (August 13, 2014). "The Sonics invented punk". The San Diego Reader. Retrieved September 22, 2021.
  167. ^ Bovey 2019, p. 34.
  168. ^ Bovey 2019, p. 32.
  169. ^ Blecha 2009, p. 184.
  170. ^ Santana, Carlos; Kahn, Ashley; Miller, Hal (2014). The Universal Tone: Bringing My Story to Light. New York: Little, Brown & Co. p. 237. ISBN 978-0316244916.
  171. ^ Weinstein, Norman (2009). Carlos Santana: A Biography. Santa Barbara: Greenwood Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0313354205.
  172. ^ Borders, James (2008). Everett, Walter (ed.). "Frank Zappa's 'The Black Page': A Case of Musical Conceptual Continuity". Expression in Pop-Rock Music: Critical and Analytical Essays 2nd Ed. New York: Routledge: 51–75, 155.
  173. ^ a b c d e Predoehl, Eric (March 15, 2011). "Frank Zappa and LOUIE LOUIE". The Louie Report. Retrieved March 28, 2023.
  174. ^ Simms, Denn; Buxton, Eric; Samler, Rob (April 1990). "Frank Zappa Interview December 22, 1989". Society Pages. No. 1. p. 24.
  175. ^ Zollo, Paul (1991). "Frank Zappa". Songwriters on Songwriting. Boston: Da Capo Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-0306812651.
  176. ^ Couture, Francois. Frank Zappa - You Can't Do That On Stage Anymore , Vol. 1 - Review at AllMusic
  177. ^ Blecha, Peter (June 20, 2019). "Alice Stuart Biography". HistoryLink.org.
  178. ^ Blecha 2009, pp. 115–116.
  179. ^ Wood, Tim (1998). "The Mystics - Terry Kath's first rock band". terrykath.com. Retrieved March 4, 2023.
  180. ^ The Mystics - Louis (45 single). Berwyn, IL: Balkan Recording Studio. 1963 – via 45cat.
  181. ^ Varga, George (September 24, 2021). "Pat Metheny, a 20-time Grammy-winner, looks forward and back with new band Side-Eye: 'Music is the carrot'". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved February 20, 2022.
  182. ^ Fogerty, John (2015). "The... Golliwogs?". Fortunate Son: My Life, My Music. New York: Little, Brown. ISBN 9780316244565.
  183. ^ Cook, Stephen. Jan & Dean - Command Performance at AllMusic
  184. ^ Moore, Mark A. (March 14, 2016). The Jan & Dean Record: A Chronology of Studio Sessions, Live Performances and Chart Positions. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. p. 215. ISBN 978-1476622903.
  185. ^ Marks, Ian D.; McIntyre, Iain (2010). "Top 100 Beat 'n' Garage Tracks". Wild about You!: The Sixties Beat Explosion in Australia and New Zealand. Portland: Verse Chorus Press. p. 323. ISBN 978-1891241284.
  186. ^ Shefchik, Rick (2015). "Liar, Liar". Everybody's Heard about the Bird: The True Story of 1960s Rock 'n' Roll in Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-1452949741.
  187. ^ Thorn, Jesse (February 17, 2023). "Bullseye: Todd Rundgren on the song that changed his life". NPR.org (Podcast). NPR. Retrieved February 25, 2023.
  188. ^ James Marshall, writing in the February 1993 issue of Spin Magazine, said of the Troggs, "All you need to make a great rock 'n' roll record are the chords to 'Louie Louie' and a bad attitude."
  189. ^ Predoehl, Eric (November 7, 2019). "RIP: Don Baskin of Syndicate of Sound (w/ rare LOUIE recording)". The Louie Report. Retrieved April 9, 2021.
  190. ^ Manzarek, Ray (1998). Light My Fire - My Life with The Doors. New York City: Berkley Boulevard Books. p. 86. ISBN 0-425-17045-4.
  191. ^ Gaar, Gillian G. (2015). "1966 The Ceremony Is About to Begin". The Doors: The Illustrated History. Voyageur Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-1627887052.
  192. ^ Palacios, Julian (2015). Syd Barrett & Pink Floyd: Dark Globe. Plexus Publishing Limited. ISBN 978-0859658829.
  193. ^ Mash, Julian (2014). "Pink Floyd Go into Interstellar Overdrive". Portobello Road: Lives of a Neighbourhood. London: Frances Lincoln. ISBN 978-1781011522.
  194. ^ Miles, Barry (2002). In The Sixties. London: Jonathan Cape. p. 104. ISBN 0-224-06240-9.
  195. ^ Mason, Nick (2004). Inside Out: A Personal History of Pink Floyd. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. p. 36. ISBN 1-452-16641-2.
  196. ^ Ward, Jonathan (March 2005). "Loud Harmonic Transcendence - The Honey Ltd. Story". Perfect Sound Forever. Retrieved April 2, 2023.
  197. ^ Vale, V.; Juno, Andrea (1993). Re/Search #14: Incredibly Strange Music, Volume 1. San Francisco: RE/Search Publications. p. 183.
  198. ^ "Honey Ltd. Discuss Key Tracks From Their Long-Lost Lee Hazlewood Sessions". self-titled Magazine. September 10, 2013. Retrieved February 10, 2015.
  199. ^ Predoehl, Eric (July 11, 2013). RIP: Joey Covington, Jefferson Airplane drummer / LOUIE of the Week. The Louie Report. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
  200. ^ "Grateful Dead Live at Family Dog at the Great Highway on 1969-09-07". Archive.org. April 23, 2004. Retrieved September 12, 2021.
