Beijing Subway

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Beijing Subway
Beijing Subway logo.svg
Overview
Locale Beijing
Transit type Rapid transit
Number of lines 15
Number of stations 218 (if stations linked with transfers are counted separately)
192 (if stations linked by transfers are counted as a single station)
Daily ridership 7.57 million (peak)[1]
Annual ridership 2.18 billion (2011)[2]
Operation
Began operation 1 October 1969
Operator(s) Beijing Mass Transit Railway Operation Corp., Ltd
Beijing MTR Corp. Ltd.
Technical
System length 372 km (231 mi)
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) (standard gauge)
System map

Beijing-Subway en.png

Beijing Subway
Simplified Chinese 北京地铁
Traditional Chinese 北京地鐵

The Beijing Subway is a rapid transit rail network that serves the urban and suburban districts of Beijing municipality. The subway is owned by the city of Beijing and has two operators, the wholly state owned Beijing Mass Transit Railway Operation Corp., which operates 13 lines, and the Beijing MTR Corp., a public-private joint-venture with the Hong Kong MTR, which manages 2 lines.

The subway's first line opened in 1969, and the network now has 15 lines, 192 stations[3] and 372 km (231 mi) of track in operation. It is the oldest subway in mainland China. Among the world's metro systems, the Beijing Subway ranks fourth in track length after the metros of Shanghai, London and Seoul, and fourth in annual ridership after those of Tokyo, Seoul, and Moscow.

In 2011, the Beijing Subway delivered over 2.18 billion rides, and on September 9, 2011, set a single-day record of 7.57 million.[1] All but two of Beijing Subway's 15 lines were built within the past decade. The most recent additions, Line 9, along with sections of Lines 8, 15 and Fangshan, entered into operation on December 31, 2011. Despite the rapid expansion, the existing network cannot adequately meet the city's mass transit needs and extensive expansion plans call for 19 lines and over 703 km (437 mi) of track in operation by 2015[4][5] and 1,000 km (620 mi) by 2020.[6] The network is set to reach 420 km (260 mi) by the end of 2012.[7]

Fares

Beijing Subway fare cards
The Yikatong card
A single-ride farecard

A flat fare of RMB(¥) 2.00 with unlimited transfers applies to all lines except the Airport Express, which costs ¥25[8] Children below 1.2 metres (47 in) in height ride for free when accompanied by a paying adult.[9]

All lines now collect fares through automatic fare collection (AFC) machines that accept single-ride tickets and the One Card Through Card or Yikatong, an integrated circuit card (ICC card) that can store credit for multiple rides.[10] Riders can purchase tickets and add credit to Yikatong at ticket counters and vending machines in every station. Yikatong is also accepted on nearly all urban and suburban buses, and can be used as e-money for other purchases.

The use of tickets hand checked by clerks was phased out, ending on June 9, 2008.[11] Before the flat fare was introduced on October 7, 2007, fares ranged from ¥3 to ¥7, depending on the line and number of transfers.

Hours of operation

The subway is generally closed after midnight, unless a special occasion prompts extended operating hours.[12] The first trains depart terminals at around 5 am and the last leave at around 11 pm. The Airport Express train starts at around 6am.

Lines in operation

Line & Colour Terminals
(District)
Opened
[13]
Newest
Extension
Length
km
Stations
(surface)
Transfers
Template:BJS line links Pingguoyuan
(Shijingshan)
Sihui East
(Chaoyang)
1971 1999 30.4 23 (2) 2, 4, 5, 10, Batong
Template:BJS line links Loop line through 1971 1987 23.1 18 1, 4, 5, 13, Airport
Xizhimen
(Xicheng)
Beijing Railway Station
(Dongcheng)
Template:BJS line links
[a]
Anheqiao North
(Haidian)
Gongyixiqiao
(Fengtai)
2009 2010[a] 28.2 24 (1) 1, 2, 10, 13, Daxing[a]
Template:BJS line links Tiantongyuan North
(Changping)
Songjiazhuang
(Fengtai)
2007 27.6 23 (7) 1, 2, 10, 13, Yizhuang
Template:BJS line links Beitucheng
(Chaoyang)
Huilongguang Dongdajie
(Changping)
2008 2011 15.2 10 10, 13
Template:BJS line links Guogongzhuang
(Fengtai)
Beijing West Railway Station
(Xuanwu)
2011 10.8 9 Fangshan
Template:BJS line links Bagou
(Haidian)
Jinsong
(Chaoyang)
2008 24.7 22 1, 4, 5, 8, 13, Airport
Template:BJS line links Xizhimen
(Xicheng)
Dongzhimen
(Dongcheng)
2002 2003 40.9 16 (15) 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 15, Changping, Airport
Template:BJS line links Wangjing West
(Chaoyang)
Fengbo
(Shunyi)
2010 2011 30.2 13 (4) 13
Template:BJS line links Sihui
(Chaoyang)
Tuqiao
(Tongzhou)
2003 18.9 13 (13) 1
Template:BJS line links Xi'erqi
(Haidian)
Nanshao
(Changping)
2010 21.24 7 (6) 13
Template:BJS line links
[a]
Gongyixiqiao
(Fengtai)
Tiangongyuan
(Daxing)
2010 21.7 11 (1) 4[a], Fangshan[b]
Template:BJS line links Suzhuang
(Fangshan)
Guogongzhuang
(Fengtai)
2010 2011 24.79 11 (9) 9, Daxing[b]
Template:BJS line links Songjiazhuang
(Fengtai)
Yizhuang Railway Station
(Tongzhou)
2010 23.3 14 (8) 5
Template:BJS line links Dongzhimen
(Dongcheng)
Terminal 2 (Chaoyang) 2008 28.1 4 (1) 2, 10, 13
Terminal 3 (Shunyi)
Map of Beijing Subway lines in operation. This map is not drawn to scale.
A Line 2 train
Line 2 platform at Xizhimen
Ticket entry gates at the Xuanmingyuan Station
Airport Express train

