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|District of Bihar|
Location of Gaya district in Bihar
|• Lok Sabha constituencies||Gaya|
|• Total||4,976 km2 (1,921 sq mi)|
|• Density||880/km2 (2,300/sq mi)|
|• Literacy||66.35 per cent|
|• Sex ratio||932|
|Major highways||NH 2, NH 82, NH 83|
Gaya is one of the thirty-eight districts of Bihar state, India. It was officially established on 3 October 1865. The district has a common boundary with the state of Jharkhand to the south. Gaya city is both the district headquarters and the second-largest city in Bihar.
Gaya finds mention in the great epics, Ramayana and Mahabharata. Rama along with Sita and Lakshmana visited Gaya for offering PIND-DAAN to their father Dasharath. In Mahabharata, the place has been identified as Gayapuri. About the origin of the name ‘Gaya' as referred to in Vayu Purana is that Gaya was the name of a demon (Asura) whose body was pious after he performed rigid penance and secured blessings from Vishnu. It was said that the Gayasura's body would continue to be known as Gaya Kshetra.
Gaya has experienced the rise and fall of many dynasties in the Magadh Region. From the 6th century BC to the 18th century AD, about 2300–2400 years, Gaya has been occupying an important place in the cultural history of the region. It opened up with the Sisunaga dynasty founded by Sisunaga, who exercised power over Patna and Gaya around 600 BC. Bimbisara, fifth in line, who lived and ruled around 519 BC, had projected Gaya to the outer world. Having attained an important place in the history of civilisation, the area experienced the bliss of Gautam Buddha and Bhagwan Mahavir during the reign of Bimbisara. After a short spell of Nanda dynasty, Gaya and the entire Magadha region came under the Mauryan rule with Ashoka (272 BC – 232 BC) embracing Buddhism. He visited Gaya and built the first temple at Bodh Gaya to commemorate Prince Gautama's attainment of supreme enlightenment.
The period of Hindu revivalism commenced with the coming of the Guptas during the 4th and 5th century A.D. Samudragupta of Magadh helped to bring Gaya in limelight. It was the headquarters of Behar district during the Gupta empire.
Gaya was in the 12th century invaded by Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji. But the Hindu rulers defeated his generals later. The place finally passed on to the Britishers after the battle of Buxar in 1764. Gaya, along with other parts of the country, won freedom in 1947.
Gaya formed a part of the district of Behar and Ramgarh till 1864. It was given the status of independent district in 1865. Subsequently, in May 1981, Magadh Division was created by the Bihar State Government with the districts of Gaya, Nawada, Aurangabad and Jehanabad. All these districts were at the level of sub-division when the Gaya district was created in 1865.
Area:Total 4,976 km2 Rural: 4891.48 Urban: 84.52
Temperature: minimum 0.8 (2002 AD) degree C - maximum 49.8 (1996) degree C
In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Gaya one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the 36 districts in Bihar currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
Gaya District comprises 4 Sub-divisions:
Blocks:Gaya Sadar, Manpur, Bodh Gaya, Wazirganj, Belaganj; Khizarsarai, Atri, Nimchakbathani, Muhra; Sherghati, Amas, Mohanpur, Fatehpur, Barachatti, Imamganj, Dumaria, Bankey Bazar, Dobhi, Tankuppa, Gurua, Guraru, Paraiya, Tekari, Konch,
Flora and fauna
According to the 2011 census Gaya district has a population of 4,379,383, roughly equal to the nation of Moldova or the US state of Kentucky. This gives it a ranking of 42nd in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 880 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,300/sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 26.08%. Gaya has a sex ratio of 932 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 66.35%.
There are a number of schools in Gaya District, most of them are very popular and provide better education as compared with other cities, names are as follows, Zila School, Gaya, Mahavir School, Town School, T Model School, Gaya High School, Hadi Hashmi High School, Qasmi High School, Agrawal high school, Belaganj are some of the schools being run under the Bihar School Examination Board in Gaya for quite long time. Other prominent schools under the CBSE/ICSE are: Kendriya Vidyalaya, Creane Memorial School, Nazareth Academy, Gyan Bharti, DAV Rotary Campus, Subhash International School and DAV Cannt Area. Many new schools have come up in recent time and these are: St. Ann's School, Jai Hind Public School, Allied International School, Shatabdi Public School, Spring Dales, Green field and, High School (Kormathu), High School (Paibigha). +2 High School (Paraiya), +2 Ashok High School (Paraiya), High School Bala Bigha, M. S. Bala Bigha, Elegant Public School, Gautam Buddha Mahila College.
The Central University of Bihar, Gaya is one of the two central universities that is being established by the Union Government at Gaya besides the one at Motihari. The CUSB, Gaya campus, is coming up at near Dariyapur, Panchanpur, 16 km from Gaya town and 110 km from Patna. In addition to existing 13 Master Programmes at the temporary campus at BIT, Patna, In (2013–14) the University launched Five Year Integrated B.A, LL.B (Hon's.) and B.Sc, LL.B(Hon's.) Under graduate and Four Year Integrated Dual Degree B.A. B.Ed. and B.Sc. B.Ed. Programmes besides 4 Master Programmes. The establishment of A. M. B. Ed. College, the first ever B. Ed. unit in a constituent college of Magadh University, is yet another  illustrious milestone in the annals of academic history of the region. Central University of South Bihar(CUSB) has been ranked as No. 1 university in Bihar and attained a place under 100 in the National Ranking without having its campus in Gaya. In the upcoming years the surroundings of Gaya and this university campus is going to be an education hub. CUSB adds a greater hope to the existing status of Higher Education in Bihar.
- Law, Gwillim (2011-09-25). "Districts of India". Statoids. Retrieved 2011-10-11.
- "83 districts under the Security Related Expenditure Scheme". IntelliBriefs. 2009-12-11. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
- Srivastava, Dayawanti et al. (ed.) (2010). "States and Union Territories: Bihar: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. pp. 1118–1119. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7.
- "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 1998-02-18. Retrieved 2011-10-11.
- Ministry of Panchayati Raj (September 8, 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (PDF). National Institute of Rural Development. Retrieved September 27, 2011.
- Indian Ministry of Forests and Environment. "Protected areas: Bihar". Archived from the original on August 23, 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2011.
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01.
Moldova 4,314,377 July 2011 est.
- "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
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