  201. ^ "About The Beatles - Jamming With Heather". Aboutthebeatles.com. Retrieved April 9, 2021.
  202. ^ Larsen, Peter (April 25, 2023). "Iggy Pop & the Losers rock and roar all night at LA's Orpheum". Los Angeles Daily News. Retrieved April 27, 2023.
  203. ^ Trynka, Paul (2007). Iggy Pop: Open Up and Bleed. New York: Crown/Archtype. p. 89. ISBN 978-0767927222.
  204. ^ Iggy Pop at AllMusic
  205. ^ Borthwick, Stuart (2020). Popular Music Genres: An Introduction. Edinburgh: University Press. p. 82.
  206. ^ Potter, Jordan (January 16, 2023). "Listen to Iggy Pop in his high school band 'The Iguanas'". Far Out Magazine. Retrieved January 17, 2023.
  207. ^ Bangs, Lester (1977). "Iggy Pop: Blowtorch in Bondage". In Marcus, Greil (ed.). Psychotic Reactions and Carburetor Dung. New York: Anchor Books. p. 207.
  208. ^ Brennan, Collin (April 21, 2022). "Iggy Pop in 10 Songs". consequence.net. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  209. ^ Bonomo, Joe (March 2022). "IT'LL ALL BE OVER SOON: JOE BONOMO ON THE STOOGES' "LOUIE LOUIE"". Marchxness.com. Retrieved March 6, 2022.
  210. ^ McStarkey, Mick (September 23, 2021). "From The Who to James Brown: Iggy Pop's 8 greatest cover songs". Far Out Magazine. Retrieved October 28, 2021.
  211. ^ a b Stabler, Clay (September 11, 2020). "LOUIE LOUIE in Video Games". The Louie Report. Retrieved August 7, 2021.
  212. ^ Italie, Hillel (September 12, 2020). "Toots Hibbert, beloved reggae star, dead at 77". www.boston.com. Retrieved October 8, 2021.
  213. ^ Taylor, Angus (2009). "Toots and the Maytals Funky Kingston Review". BBC.com. Retrieved October 8, 2021.
  214. ^ Brown, David (September 12, 2020). "Toots and the Maytals: 15 Essential Songs". Rolling Stone. Retrieved October 8, 2021.
  215. ^ Sutherland, Steve (October 11, 2019). "Toots & The Maytals: Funky Kingston". Hi-Fi News & Record Review.
  216. ^ Forrest, David (2013). Social Realism: Art, Nationhood and Politics. p. 180. ISBN 978-1443853064.
  217. ^ Predoehl, Eric (September 12, 2020). "RIP: Toots Hibbert of the Maytals, inventor of reggae". The Louie Report. Retrieved October 8, 2021.
  218. ^ a b Marsh 1993, p. 152-154.
  219. ^ Huey, Steve. Patti Smith Biography at AllMusic
  220. ^ Predoehl, Eric (December 31, 2014). "Happy Birthday Patti Smith – LOUIE of the Week". The Louie Report. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
  221. ^ Padgett, Ray (August 4, 2014). "The Story Behind Patti Smith's "Gloria"". www.covermesongs.com. Retrieved October 28, 2021.
  222. ^ Shaw, Philip (2008). Patti Smith's Horses. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 142.
  223. ^ Inglis, Ian (2006) Performance of Popular Music: History, Place and Time, Ashgate, ISBN 978-0-7546-4057-8, p. 93
  224. ^ Hook, Peter (2012). "Timeline Two: June 1976-December 1977". Unknown Pleasures: Inside Joy Division. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0062222565.
  225. ^ Ogg, Alex (2006) No More Heroes: A Complete History of UK Punk from 1976 to 1980, Cherry Red Books, ISBN 978-1-901447-65-1, pp. 310–311
  226. ^ a b Stewart, Home (1996). Cranked up Really High: Genre Theory and Punk Rock (2nd ed.). London: Codex. p. 41. ISBN 978-1-899598-01-4.
  227. ^ Quantick, David "John the Postman's Puerile (review)", Q, September 1998
  228. ^ Haslam, Dave (2000). Manchester, England. Fourth Estate Ltd. ISBN 978-1-84115-146-5.
  229. ^ Lee, CP (2007). Puerile (CD sleeve notes). Jon the Postman. London: Overground Records.
  230. ^ "Dutch Charts - Motörhead Singles". dutchcharts.nl.
  231. ^ Phillips, William; Cogan, Brian (2009). Encyclopedia of Heavy Metal Music. ABC-CLIO. p. 170. ISBN 978-0313348013.
  232. ^ McIver, Joel (2017). "Chapter 5: 1978-1979". Overkill: The Untold Story of Motörhead. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0857127181.
  233. ^ Burridge, Alan (1995). Illustrated Collector's Guide to Motörhead. Collector's Guide Publishing. ISBN 0-9695736-2-6.
  234. ^ a b Marsh 1993, p. 162.
  235. ^ "Bruce Springsteen Releasing 'The Legendary 1979 'No Nukes' Concerts'". Vermilion County First. September 23, 2021. Retrieved September 29, 2021.
  236. ^ "Tenth Avenue Freeze-Out (Springsteen on Broadway)". Genius.com. December 14, 2018. Retrieved September 28, 2021.
  237. ^ Soons, Rowena (December 8, 2014). "The lasting relevance of Thunder Road: Why Bruce Springsteen is everything but aging 'Dad music'". The Bubble. Retrieved September 29, 2021.