Beijing's subway lines generally follow the checkerboard layout of the city. Most lines run parallel or perpendicular to each other and intersect at right angles.

Lines serving the urban core:

Lines to outlying suburbs:

Beijing Suburban Railway

The Beijing Suburban Railway is a mass transit rail system that complements the subway and provides commuter train service to outlying suburban districts and counties. Six "S"-numbered lines have been planned.[15] The Beijing Suburban Railway is managed separately from the subway and has a different fare structure. Line S2, opened August 6, 2008, runs from the Beijing North Railway Station to Yanqing County, and provides direct urban rail access to the Great Wall at Badaling.[16] The Beijing North Station is located near the subway stop at Xizhimen (Subway Lines 2, 4, 13). Line S1 will channel riders from Mentougou District west of the city to Pingguoyuan and Wulu, the western terminus of Line 1 and Line 6.[17]

History

Schema showing the development of the Beijing Subway from 1971 to 2011

1953–1965: origins

The Beijing Subway was proposed in September 1953 by the city's planning committee and experts from the Soviet Union.[18] After the end of the Korean War, Chinese leaders turned their attention to domestic reconstruction. They were keen to expand Beijing's mass transit capacity but also valued the subway as an asset for civil defense. They studied the use of the Moscow Metro to protect civilians, move troops and headquarter military command posts during the Battle of Moscow, and planned the Beijing Subway for both civilian and military use.[18]

The Chinese lacked expertise in building subways and drew heavily on Soviet and East German technical assistance. In 1954, a delegation of Soviet engineers, including some who had built the Moscow Metro, was invited to plan the subway in Beijing.[18] From 1953 to 1960, several thousand Chinese students were sent to the Soviet Union to study subway construction.[18] An early plan unveiled in 1957 called for one ring route and six other lines with a total of 114 stations and 172 km (107 mi) of tracks.[18] Two routes vied for the first to be built. One ran east-west from Wukesong to Hongmiao, underneath Changan Avenue. The other ran north-south from the Summer Palace to Zhongshan Park, via Xizhimen and Xisi. The former was chosen due to more favorable geological foundation and greater number of government bureaus served. The second route would not be built until construction on Line 4 began forty years later.

The deterioration of relations between China and Soviet Union disrupted subway planning. Soviet experts began to leave in 1960, and were completely withdrawn by 1963.[19] In 1961, the entire project was halted temporarily due to severe hardships caused by the Great Leap Forward. Eventually, planning work resumed. The route of the initial line was shifted westward to create an underground conduit to move personnel from the heart of the capital to the Western Hills. On February 4, 1965, Chairman Mao Zedong personally approved the project.[20]

1965–1981: the slow beginning

Many areas of Beijing's city walls were torn down during the construction of the subway. The route of the initial subway line was slightly altered to save Qianmen gate (above) and its archery tower (visible at far right).
Left: Entrance to the Fushouling Station once designated terminus of Line 1 but was not open to the public. Right: Entrance to the Wukesong Station on Line 1
Paper tickets for Lines 1 and 2 before they were phased out in 2007.

Construction began on July 1, 1965, at a ceremony attended by national leaders including Zhu De, Deng Xiaoping, and mayor Peng Zhen.[21] The most controversial outcome of the initial subway line was the demolition of the Beijing's historic inner city wall to make way for the subway. Construction plans for the subway from Fuxingmen to the Beijing Railway Station called for the removal of the wall, as well as the gates and archery towers at Hepingmen, Qianmen, and Chongwenmen. Leading architect Liang Sicheng argued for protecting the wall as a landmark of the ancient capital. Chairman Mao favored demolishing the wall over demolishing homes. In the end, Premier Zhou Enlai managed to preserve several walls and gates, such as the Qianmen gate and its arrow tower by slightly altering the course of the subway.[22]

The initial line was completed in time to mark the 20th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic on October 1, 1969.[23] It ran 21 km from the army barracks at Fushouling to the Beijing Railway Station and had 16 stations. This line forms parts of present-day Lines 1 and 2. It was the first subway to be built in China, and predates the metros of Hong Kong, Seoul, Singapore, San Francisco, and Washington, D.C., but technical problems would plague the project for the next decade.

