Zhangjiang Tram is the only tram line operating in Shanghai today, utilizing a system manufactured by the French Translohr company. It is a rubber-tired tram system, second both in China and Asia.[clarification needed]
Shanghai originally had a steel wheeled electric tramway network. Routes expanded gradually, and it reached its largest extent in 1925 with 328 tramcars; this tram system shut down in 1975. Tram service returned to Shanghai in 2009, with commercial service resuming in 2010. Unlike the standard tramway, it chose a modern rubber-tired system.
Zhangjiang Tram started construction on December 23, 2007. Construction was originally planned to be completed on December 2008, but this was delayed a year, until December 31, 2009 when it was opened to traffic. Passenger operations started on January 1, 2010. Zhangjiang Tram runs from Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park Station of the Shanghai Metro Line 2 to Heqing Town. Now the 10 km (6.2 mi)-long 1st phase, which runs from Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park Station to Jinqiu Road is in service, and has 15 stops, two of which are interchanges to Shanghai Metro Line 2 (Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, the current terminal of the line and Jinke Road station). The next phase of the project is the Zhangjiang tram division multiple-phase construction, a project in the east Greenfield Road, from Zu Chong Zhi Road (Shanghai Metro Line 2 Zhangjiang Hi-tech station), west to Osmanthus Road Autumn Road, which covers a distance of about 10 km, with a total of 15 stops, 1 depot. It will be followed by an extension in the direction of Tang Zhen-Qing.
The tram network's closure in the 1970s was perceived at the time as the removal of an obstruction to smooth and swift traffic; this proved not to be the case. Uncontrolled increase of the number of petrol vehicles, exacerbated by increasing population, increased air and noise pollution, traffic jams and smog and slowed traffic beyond what it had been when the trams were running. Observing the improved traffic patterns and reduced pollution brought about by tram lines in cities around the world like Tunis, Melbourne, Buenos Aires, Pyongyang and within China, in Tianjin, Shanghai planned to reinstate its tram lines as well. Unfortunately, the increase in cars & buses in downtown Shanghai made running tram lines in that area impossible, and so the city began constructing lines in the Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, on the eastern side of the main city. Shanghai's transport authority at last decided to open a separate, modern, high speed, rubber tired tram.
The line is operated by Pudong, Shanghai Modern Rail Transportation Co., Ltd.. The tram lines started running in Shanghai in 2010.
The new system was built in Zhangjiang Town, because it is a planned area, and commuting between neighborhoods of the town has always been difficult. The Translohr tram way is constructed in Zhangjiang Town which is in the heartland area of Pudong (east shore of Huangpu River) New District. Due to Economic-Technological Development Area ordinances, sound pollution must be kept to a minimum in this area. Traditional steel wheeled trams generate lots of vibration and sound during their journey. Rubber tires on the trams reduce vibration, and as a result noise, substantially. Additionally, the Zhangjiang Town roads are very hilly, and rubber tired trams can climb steeper grades than traditional trams easily. Another advantage is that rubber tired trams don't require tracks, as steel wheeled cars do, so there is less disturbance of underground networks like power cables, phone lines, and sewer/water mains.
- 1975 – The last standard tram ran.
- 2007 – Construction of rubber tired tram started.
- 2009 – Test runs occurred.
- 2010 – Commercial services opened.
- Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park Station (张江地铁站)
- Bibo Road Gaoke Road Station (碧波路高科路站)
- Huatuo Road Daerwen Road Station (华佗路达尔文路站)
- Huatuo Road Keyuan Road Station (华佗路科苑路站)
- Cailun Road Jinke Road Station (蔡伦路金科路站)
- Cailun Road Halei Road Station (蔡伦路哈雷路站)
- Gebaini Road Libing Road Station (哥白尼路李冰路站)
- Ziwei Road Gaosi Road Station (紫薇路高斯路站)
- Gaosi Road Zhangjiang Road Station (高斯路张江路站)
- Zhangjiang Middle School Station (张江中学站)
- Guanglan Road Zuchongzhi Road Station (广兰路祖冲之路站)
- Guanglan Road Dangui Road Station (广兰路丹桂路站)
- Dangui Road Qingtong Road Station (丹桂路青桐路站)
- Dangui Road Zhangdong Road Station (丹桂路张东路站)
- Zhangdong Road Jinqiu Road Station (张东路金秋路站)
- Total length – 10 km.
- Opened – January 1, 2010.
- Operating hours – 5:45 am to 11 pm.
- Frequency – 3 minutes (15 minutes after end of 2015).
Most Zhangjiang tram lines run along the centre of the roads, while some stations are situated at intersections and have side platforms, while the two terminals have a central platform. Zhangjiang streetcar doors are on a "need to open" mode. If a passenger requests a stop, a green light is illuminated and the doors open at the next stop. If no stop is requested, the doors remain closed.
Depots and termini
The modern tram routes completely run on unreserved tracks and in the middle of the road. Because of the rubber tires, it is not possible to lay track in grass, as the trams can only run on concrete roads. All stops have island platforms.
There is a single fare of 2 Yuan.