  238. ^ Kirkpatrick, Rob (2007). The Words and Music of Bruce Springsteen. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 72.
  239. ^ "Covered by Bruce Springsteen - Louie Louie". www.coveredbybrucespringsteen.com. Retrieved September 28, 2021.
  240. ^ Lustig, Jay (July 17, 2017). "Max Weinberg plays Cream, Cheap Trick, Bowie and more at Jukebox debut". NJArts.net. Retrieved September 29, 2021.
  241. ^ Gnerre, Sam (November 26, 2012). "Guitarist Nils Lofgren: What it's like to play in Bruce Springsteen's E Street Band, and life beyond Bruce". Daily Breeze. Retrieved September 29, 2021.
  242. ^ Hochman, Steve (April 5, 2002). "Celebrating the Garage Spirit of Rock". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 30, 2021.
  243. ^ Taylor, Tom (2021). "Listen to Bruce Springsteen's new 'frat rock' playlist". Far Out Magazine. Retrieved September 28, 2021.
  244. ^ Spera, Keith (December 10, 2019). "Allman Brothers family album: local photographer traces band's early years in new book". Times-Picayune.
  245. ^ Predoehl, Eric (October 9, 2012). "John Lennon & friends 1971 – LOUIE of the Week". The Louie Report. Retrieved October 17, 2021.
  246. ^ Marsh 1993, p. 165.
  247. ^ "The New York Dolls (album review)". superseventies.com. Retrieved February 12, 2022.
  248. ^ McPadden, Mike (April 11, 2015). "Louie-Palooza: 11 Killer Covers for International "Louie Louie" Day". VH1. Retrieved September 23, 2021.
  249. ^ Taken from the "Sandinista Sessions" tracks not used for the London Calling album. Also released on The Last Testament, a DVD included with the 25th anniversary edition of London Calling.
  250. ^ Fletcher, Tony (2012). The Clash: The Music That Matters. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0857127495.
  251. ^ Blush, Steven (2016). New York Rock: From the Rise of The Velvet Underground to the Fall of CBGB. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 147.
  252. ^ Hoard, Christian David; Brackett, Nathan, eds. (2004). The New Rolling Stone Album Guide. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 293. ISBN 978-0743201698.
  253. ^ Paytress, Mark (April 21, 2023) [2015]. "The Pop Group: Appetite for Deconstruction". Mojo. No. 257. Retrieved April 22, 2023.
  254. ^ Clerk, Carol (2009). "Going for a Burton". Kiss My Arse: The Story of the Pogues. London: Omnibus Press. ISBN 978-0857120199.
  255. ^ Reynolds, Simon (2006). "Living for the Future: Cabaret Voltaire, the Human League, and the Sheffield Scene". Rip It Up and Start Again: Postpunk 1978-1984. London: Penguin Publishing Group. p. 92. ISBN 978-0143036722.
  256. ^ Predoehl, Eric (November 1, 2013). "RIP: Lou Reed, poet musician extraordinaire – LOUIE of the Week". The Louie Report. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
  257. ^ Predoehl, Eric (May 14, 2015). "Julian Cope & Ian McCulloch in 1978 – LOUIE of the Week". The Louie Report. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  258. ^ Wheway, Daniel (2016). "Blondie Tours". The Essential Guide to Blondie and Deborah Harry. ISBN 9781520328102.
  259. ^ Thompson, Dave (2000). Alternative Rock. San Francisco: Miller Freeman. p. 204. ISBN 0-87930-607-6.
  260. ^ Gimarc, George (1997). Post Punk Diary: 1980-1982. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. p. 206. ISBN 0-312-16968-X.
  261. ^ Black Flag (1983). The First Four Years (CD insert). Lawndale, California: SST Records. SST CD 021.
  262. ^ Azerrad, Michael (2001). Our Band Could Be Your Life: Scenes from the American Indie Underground 1981–1991. New York City: Little, Brown and Company. pp. 24–25, 28–29. ISBN 0-316-78753-1.
  263. ^ a b Carroll, Bryan. Review: "Louie Louie" at AllMusic. Retrieved November 4, 2022.
  264. ^ Ogg, Alex. Review: Everything Went Black at AllMusic. Retrieved November 4,2022.
  265. ^ Dougan, John. Review: The First Four Years at AllMusic. Retrieved November 4, 2022.
  266. ^ Dougan, John. Review: Wasted...Again at AllMusic. Retrieved November 4, 2022.
  267. ^ Raggett, Ned. Review: Who's Got the 10½? at AllMusic. Retrieved November 4, 2022.
  268. ^ a b Marsh 1993, p. 170.
  269. ^ DeCurtis, Anthony; George-Warren, Holly; Henke, James, eds. (1992). The Rolling Stone Album Guide. New York: Random House. p. 137. ISBN 978-0679737292.
  270. ^ a b Jurek, Thom. The Clarke/Duke Project, Vols. 1-3 Review at AllMusic
  271. ^ "Review of The Clarke/Duke Project". Stereo Review. Vol. 46. CBS Magazines. 1981. p. 75.
  272. ^ Connolly, Dave (September 12, 2017). "[Review] Stanley Clarke/George Duke: The Clarke/Duke Project (1981)". Progrography.com.
  273. ^ Ginell, Richard S. The Clarke/Duke Project, Vol. 1 Review at AllMusic
  274. ^ Stanley Clarke & George Duke - Louie Louie (45 single label and sleeve). Stanley Clarke, George Duke. Epic Records. 1981. EPCA-1141 – via Discogs.{{cite AV media}}: CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link)
  275. ^ a b c Marsh 1993, p. 168.