On November 11, 1969, an electrical fire killed three people, injured over 100 and destroyed two cars.[24] Premier Zhou Enlai placed the subway under the control of the People’s Liberation Army in 1970, but reliability problems persisted.[25] On January 15, 1971, the initial line began operation on a trial basis between the Beijing Railway Station and Gongzhufen.[26] Single ride fare was set at ¥0.10 and only members of the public with credential letters from their work units were permitted entry into the subway. The line delivered 8.28 million rides in 1971 but remained under trial operation throughout the Cultural Revolution. From 1971 to 1975, the subway was shut down for 398 days for political reasons.[27] Despite its return to civilian control in 1976, the subway remained prone to closures due to fires, flooding, and accidents.

1981–2000: two lines for two decades

On September 15, 1981, after a decade of trial operation, the initial line was finally opened to full public use.[28] It had 19 stations and ran 27.6 km (17.1 mi) from Fushouling in the Western Hills to the Beijing Railway Station. Investment in the project totaled ¥706 million. The subway was placed under the management of the Beijing Subway Company, then a subsidiary of the Beijing Public Transportation Company. Annual ridership reached 72.5 million in 1982.

Entrance to the Wangfujing Station on Line 1. The Wangfujing station opened in 1999 as part of Line 1's eastward extension from Fuxingmen.

On September 20, 1984, a second line was opened to the public. This horseshoe-shaped line was created from the eastern half of the initial line and corresponds to the southern half of the present-day Line 2. It ran 16.1 km (10.0 mi) from Fuxingmen to Jianguomen with 16 stations. Ridership reached 105 million in 1985. On December 28, 1987, the two existing lines were reconfigured into Lines 1, which ran from Pingguoyuan to Fuxingmen and Line 2, in its current loop, tracing the Ming city wall. Fares doubled to ¥0.20 for single-line rides and ¥0.30 for rides with transfers. Ridership reached 307 million in 1988. The subway was closed from June 3–4, 1989 during the suppression of the Tiananmen Square demonstrations. In 1990, the subway carried more than one million riders per day for the first time, as total ridership reached 381 million. After a fare hike to ¥0.50 in 1991, annual ridership declined slightly to 371 million.

On January 26, 1991, planning began on the eastward extension of Line 1 under Chang’an Avenue from Fuxingmen.[29] The project was funded by a 19.2 billion yen low-interest development assistance loan from Japan.[29] Construction began on the eastern extension on June 24, 1992, and the Xidan station opened on December 12, 1992.[29] The remaining extension to Sihui East was completed on September 28, 1999.[30] National leaders Wen Jiabao, Jia Qinglin, Yu Zhengsheng and mayor Liu Qi were on hand to mark the occasion.[30] The full-length of Line 1 became operational on June 28, 2000.[31]

Despite little track expansion in the early 1990s, ridership grew rapidly to reach an all-time high of 558 million in 1995, but fell to 444 million the next year when fares rose from ¥0.50 to ¥2.00. After fares rose again to ¥3.00 in 2000, annual ridership fell to 434 million from 481 million in 1999.[31]

2001–present: rapid expansion

In the summer of 2001, the city won the bid to host the 2008 Summer Olympics and accelerated plans to expand the subway. From 2002 and 2008, the city planned to invest ¥63.8 billion (US$7.69 billion) in subway projects. Work on Line 5 had already begun on September 25, 2000.[32] Land clearing for Lines 4 and 10 began in November 2003 and construction commenced by the end of the year.[33] Most new subway construction projects were funded by loans from the Big Four state banks. Line 4 was funded by the Beijing MTR Corporation, a joint-venture with the Hong Kong MTR.[34] To achieve plans for 19 lines and 561 km (349 mi) by 2015, the city planned to invest a total of ¥200 billion ($29.2 billion).[35]

Line 13 train at Xizhimen.
Line 13 station at Longze. Line 13 opened in two parts in 2002 and 2003.
A model SFX01 Batong Line train at Shuangqiao. The Batong Line opened in Dec. 2003
Elevated Line 5 station (red) and platform at Tiantongyuan. Line 5 opened on Oct. 7, 2007.

The next additions to the subway were surface commuter lines that linked to the north and east of the city. Line 13, a half loop that links the northern suburbs, first opened on the western half from Huilongguan to Xizhimen on September 28, 2002 and the entire line became operational on January 28, 2003.[36] Batong Line, built as an extension to Line 1 to Tongzhou district, was opened as a separate line on December 27, 2003.[37] Work on these two lines had begun respectively in December 1999 and 2000.[38] Ridership hit 607 million in 2004.