  276. ^ Lederer, Barry (October 17, 1981). "Disco Mix". Billboard. p. 64.
  277. ^ "Top Album Picks - Soul". Billboard. September 28, 1981. p. 72.
  278. ^ "Review of Barry White's Beware!". CD Review. Vol. 8. WGE Publishers. 1992. p. 36.
  279. ^ Marsh 1993, p. 169.
  280. ^ Barry White - Louie Louie (45 single label). Unlimited Gold. 1981. 4Z9 02429 – via Discogs.
  281. ^ Predoehl, Eric (February 2, 2012). "RIP: Don Cornelius, host of Soul Train (with Barry White -LOUIE of Week)". The Louie Report.
  282. ^ a b Marsh 1993, p. 171.
  283. ^ The Fat Boys - Discography at AllMusic
  284. ^ "Louie Louie". Dead.net. Retrieved April 15, 2021.
  285. ^ Ermilio, Brett; Levine, Josh (2014). Going Platinum: KISS, Donna Summer, and How Neil Bogart Built Casablanca Records. Lanham, MD: Lyons Press. p. 183. ISBN 9781493016273.
  286. ^ A Burning Fever (Album liner notes). Casino Records. 2022.
  287. ^ Predoehl, Eric (October 13, 2009). "The Bangles in 1984- LOUIE of the Week". The Louie Report. Retrieved August 25, 2021.
  288. ^ Goldberg, Michael (January 18, 1986). "Back on the Road: Tom Petty teams up with new pal Bob Dylan". Rolling Stone. No. 465. p. 19. Retrieved May 7, 2023.
  289. ^ "Old Rockers Still Boppin' to Kingsmen". The Register-Guard. Portland, Oregon. May 4, 1985. p. 4A. Retrieved March 29, 2014.
  290. ^ Predoehl, Eric (March 16, 2009). "Husker Du and friends – LOUIE of the Week". The Louie Report. Retrieved October 1, 2021.
  291. ^ Wheway, Daniel (2017). "Meat Loaf Tours". Everything Louder Than Everything Else: Meat Loaf Guide. ISBN 978-0463226698.
  292. ^ Predoehl, Eric (March 27, 2020). "LOUIE bits of March 2020 – Clay Day!". The Louie Report. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
  293. ^ Marsh 1993, p. 7-10.
  294. ^ "Coupe de Ville". AFI Catalog. Retrieved September 16, 2021.
  295. ^ Wilmington, Michael (March 9, 1990). "MOVIE REVIEW : 'Coupe de Ville' Comedy Takes a Wrong Turn". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 15, 2021.
  296. ^ Prehoehl, Eric (August 31, 2010). "Meet Bob Wayne, of Rhino's Best of LOUIE LOUIE and Big Daddy". The Louie Report. Retrieved September 18, 2021.
  297. ^ Marsh 1993, p. 7.
  298. ^ Betts, Graham (2005). Complete UK Hit Singles 1952-2005. London: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00-720076-5.
  299. ^ Predoehl, Eric (November 28, 1999). "The Three Amigos". The Louie Report. Retrieved September 11, 2008.
  300. ^ Predoehl, Eric (January 1, 2013). "Richard Berry, Ry Cooder & Steve Douglas in 1990 – LOUIE of the Week". The Louie Report. Retrieved August 30, 2021.
  301. ^ Bernstein, Scott (February 7, 2019). "Early Dave Matthews Band Recording From 1992 Surfaces". Retrieved February 10, 2019.
  302. ^ Predoehl, Eric (January 28, 2019). "LOUIE Project Update / LOUIE on TV – part 1". The Louie Report. Retrieved November 2, 2021.
  303. ^ DaRonco, Mike. The Queers - Suck This Live Review at AllMusic
  304. ^ Barron, James (May 29, 1995). "For This Year's Graduates: Pomp, Circumstance and a Little Rock-and-Roll". The New York Times. Retrieved August 31, 2021.
  305. ^ "Mudhoney Tourbook, 1997". OCF Berkeley. Retrieved August 25, 2021.
  306. ^ "Rock Bottom Bangor". charnelhouse.tripod.com. 1998.
  307. ^ Lawson, Robert (2020). Wheatfield Empire: The Listener's Guide to The Guess Who. Friesen Press. p. 207. ISBN 9781525581175.
  308. ^ Shaffer, Paul; Ritz, David (2010). We'll Be Here For the Rest of Our Lives: A Swingin' Showbiz Saga. New York: Anchor Books. p. 58. ISBN 978-0767928861.
  309. ^ Jennings, Thom (July 3, 2019). "Burton Cummings delivers the hits at Artpark". The Niagara Gazette.
  310. ^ Díaz-Santana Garza, Luis (2021). Between Norteño and Tejano Conjunto: Music, Tradition, and Culture at the U.S.-Mexico Border. p. 107.
  311. ^ Steve Jordan - 25 Golden Hits at AllMusic.
  312. ^ Schoening, Benjamin; Kasper, Eric (2011). Don't Stop Thinking About the Music: The Politics of Songs and Musicians in Presidential Campaigns. Lanham: Lexington Books. p. 213. ISBN 9780739172995.
  313. ^ Predoehl, Eric (December 31, 2017). "For the new year – "We're on the Road to D'ohwhere" (a Simpsons LOUIE)". The Louie Report. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
  314. ^ Predoehl, Eric (March 9, 2009). "Dick Dale – LOUIE of the Week". The Louie Report. Retrieved August 22, 2021.