Line 5 came into operation on October 7, 2007. It was the city's first north-south line, extending from the Songjiazhuang in the south to Tiantongyuan in the north. On the same day, subway fares were reduced from between ¥3 and ¥7 per trip, depending on the line and number of transfers, to a single flat fare of ¥2 with unlimited transfers. The lower fare policy caused the Beijing Subway to run a deficit of ¥600 million in 2007, which was expected to widen to ¥1 billion in 2008.[35] The Beijing municipal government covered these deficits to encourage mass transit use, and reduce traffic congestion and air pollution. On a total of 655 million rides delivered in 2007, the government's subsidy averaged ¥0.92 per ride.[39]

Beitucheng Station for Lines 8 and 10, which along with the Airport Express, opened on July 19, 2008.
Each of the four original stations on the Olympic Branch Line (Line 8) has a unique interior decor style. (Pictured: South Gate of Forest Park)
Line 4 opened on Sept. 28, 2009. Like Lines 5, 8, and 10, its stations have platform doors. (Pictured: Weigongcun Station)
Entrance D to Xisi Station on Line 4. Each station entrance of the Beijing Subway has an entrance label

In the summer of 2008, in anticipation of the Summer Olympic Games, three new lines—Line 10, the Olympic Branch Line and the Airport Express—were opened on July 19 for trial operation.[40] The use of paper tickets, hand checked by clerks for 38 years, was discontinued and replaced by electronic tickets that are scanned by automatic fare collection machines upon entry and exit of the subway. Stations are outfitted with touch screen vending machines that sell single-ride tickets and multiple-ride Yikatong fare cards. The subway set a daily ridership record of 4.92 million on August 22, 2008, the day of the Games' closing ceremony[41] In 2008, total ridership rose by 75% to 1.2 billion.[42]

After the Chinese government announced a ¥4 trillion economic stimulus package in November 2008, Beijing urban planning commission further expedited subway building plans, especially for surface light rails to suburban districts that are cheaper to build. In December 2008, the commission moved up completion dates of the Yizhuang and Daxing Lines to 2010 from 2012, finalized the route of the Fangshan Line, and unveiled the Changping and Western Suburban Lines.[43]

Line 4 entered into operation on September 28, 2009, bringing subway service to much of western Beijing.[44] It is managed by the Hong Kong MTR through a joint venture with the city. In 2009, the subway delivered 1.457 billion rides,[45] which accounted for 19.24% of mass transit trips in Beijing.[46]

Construction site of Line 15 near the Wangjing Station in Sept. 2009
Shahe Station on the Changping Line
Line 15, along with the Changping, Fangshan, Daxing and Yizhuang Lines, opened in Dec. 2010
The new Xierqi Station built to accommodate the interchange between Line 13 and the Changping Line

On December 30, 2010, Lines 15, Changping, Fangshan, Yizhuang and Daxing, all suburban lines, commenced operations.[47] The addition of 108 km (67 mi) of tracks, a nearly 50% increase, has made the Beijing Subway the fourth longest metro of the world, just behind the New York City Subway. One year later, on December 31, 2011, the Beijing Subway surpassed the New York City Subway in revenue track length when the extension of Line 8 north from the Olympic Green to Huilongguan, the opening of Line 9 in southwest Beijing from Beijing West Railway Station to Guogongzhuang, and the extension of Line 15 into central urban Shunyi.[48]

Lines under construction and under planning

Lines under construction

In addition to 15 lines in operation, there are at least eight lines now under construction with work on several more lines set to begin in 2012.

A map showing Beijing subway lines currently in operation (solid lines) and lines projected for completion before 2015 (dashed lines) This map is not drawn to scale

The new lines will significantly expand the subway's coverage, especially south and west of the city. Line 9 and Line 16 will run parallel and to the west of Line 4. Flanking either side of Line 1 will be Line 6 and Line 7. Line 10, when fully completed, will form a second ring outside the Line 2 loop. Line 8 will extend the Olympic Branch Line north to Line 13 and south to Line 2. Line 14 will run from the southwest to the northeast. The Western Suburban and Yanfang Lines will connect outlying districts to the Beijing Subway.

Sched.
opening
Line Phase & Section Terminals (District) Route Description Construction
since
Length
(km)
Stations
Sept. 2012[49] Line 9 North Section National Library (Haidian) - Beijing West Railway Station Extends north to Line 4 Apr. 2007 5.7 4
Line 10 Phase II Jinsong Station (Chaoyang) -
Bagou Station (Haidian)
"L"-shaped route completing the Line 10 loop to the south and west. Apr. 2007 32.5 24
Dec. 2012[49] Line 8 Phase II North, Section 2
Phase II
South
Zhuxinzhuang - Huilongguan East (Changping)
Beitucheng (Chaoyang) – Museum of Art (Dongcheng)
Extends further north to Changping Line and south to Drum Tower and National Art Museum inside Line 2 Dec. 2007 5.9
6.8
3
6
Line 6 Phase I Haidian Wuluju (Haidian) - Caofang (Tongzhou) east-west line north of Line 1 Apr. 2008 31 21
2013 Line 14 Phase I Zhangguozhuang (Fengtai) - Xiju J-shaped line, from the southwest corner of the city to the southeast corner, through Beijing South Station and then turning north to Guangqu Lu. Apr. 2010 47.7 7
2014 Phase II Xiju - Shangezhuang (Chaoyang) 30
Line 7 Beijing West Railway Station - Jiaohuachang (Tongzhou) east-west line south of Line 1 Jan. 2010 23.9 21
Line 15 Phase I
Section 3
Beishatan - Wangjing West Chaoyang section of Line 15 (western section) Apr. 2009 7 5

Lines awaiting construction

The following lines have been identified in expansion plans for the Beijing Subway and are awaiting commencement of construction. All are scheduled to be completed by 2015, except Line 16.

Line Terminals (District) Route Description Planning
Status
Length
(km)
Stations
Line 6
Phase II
Cangfang - Dongxiaoying
(Tongzhou)
extends Line 6 further east into Tongzhou District. Const. to begin in 2010; completion by 2015 11.64 7
Line 8
Phase III
Museum of Art (Dongcheng) - Wufutang (Daxing) extends Line 8 Phase II south thru Qianmen and Yongdingmen along central north-south axis to Daxing District. To be built by 2015 17.3 14
Line 14
Phase II
Guangqu Lu - Laiguangying
(Chaoyang)
extends eastern leg of Line 14 from Guangqu Lu north, through Chaoyang Park and Wangjing to Laiguangying, just beyond the NE corner of the 5th Ring Road. to be built by 2014 17.7 14
Line 15
Phase II
Summer Palace (Haidian) -Beishatan (Chaoyang) east-west line between the 4th and 5th Ring Roads north of the city from Old Summer Palace through Tsinghua University, Zhongguancun, and the Olympic Green. to be built by 2015 9.3 6
Line 16 Suzhoujie (Haidian) -
Yushuzhuang (Fengtai)
north-south line west of Line 4. - 23 -
Changping
Line

Phase II
Nanshao - Ming Tombs Scenic Area (Changping) extends Changping Line to Ming Tombs. Const. to begin in 2011 10 4 or 5
Western
Suburban
Line
Bagou - Fragrant Hills
(Haidian)
light rail or tram from present-day northwest terminus of Line 10 to the Fragrant Hills. To be built by 2014 9.3 5
Yanfang Line Yanshan Sinopec Center & Zhoukoudian Village - Suzhuang (Fangshan) extends Fangshan Line west to Yanshan Sinopec Center, with branch to Zhoukoudian. Const. to begin in 2011; completion by 2013 21.2 23

Lines under planning

To address the city's worsening traffic congestion problem, in December 2010 city planners moved the construction of several lines from the 13th Five Year Plan to the 12th Five Year Plan. This means Lines 8 (Phase III), 3, 12, 16, the Yanfang Line, as well as additional lines to Changping, Tiantongyuan, and Haidian will begin construction before 2015.[50] Subway planning authorities had indicated that Lines 3, 11, 12 and 16 were being planned for the more distant future.[51][52]

In January 2010, the government of Shijingshan District disclosed plans for a Line 11 in western Beijing that would traverse the Beijing Capital Steel complex and intersect with Lines 1 and 4.[53] Construction is set to begin in 2020. Line 17 is planned to run underneath Guanghua Road in the Central Business District with transfers to Lines 4 and 5.[54] In February 2012, the city government confirmed that six new lines, including Lines 3, 12, R1, R2 and R3, were under planning.[55]

Rolling stock

All Beijing subway trains run on 1,435mm standard gauge rail and draw power from the 750V DC third rail. All lines operate 6-car train sets with a maximum speed of 80 km/h, except the Airport Express, which has 4-car train sets that can reach 110 km/h.[56]

From the subway's inception to 2003, nearly all Beijing Subway trains were manufactured by the Changchun Railway Vehicles Company Ltd., now a subsidiary of the China CNR Corporation.[57] Currently, all trains on Lines 2, 5, 8, 10, 13, Airport Express and older models on Line 1 are made by Changchun RVC, which is under contract to supply trains for Lines Yizhuang, 9 and 10 (Phase II).[56][58] The newest Line 1 trains as well as those on Lines 4 and Batong are made by Qingdao Sifang Locomotive & Rolling Stock Co., a subsidiary of China South Locomotive and Rolling Stock Industry Corp. Qingdao Sifang will also provide train sets for Lines 8, Daxing and Changping.[59][60]

The Beijing Subway Rolling Stock Equipment Co. Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of the Beijing Mass Transit Railway Operation Corp. Ltd., provides local assemblage, maintenance and repair services.

System upgrades

The articulated cars of Line 5 trains have greater carrying capacity.

Increasing Capacity. With new lines drawing more riders to the network and the fare reduction making rides more affordable, the subway has experienced severe overcrowding, especially during the rush hour.[61] In response, the subway upgraded signal equipment to increase the frequency of trains and added to the capacity of subway trains. The minimum wait-time has been reduced to 2 min. on Line 2; 2 min. 15 sec. on Line 1; 3 min. on Lines 4, 5, 13, and Batong; 3.5 min. on Line 10; and 15 min. on the Airport Express.[62] Lines 13 and Batong have converted 4-car to 6-car trains.[63][64] Despite these efforts, during the morning rush hour, conductors at line terminals and other busy stations must routinely restrict the number of passengers who can board each train to prevent the train from becoming too crowded for passengers waiting at other stations down the line.[65] As of August 31, 2011, 25 stations mainly on Lines 13, Batong, 1 and 5, have imposed such restrictions.[66] Some of these stations have built queuing lines outside the stations to manage the flow of waiting passengers.[67]

Lines 6, 7 and 14 now under construction will reportedly have longer platforms that can accommodate 8-car trains.[68]

Cellular Network Coverage. Mobile phones can currently be used throughout the system, except for in the tunnels between stations on Lines 1 and 2. There are plans for all lines and stations to have cellular coverage.[69]

Access for the Physically Disabled. Each of the subway's 147 stations is equipped with ramps, lifts, or elevators to facilitate wheelchair access.[70][71] Newer model train cars now provide space to accommodate wheelchairs.[72] Automated audio announcements for incoming trains are available in all lines except for Line 1. On all lines, station names are announced in Mandarin Chinese and English.