  315. ^ Thompson, Ben (August 12, 2007). "Cato Salsa Experience and The Thing with Joe McPhee, Two Bands and a Legend". The Guardian.
  316. ^ Predoehl, Eric (December 1, 2008). "The Trashmen with Eddie Angel & Johnny Rabb – LOUIE of the Week". The Louie Report. Retrieved April 1, 2023.
  317. ^ Predoehl, Eric (December 15, 2009). "The Sonics AND The Hives – LOUIE of the Week". The Louie Report. Retrieved August 13, 2021.
  318. ^ Stosuy, Brandon (November 6, 2008). "New Live Smashing Pumpkins Video – "99 Floors"". Stereogum. Retrieved September 30, 2021.
  319. ^ "DETROIT7". rockchicksrule. April 7, 2013. Retrieved September 30, 2021.
  320. ^ Predoehl, Eric (September 8, 2009). "James Williamson & Careless Hearts – LOUIE of the Week". The Louie Report. Retrieved October 4, 2021.
  321. ^ Mutrux, Floyd; Escott, Colin. "Baby It's You!". Broadway Musical Home. Retrieved September 23, 2021.
  322. ^ Isherwood, Charles (April 27, 2011). "Girl Group Tale Is Reharmonized". The New York Times. Retrieved March 3, 2023.
  323. ^ Swogger, Brendan. "One on One: An Evening with Billy Joel". Vortex Magazine. Retrieved December 20, 2017.
  324. ^ a b "500 Greatest Songs of All Time: The Kingsmen, 'Louie Louie'". Rolling Stone. September 16, 2021. Retrieved September 16, 2021.
  325. ^ Roberts, David (2006). British Hit Singles & Albums (19th ed.). London: Guinness World Records Limited. ISBN 1-904994-10-5.
  326. ^ a b c Pelzell, Doc (1989). The Best of Louie Louie, Volume 2 (LP liner notes). Los Angeles: Rhino Records.
  327. ^ a b Louie Louie Collection – Various Artists at AllMusic. Retrieved November 4, 2022.
  328. ^ a b c Predoehl, Eric (March 16, 2011). "Essential Louie Louies". The Louie Report. Retrieved October 28, 2021.
  329. ^ Quintana, Louie Mario (1997). The First Louie Louie Spanish Compilation (CD liner notes). Madrid: Louie Records.
  330. ^ Unterberger, Richie. Love That Louie: The Louie Louie Files – Various Artists at AllMusic. Retrieved November 4, 2022.
  331. ^ Marsh 1993, pp. 230–238.
  332. ^ "Louie, Louie (1966) Die Rosy Singers". coverinfo.com. Retrieved October 19, 2021.
  333. ^ Los Elegantes - Paso A Paso at AllMusic
  334. ^ Nyhan, Patricia; Rollins, Brian; Babb, David (1997). Let the Good Times Roll!: A Guide to Cajun & Zydeco Music. Upbeat Books. p. 64. ISBN 978-0965823203.
  335. ^ Kohanov, Linda (June 1990). "Basic 50: World Music". CD Review. p. 21.
  336. ^ "Irha". Skin & Punk. Retrieved September 30, 2021.
  337. ^ Dynasis - Loui Loui. - images ReverbNation.
  338. ^ Slim Jim – Lilly Lilly. 1964. Retrieved May 9, 2023 – via Discogs.
  339. ^ Osborne, Jerry (1996). The Complete Library of American Phongraph Recordings. Osborne Enterprises. pp. 78, 135, 211.
  340. ^ Bishop, Chris (April 27, 2008). "The Rain Kings". garagehangover.com. Retrieved May 9, 2023.
  341. ^ Predoehl, Eric (May 5, 2008). "Rain Kings – LOUIE of the Week". The Louie Report. Retrieved May 9, 2023.
  342. ^ a b Couture, Francois. Frank Zappa - You Can't Do That on Stage Anymore , Vol. 1 - Review at AllMusic
  343. ^ Hintze, Mike (April 23, 2007). "Pharaoh, Pharaoh". Louie Louie Web. Retrieved May 9, 2023.
  344. ^ Predoehl, Eric (December 23, 2020). "12 Days 'til LOUIE LOUIE 2020 Christmas – Day 10". The Louie Report. Retrieved May 9, 2023.
  345. ^ Kogon, Bennett (February 8, 2019). "Listen Up Liberal Loonies: Right Wing Talk Show Host Wally George's 1984 Novelty Record". Dangerous Minds. Retrieved May 9, 2023.
  346. ^ "Wally Wally" by Sis Q Lint ("Dedicated to everyone except Wally George") was written by Steven Valencia and released in 1984 (Martian 1719) as an answer song to the Wally George version, but was not based on "Louie Louie".
  347. ^ Hampshire, Kristin (September 26, 2007). "The Ballad of 'Bernie Bernie'". Cleveland Magazine. Retrieved May 9, 2023.
  348. ^ Parisien, Roch. Punk Rock Christmas Review at AllMusic
  349. ^ Predoehl, Eric (December 24, 2013). "Mojo Nixon "Christmas Christmas" – LOUIE of the Week". The Louie Report. Retrieved May 9, 2023.
  350. ^ The '60s Invasion: Incense & Chia Pets: A 60's Christmas Celebration (CD). 2012. Retrieved May 9, 2023.