Automatic Fare Collection System. Each station has two to fifteen ticket vending machines.[73] Ticket vending machines in Line 4, 5, 8, and 10 stations and several of the Line 1 and 2 stations can also add credit to Yikatong cards.[74]

Safety

Passenger searches

Since the 2008 Olympics, security checks of riders and bags have become mandatory on the Beijing Subway.

To ensure public safety during the 2008 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games, the subway initiated a three-month heightened security program from June 29 to September 20, 2008. Riders were subject to searches of their persons and belongings at all stations by security inspectors using metal detectors, X-Ray machines and sniffer dogs. Items banned from public transportation such as "guns, ammunition, knives, explosives, flammable and radioactive materials, and toxic chemicals" were subject to confiscation.[75] The security program was reinstituted during the 2009 New Year Holiday[76] and has since been made permanent through regulations enacted in February 2009.[77] Only bags are generally X-rayed (as of 2012), riders are checked only occasionally .

Emergency planning

After witnessing several serious subway accidents in South Korea (e.g. Daegu subway fire in February 2003), the Beijing Subway removed all shops and vendors from the inside of subway stations and installed self-illuminating exit signs to facilitate emergency evacuations. The popular underground mall at the Xidan station was also closed.

Accidents

The Beijing Subway was plagued by numerous accidents in its early years, including a fire in 1969 that killed 6 people and injured over 200.[78] But its operations have improved dramatically and there have been few reported accidents in recent years. Most of the reported fatalities on the subway are the result of suicides.[79] Authorities have responded by installing doors on platforms of newer lines.

There have been several reported fatal incidents at subway construction sites in recent years. On October 8, 2003, the collapse of steel beams at the construction site of Line 5's Chongwenmen Station killed three workers and injured one.[80] On March 29, 2007, the construction site at the Suzhoujie Station on Line 10 collapsed, burying six workers. On June 6, 2008, prior to the opening of Line 10, a worker was crushed to death inside an escalator in Zhichunlu Station when an intern turned on the moving staircase.[81] On July 14, 2010, two workers were killed and eight were injured at the construction site of Line 15's Shunyi Station when the steel support structure collapsed on them.[82] On June 1, 2011, one worker was killed when a section of Line 6 under construction in Xicheng District near Pinganli collapsed.[83] A collapse of an escalator at the Beijing Zoo station on July 5, 2011, cause the death of one 13 year old boy and injuries to 28 others.[84]

The logo of the Beijing Subway contains the abbreviation B.G.D.

The Beijing Subway's symbol, a blue capital letter "G" encircling a blue capital letter "D" with the letter "B" silhouetted inside the letter D, was designed by Zhang Lide, a subway employee, and officially designated in April 1984.[85] The letters B, G, and D form the abbreviation for Běijīng gāosù diànchē or "Beijing high-speed electric carriage".

See also

References

Notes

Diagram showing distinct line labels for the Daxing Line and Line 4 with continuous train service

a. ^ The Beijing MTR Corp. operates through-train service on Lines 4 and Daxing, making the two lines effectively one line for travelers. See "北京京港地铁有限公司". Mtr.bj.cn. 2010-12-29. Retrieved 2011-01-05. (Chinese) & "Beijing MTR Corporation Limited". Mtr.bj.cn. 2010-09-27. Retrieved 2011-01-05. (English). With the opening of the Daxing Line on December 30, 2010, the Beijing MTR Corp. now runs two types of train service on the combined Line 4-Daxing Line route:

  • A full-route loop that covers the entire Line 4 and Daxing Lines. This train service runs from Anheqiao North, the northern terminus of Line 4, to Tiangongyuan, the southern terminus of the Daxing Line.
  • A partial-route loop that covers the entire Line 4 route plus one stop on the Daxing Line. This service runs from Anheqiao North to Xingong, the northernmost stop on the newly opened Daxing Line. Travelers wishing to proceed further south on the Daxing Line would have to switch to a south-bound full-route service train.

b. ^ The Fangshan Line will not be connected to the rest of the system until 2012. During this time, passengers can exit at a special gate at Dabaotai Station and board the interim 1 bus to Xingong Station on the Daxing Line and enter the system again for only ¥2 and vice versa. However, the bus ride itself needs ¥0.4 using normal Yikatong.