  351. ^ Williams, David (November 17, 2015). "Being Buddy Hield: a primer on Oklahoma's star guard from the Bahamas". The Commercial Appeal. Retrieved May 9, 2023.
  352. ^ Predoehl, Eric (October 4, 2018). "Jedi Jedi – LOUIE Star Wars parody of the Week". The Louie Report. Retrieved May 9, 2023.
  353. ^ Dubois, Steven; Rogers, John (April 30, 2015). "Jack Ely, 71; Kingsman sang hit 'Louie, Louie'". The Boston Globe. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
  354. ^ Beta, Andy; De Silverio, Victoria; Kandell, Steve; Marchese, Dave; Mihaly, John; Montandon, Mac; Peisner, David; Petrusich, Amanda (October 2008). "Strange Bedfellows". Spin Magazine. p. 98.
  355. ^ Blecha, Peter (2007). "The "Louie Louie" Craze". Music in Washington: Seattle and Beyond. Arcadia Publishing. p. 85. ISBN 978-0738548180.
  356. ^ Sullivan, Steve (2013). Encyclopedia of Great Popular Song Recordings, Volume 1. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press. p. 696. ISBN 9780810882966.
  357. ^ Corn-Revere 2021, p. 140.
  358. ^ Gillett, Charlie (1996). The Sound of the City: The Rise of Rock & Roll. New York: Da Capo Press. p. 315. ISBN 978-0285633438.
  359. ^ Faggen, Gil (February 1, 1964). "Indiana Gov. Puts Down 'Pornographic' Wand Tune" (PDF). Billboard. p. 3.
  360. ^ a b Higgins, Will (January 2, 2019). "That time Indiana teens ratted out dirty 'Louie Louie' lyrics, and the FBI got involved". Indianapolis Star. Retrieved February 9, 2022.
  361. ^ Marsh 1993, p. 127.
  362. ^ "'Louie' Publishers Say Tune Not Dirty at All" (PDF). Billboard. February 8, 1964. p. 4.
  363. ^ "What are the real lyrics to 'Louie'?". Broadcasting Volume 66. Broadcasting Publications Incorporated. 1964. p. 52.
  364. ^ Marsh 1993, p. 125.
  365. ^ "Louie Louie (The Song)". FBI. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
  366. ^ Pittman, Craig (August 25, 2017). "How a Sarasota Educator Got the FBI to Investigate the Lyrics of a Rock Song". Sarasota Magazine. Retrieved November 3, 2021.
  367. ^ "FBI Eyes 'Louie' Lyrics" (PDF). Billboard magazine. September 11, 1965. p. 10. Retrieved May 15, 2019.
  368. ^ a b "Louie Louie". Snopes.com. 2007. Retrieved June 28, 2011.
  369. ^ The FBI file states, "... the record was played at various speeds but none of the speeds assisted in determining the words of the song on the record." (Marsh, 1993, p. 116)
  370. ^ Masnick, Mike (May 6, 2015). "FBI Spent Years 'Researching' The Lyrics To 'Louie, Louie' Before Realizing The Copyright Office Must Have Them". techdirt. Retrieved February 8, 2022.
  371. ^ Marsh also notes (pp. 116-117) that the Kingsmen had a good reason not to mention Ely's name — they didn't want to publicize the fact that the original singer of their big hit was no longer with the group.
  372. ^ Shkurti, William J. (2020). "WCOL and the "Louie Louie" Phenomenon". Ohio State University Student Life in the 1960s. The History Press. p. 52. ISBN 978-1467145992.
  373. ^ Glionna, John M. (January 25, 1997). "'Louie Louie' Writer Shared Little of Limelight". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
  374. ^ Some sources have the quote as "believe them" vs. "believe me".
  375. ^ Marsh 1993, pp. 114–138.
  376. ^ Marsh 1993, p. 2.
  377. ^ Fefer, Mark D. (June 10, 1998). "The war behind the scenes over rock's relentless party song". Seattle Weekly. Retrieved February 28, 2022.
  378. ^ Waldman, Tom (2003). We All Want to Change the World: Rock and Politics from Elvis to Eminem. Taylor Trade Publishing. p. 111. ISBN 978-1461625797.
  379. ^ Isserman, Maurice; Kazin, Michael (2000). "The Making of a Youth Culture". America Divided: The Civil War of the 1960s. Oxford University Press. p. 163. ISBN 978-0190217181.
  380. ^ "Band Banned From Performing 'Louie Louie'". Fox News. Associated Press. May 5, 2005. Archived from the original on October 25, 2012. Retrieved September 16, 2009.
  381. ^ Seib, Laura (May 6, 2005). "'Louie, Louie' gets go-ahead". South Bend Tribune. Retrieved September 16, 2009.
  382. ^ Hasted 2011, p. 36.
  383. ^ Taylor, Timothy Dean (2001). "Postwar Music and the Technoscientific Imaginary". Strange Sounds: Music, Technology and Culture. London: Routledge. p. 63. ISBN 0-425-17045-4.
  384. ^ "Pierre Henry at World News Network". Retrieved August 5, 2021.
  385. ^ Slotnik, Daniel E.; Padnani, Amisha (July 27, 2017). "Whirs, Beeps and Mating Calls: The Music of Pierre Henry". The New York Times. Retrieved August 5, 2021.
  386. ^ "History - Over 60 years of Radio Activity". KFJC.org. Retrieved October 6, 2021.
  387. ^ "The Full and Unabridged History of KALX". www.kalx.berkeley.edu. Retrieved October 6, 2021.
  388. ^ Greene, Bob (March 18, 1997). "Too Much Of A Good Thing? Not When It's 'Louie'". The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved August 1, 2019.
  389. ^ a b Marsh 1993, p. 186.
  390. ^ "KFJC-FM 2011 International Louie Louie Day program". KFJC.org. Archived from the original on May 10, 2012. Retrieved May 13, 2013.
  391. ^ Lancioni, Riccardo (2015). "The First Italian Louie Louie Marathon". www.ormeradio. Retrieved October 6, 2021.
  392. ^ de Grood, Theo. ""Louie Louie" Movie List". The Louie Louie Pages. Archived from the original on April 17, 2021. Retrieved November 6, 2022.
  393. ^ The W/O/C/ Archive. "Spaced Invaders TV Spot 1990". YouTube. Retrieved January 13, 2022.
  394. ^ Marsh, David (1993). Louie Louie: The History and Mythology of the World's Most Famous Rock 'n Roll Song... Hyperion. ISBN 978-1562828653.
  395. ^ "Knight and Day (2010) Soundtrack". What-Song.com. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
  396. ^ Moynihan, Tim (March 25, 2015). "Sweet New Facebook Messenger App Turns Texts Into Pop Songs". Wired. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
  397. ^ Russell, Jon (August 2, 2018). "Short video service Musical.ly is merging into sister app TikTok". Techcrunch.com. Retrieved August 17, 2021.
  398. ^ Van Wallenrod, Werner (April 23, 2020). "LOUIE LOUIE in Rap Music". The Louie Report. Retrieved August 8, 2021.
  399. ^ Melody Maker columnist Simon Reynolds in his 2011 book Bring the Noise: 20 Years of Writing About Hip Rock and Hip Hop described the sampling as "a sublimely teasing edit ... [of] the sixties punk tearaway reincarnated in the eighties B-boy motormouth!"
  400. ^ Nicholson, Ann Marie (August 2004). "T.O.K. Unknown Language (review)". Vibe Magazine. p. 144.
  401. ^ Baker, Peter (September 28, 1997). "PRESIDENT ENJOYS REUNION 'LIKE EVERYBODY ELSE'". The Washington Post. Washington, DC. Retrieved September 23, 2021.
  402. ^ Predoehl, Eric (November 19, 2008). "Politics and LOUIE LOUIE". Santa Cruz, CA: The Louie Report. Retrieved August 12, 2021.
  403. ^ Peterson, Dick. "Things You Probably Don't Know". The Kingsmen Official Site. Retrieved September 23, 2021.
  404. ^ Seattle Weekly (October 27, 1999) Music: "The State I'm In" Archived August 21, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, by Kurt B. Reighley
  405. ^ Shafer, Ross (2003). "Stop Taking Credit for Your Phenomenal Success". Nobody Moved Your Cheese!. Victoria, BC: Trafford Publishing. pp. 98–99. ISBN 978-1553956587.
  406. ^ Pelzel, Doc (1992). The Best Of Louie Louie Volume 2 (CD sleeve notes). Various Artists. Rhino Records.
  407. ^ Banel, Feliks (August 19, 2020). "When 'Louie, Louie' almost became Washington's state song". mynorthwest.com. Retrieved November 7, 2021.
  408. ^ Stone, Larry (April 19, 2022). "Here's why the Mariners aren't playing 'Louie Louie' during the seventh-inning stretch". The Seattle Times. Retrieved April 19, 2022.
  409. ^ Hooper, Ben (April 8, 2022). "International 'Louie Louie' Day celebrates birthday of songwriter Richard Berry". United Press International. Retrieved June 24, 2022.
  410. ^ "04/11 - International Louie Louie Day". The Daily Kos. April 11, 2022. Retrieved June 24, 2022.
  411. ^ "National Special Events Registry". Celebratetoday.com. Retrieved November 21, 2013.
  412. ^ Predoehl, Eric (April 11, 2022). "Happy Louie Louie Day 2022". The Louie Report. Retrieved April 19, 2022.
  413. ^ Peterson 2005, p. 45.
  414. ^ Blecha 2009, p. 137.
  415. ^ a b Blecha, Peter (April 1, 2007). ""Louie Louie" Through The Ages". The Seattle Times. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
  416. ^ "City of Seattle proclamation text". The Louie Report. Retrieved May 4, 2013.
  417. ^ "State Song Idea Off-Key". The Eugene Register-Guard. May 10, 2009. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
  418. ^ "Louie Louie May Mean Lots, Lots for Kingsmen". The Seattle Times. April 11, 1998. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
  419. ^ "Lynn Easton Remembered". B&B Print Source. May 6, 2020. Retrieved June 18, 2022.
  420. ^ Predoehl, Eric (April 28, 2020). "RIP: Lynn Easton of the Kingsmen". The Louie Report. Retrieved June 18, 2022.
  421. ^ "Louie Louie Advocacy and Music Appreciation Society (LLAMAS)". The Loue Report. Retrieved November 21, 2013.
  422. ^ Predoehl, Eric (January 29, 2007). "LLAMAS – LOUIE LOUIE Advocacy and Music Appreciation Society". The Louie Report. Retrieved November 21, 2013.