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b "北京地铁日客运量破750万人次 年内第6次创新高". SINA Corporation. 2011-09-11. Retrieved 2011-09-11.
  2. ^ "北京公交出行再增两个百分点". Qianlong. 2012-01-12. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
  3. ^ The station count is 218 if stations linked with transfers are counted separately, but 190 if stations linked by transfers are counted as a single station
  4. ^ (Chinese)"北京地铁五环内站点将加密" 新京报 2011-01-18
  5. ^ (Chinese) "2015年轨道交通长度达708公里 4条“增强版”地铁线2012年开建" 《北京日报》 2012-01-13
  6. ^ "北京2020年轨道交通线路预计将达1000公里左右" www.chinanews.com.cn 2010.12.30
  7. ^ (Chinese) Sun, Xiaosheng "北京市已规划地铁和高速路2009年将全部开工" Xinhua Jan. 5, 2009
  8. ^ "Beijing airport express rail on trial run," China Daily July 15, 2008
  9. ^ "New AFC system to manage subway tickets in Beijing starting June 9," Official Website of the Beijing Olympics June 6, 2008
  10. ^ "Beijing MTR website". Mtr.bj.cn. Retrieved 2011-01-05.
  11. ^ "Paper tickets fade out of Beijing subway" Xinhua June 9, 2008
  12. ^ The subway operated throughout the night from Aug. 8-9, 2008 to accommodate the Opening Ceremonies of the Olympic Games, and is extending evening operations of all lines by one to three hours (to 1-2 a.m.) through the duration of the Games. Bsjsubway.com
  13. ^ See "History" section of this article.
  14. ^ There is no subway stop at the 12th gate, Deshengmen, between Jishuitan and Gulou Dajie.
  15. ^ (Chinese) 本市规划建设6条市郊铁路 满足郊区市民出行 千龙网 July 22, 2008
  16. ^ (Chinese) 本市首条市郊铁路8月初通车 记者体验“动车”S2线 千龙网 July 22, 2008
  17. ^ "北京北站至延庆S2线时刻初步确定 首车6:08发出". News.sohu.com. Retrieved 2011-01-05.
  18. ^ a b c d e Xinhuanet.com "北京地铁诞生记:周总理称筹建地铁是为备战" Part 1,北京日报] September 28, 2007
  19. ^ News.xinhuanet.com Id. Part 2
  20. ^ (Chinese)"地铁公司1965 -- 1970年" 地铁大事记 1
  21. ^ The ceremony was not publicized at the time because the project was classified for its national security implications.
  22. ^ 北京地铁诞生记:周总理称筹建地铁是为备战 北京日报 (Part 3) Sept. 28, 2008
  23. ^ The initial line, originally slated for completion by 1968, was delayed by the onset of the Cultural Revolution. The original director of the project, General Yang Yong and much of the city government were purged in 1967. "杨勇小传(5)" in 毛泽东瞩目的著名将帅(二) (2003)
  24. ^ Id. 4
  25. ^ Id. 6-8
  26. ^ (Chinese)"地铁公司1971 -- 1980年" 地铁大事记 1
  27. ^ From August 12, 1973 to June 30, 1974 and in January 1975, the subway was closed due to defense mobilization. Id. 17, 23-24. It was closed from September 13 to November 6, 1971 in the aftermath of the Lin Biao Incident and on September 18, 1976 after the death of Chairman Mao.
  28. ^ (Chinese)"地铁公司1981 -- 1990年" 地铁大事记 2
  29. ^ a b c (Chinese) "地铁公司1991 -- 2000年" P1:1991-1993 2009-04-24
  30. ^ a b (Chinese) "地铁公司1991 -- 2000年" 北京市地铁公司 P2: 1994-1997 2009-04-24
  31. ^ a b (Chinese) "地铁公司1991 -- 2000年" 北京市地铁公司 P3:1998-2000 2009-04-24
  32. ^ (Chinese) "地铁公司1991 – 2000年" 地铁大事记 118
  33. ^ (Chinese) "北京地铁四号、十号线年底开工 征地拆迁已启动" Nov. 14, 2003
  34. ^ "H.K. subway operator seeks Beijing projects". International Herald Tribune. 2009-03-29. Retrieved 2011-01-05.
  35. ^ a b 到2015年北京地铁建设静态投资将达2000亿元 第一财经日报 Oct. 29, 2008
  36. ^ "地铁公司2001 – 2004年" 地铁大事记[dead link]
  37. ^ Id.
  38. ^ (Chinese) "地铁公司1991 – 2000年" 地铁大事记 103 & 122
  39. ^ 2007年北京地铁运送乘客6.55亿人次 中广网 Jan. 2, 2008
  40. ^ "Beijing opens three new subways ahead of Olympics" China Daily July 19, 2008
  41. ^ Beijing subway system busy during Olympics Xinhua Aug. 27, 2008
  42. ^ (Chinese) "北京地铁2008年运送乘客突破12亿人次" Beijing Subway Official Website . Retrieved January 3, 2009.
  43. ^ (Chinese) Zhang, Nan and Meng Huan, "西郊线通往香山两年内有望开通" 北京晚报 Dec. 11, 2008