  423. ^ Lincoln Journal Star (March 27, 2013) "April is the coolest month for holidays", by Erin Andersen
  424. ^ Sound+Vision Magazine (April 11, 2011) "International Louie Louie Day", by Michael Berk
  425. ^ Urban Times Magazine (April 12, 2013) "Happy Belated International Louie Louie Day" Archived April 25, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, by Brian Fiore-Silfvast
  426. ^ "WATD-FM 2011 International Louie Louie Day program". 959watd.com. Archived from the original on June 10, 2015. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
  427. ^ "Louie-Palooza: 11 Killer Covers for International "Louie Louie" Day". VH1.com. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  428. ^ Predoehl, Eric (April 28, 2015). "Revisiting the Italian LOUIE Marathon". The Louie Report. Retrieved April 30, 2015.
  429. ^ Ko, Michael (August 25, 2003). "754 guitars rock into the record book with 'Louie Louie'". The Seattle Times. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  430. ^ Predoehl, Eric (July 16, 2012). "The Return of LOUIE FEST in Tacoma!". The Louie Report. Retrieved November 10, 2022.
  431. ^ Marsh 1993, pp. 186–190.
  432. ^ "When Springtime Comes to Philadelphia Even the Robins Sing 'Louie Louie'". People. May 25, 1987. p. 34.
  433. ^ "City Cancels 'Louie Parade;' Cites Rowdies". The Philadelphia Inquirer. May 20, 1989. Retrieved May 5, 2013.
  434. ^ "St. Jude Louie Louie Street Party". louielouiepeoria.com. 2019. Retrieved October 14, 2019.
  435. ^ "The Kingsmen's famously innocent "Louie Louie" now back in front of the feds at downtown Federal Building". The Portland Oregonian. July 25, 2013. Retrieved July 30, 2013.
  436. ^ "Editorial: Me gotta go now: 'Louie' sculpture is fitting tribute". The Albany Democrat-Herald. July 27, 2013. Retrieved July 30, 2013.
  437. ^ "The Crystal's Top 50". McMenamins.com. Retrieved December 31, 2021.
  438. ^ Williams, Marla (December 27, 1992). "The 1992 Louie Awards -- Sex, Sewage And Mr. Lifto Win Our Louies". Seattle Times. Retrieved May 13, 2022.
  439. ^ "Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Inducts Songs for the First Time, Including 'Born to Be Wild' & 'Louie Louie'". Billboard Magazine. April 14, 2018. Retrieved July 11, 2020.
  440. ^ "500 Songs That Shaped Rock". Rockhall.com. February 11, 2017. Archived from the original on June 28, 2011. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
  441. ^ "GRAMMY Hall Of Fame". National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. October 18, 2010. Retrieved September 21, 2013.
  442. ^ "The Original NPR 300". NPR. Retrieved September 21, 2013.
  443. ^ Perone, James E. (2016). Smash Hits: The 100 Songs That Defined America. ABC-CLIO. pp. 141–144. ISBN 9781440834691. Retrieved February 3, 2022.
  444. ^ "The Wire - 100 Most Important Records Ever Made". Retrieved September 21, 2013.
  445. ^ "Ultimate Jukebox : The 100 Singles You Must Own". Retrieved September 21, 2013.
  446. ^ Webb, Robert (2012). The Ultimate Playlist: The 100 Greatest Cover Versions. London: McNidder and Grace Limited. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-0857160577.
  447. ^ "The 50 Best Garage Rock Songs of All Time". August 26, 2014. Retrieved May 26, 2016.
  448. ^ "40 Songs That Changed The World". Archived from the original on March 8, 2013. Retrieved September 21, 2013.
  449. ^ "The All-Time Top 100 Singles". acclaimedmusic.net. Retrieved September 16, 2014.
  450. ^ "Q Magazine: The Music That Changed the World". Retrieved February 15, 2022.
  451. ^ "VH1: '100 Greatest Rock Songs': 1-50". Retrieved September 21, 2013.
  452. ^ "1001 Greatest Singles Ever Made – Part 1. Nos 1 to 500". Retrieved September 21, 2013.
  453. ^ "Rolling Stone – The 100 Best Singles Of The Last 25 Years". Retrieved September 12, 2013.
  454. ^ Erickson, Steve (November 2001). "Los Angeles Magazine - LAs Top 100". Los Angeles. p. 88. Retrieved January 28, 2022.
  455. ^ Williams, Paul (1993). Rock and Roll: The 100 Best Singles. Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 978-0881849660.
  456. ^ "VH1 - '100 Greatest Dance Songs'". Retrieved April 29, 2015.
  457. ^ "NME Magazine: Top 100 Singles of All Time". Retrieved February 15, 2022.
  458. ^ "Acclaimed Music - "Louie Louie"". Retrieved February 14, 2022.
  459. ^ "Mojo – The 100 Greatest Singles Of All Time". Retrieved September 21, 2013.
  460. ^ "Rolling Stone 500 Greatest Songs of All Time (2010 version)". Spotirama. March 9, 2010. Retrieved September 16, 2021.
  461. ^ "2004 Greatest Songs of All Time 1-100". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on June 19, 2008. Retrieved February 14, 2022.
  462. ^ "NEA and RIAA: The top 365 songs of the 20th century". Retrieved September 21, 2013.
  463. ^ "Big Bangs: 100 Records That Changed the World". Retrieved September 21, 2013.
  464. ^ "Pitchfork: The 200 Best Songs of the 1960s". Pitchfork. August 18, 2006. Retrieved February 17, 2018.
  465. ^ "NME Magazine: 500 Greatest Songs". Retrieved December 26, 2014.
  466. ^ "WCBSFM: Top 1001 Songs Of The Century". Retrieved September 21, 2013.


Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]