  44. ^ Line 4 was originally scheduled to be completed by the end of 2007 see (Chinese) Gzuda.gov.cn "北京地铁4号和10号线获审批2007年底投入运营" September 4, 2004; & Bh.buaa.edu.cn; 北京地铁4号线特许经营案例 Xinhuanet.com "北京地铁4号线今日开通 站内设施服务全接触"
  45. ^ Including 1.372 billion passengers of eight lines operated by Beijing Subway Operating Company, and 52.60 million passengers of Line 4 operated by Beijing MTR Corporation (Chinese)"北京地铁公司为轨道交通大发展做好充分准备". Retrieved Jan. 1, 2010. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help); "北京地铁4号线元旦期间运送乘客超过180万人次" Jan. 1, 2010
  46. ^ (Chinese) "谁的地铁,谁做主?" 财经文摘 Mar. 23, 2010
  47. ^ 5 new lines take metro to the edge China Daily
  48. ^ Xu Wei, "Beijing launches three new subway sections" China Daily 2012-01-01
  49. ^ a b Beijing's Incredible Subway Expansion Timetable Jan. 27, 2011
  50. ^ (Chinese)Roll.sohu.com "北京10条地铁五年内开建 远郊进市区1小时(图)" Xinhua 2010.12.31
  51. ^ (Chinese) "北京地铁15号线有望年内开工" 北京商报 Oct. 9, 2008
  52. ^ (Chinese) "北京地铁西郊线确定设五站" 新京报 Jan. 15, 2009
  53. ^ (Chinese) "北京地铁M11线2020年启动建设 将纵贯首钢整个厂区" Jan. 13, 2010
  54. ^ (Chinese) Roll.sohu.com "CBD核心区地铁17号线地下步道规模空前" 中证网 2011-01-17
  55. ^ (Chinese) "北京轨道交通有望添6条新线 12号线缓三环拥堵" 京华时报 2012-02-14
  56. ^ a b "Linear Motor Commuter for Beijing" CNR website Accessed Mar. 27, 2010
  57. ^ The M-series train that appeared on Lines 2 and 13 were made by Japan's Tokyu Car Corporation "东急" Accessed Mar. 28, 2010
  58. ^ (Chinese) 吉林日报 July 31, 2009
  59. ^ (Chinese) Ccmetro.com 中国南车中标北京地铁大兴线、八号线 July 30, 2009
  60. ^ (Chinese)Sd.xinhuanet.com 北京地铁再添"青岛造" 最高运营时速100公里 December 31, 2009
  61. ^ (Chinese) 申通地铁集团董事长学习北京地铁应对客流之法 新民晚报 Mar. 9, 2010
  62. ^ (Chinese) 三条新线将开 北京地铁奥运最高日客流将达587万 Xinhuanet July 17, 2008
  63. ^ (Chinese) 13号线加挂两节车厢 Beijing Youth Daily July 21, 2008
  64. ^ (Chinese) 北京地铁2号线全部更换空调车 新京报 Aug. 8, 2008
  65. ^ (Chinese) 北京地铁重点车站为应对大客流早晚高峰将限流" 新京报 Nov. 11, 2007
  66. ^ (Chinese) "北京25个地铁站高峰常态限流" 京华时报 2011-08-31
  67. ^ (Chinese video) "北京八通线公布早高峰拥挤度与限流挂钩" 中国新闻网 2011-09-05
  68. ^ (Chinese) "4条地铁线将装屏蔽门" 法制晚报 Jan. 20, 2010
  69. ^ "Mobile network to be accessible in Beijing subway". Chinadaily.com.cn. Retrieved 2011-01-05.
  70. ^ Beijing promises integrated subway service for disabled xinhua Aug. 27, 2008
  71. ^ All stations on Line 5 have elevators. Some of the older stations on Lines 1 and 2 have escalators that descend from the station entrances to the ticket counters one level below ground level but do not extend to the platform two levels below. In the summer of 2008, mechanical wheelchair lifts were installed next to staircases in these stations. "北京地铁安装轮椅升降平台(组图)",Xinhua June 20, 2008.
  72. ^ "New Beijing Subway Line 5 is passenger-friendly", Beijing2008 Sept. 30, 2007
  73. ^ CityWeekend: The Official Beijingology Subway AFC Cheat Sheet (Part 3)/
  74. ^ The AFC machines are supplied by the following companies: Thales (Lines 1 & 2), Samsung SDS (Lines 4, 8 and 10, Founder, OMRON (Line 5), Nippon Signal (Lines 13 & Airport Express)
  75. ^ "Beijing starts passenger security checks in all subway stations",Chinaview.com.cn June 29, 2008
  76. ^ (Chinese) "元旦期间地铁客流将达840万 恢复“逢包必检" 千龙网 Dec. 31, 2008
  77. ^ (Chinese) "北京:拒不接受地铁安全检查将被处理" 《京华时报》 Mar. 18, 2009
  78. ^ Backgrounder: Major metro accidents in China
  79. ^ For example, 北京地铁一号线一男子跳轨事故最新情况 2009-07-17
  80. ^ (Chinese)"北京地铁五号线“10•8”事故"
  81. ^ (Chinese) "北京地铁实习生误操作 一维修工电梯内被挤死" 法制晚报 2009-06-21
  82. ^ "Two killed in Beijing subway construction site accident" Xinhua 2010-07-14
  83. ^ (Chinese) "北京地铁6号线工地发生塌方 一工人被埋身亡" 2011-06-01
  84. ^ "Xinhuan News - One dead, 28 injured in Beijing subway escalator accident" 2011-07-05
  85. ^ (Chinese) "中国地铁标志花样迭出 地铁建设如火如荼" 中国建筑新闻网 2012-06-04

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