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Gaya district

Coordinates: 24°45′N 85°00′E / 24.750°N 85.000°E / 24.750; 85.000
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Gaya district
Great Buddha Statue in Bodh Gaya
Location of Gaya district in Bihar
Location of Gaya district in Bihar
Country India
 • MP/Saansad.Shri. Jitan Ram Manjhi.(HAM)
 • Lok Sabha constituenciesGaya
 • MLA/Vidhayak(Gaya Town)(Shri)Dr. Prem Kumar (BJP)
 • Total4,976 km2 (1,921 sq mi)
 • Rank2nd in Bihar
 • Total4,359,700 (as per 2,011 census)
 • Literacy63.67per cent
 • Sex ratio932
Time zoneUTC+05:30 (IST)
PIN Code
Major highwaysNH 2, NH 82, NH 83

Gaya district is one of the thirty-eight districts of the Indian state of Bihar. It was officially established on 3 October 1865. The district has a common boundary with the state of Jharkhand to the south. Gaya city is both the district headquarters and the second-largest city in Bihar.


Gaya finds mention in the Hindu epics Ramayana and Mahabharata. Rama, along with Sita and Lakshmana, are stated to have visited Gaya for offering pinda-dana to their father Dasharatha. In the Mahabharata, the place has been identified as Gayapuri. In the Vayu Purana, it is stated that Gaya was the name of a demon (asura) whose body became pious after he performed rigid penance and secured blessings from Vishnu. It was said that the Gayasura's body would continue to be known as Gaya Kshetra.

Gaya has experienced the rise and fall of many dynasties in the Magadha Region. From the 6th century BC to the 18th century AD, about 2300–2400 years, Gaya has been occupying an important place in the cultural history of the region. It opened up with the Shaishunaga dynasty founded by Shishunaga, who exercised power over Patna and Gaya around 600 BC. Bimbisara, fifth in line, who lived and ruled around 519 BC, had projected Gaya to the outer world. The region was influenced by Gautama Buddha and Mahavira during the reign of Bimbisara. After a short spell of Nanda dynasty, Gaya and the entire Magadha region came under the Mauryan rule with Ashoka (272 BC – 232 BC) embracing Buddhism. He visited Gaya and built the first temple at Bodh Gaya to commemorate Prince Gautama's attainment of supreme enlightenment.

The period of Hindu revivalism commenced with the coming of the Guptas during the 4th and 5th century A.D. Samudragupta of Magadha helped to bring Gaya in limelight. It was the headquarters of the Behar district during the Gupta empire.

Gaya then passed on to the Pala Empire with Gopala as the ruler. It is believed that the present temple of Bodh Gaya was built during the reign of Dharmapala, son of Gopala.

Gaya was in the 12th century invaded by Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji. The place finally passed on to the British after the battle of Buxar in 1764. Gaya district, along with other parts of the country, won freedom in 1947. Gaya is also the birthplace of eminent [1] nationalist and the first Deputy Chief Minister of Bihar Dr. Anugrah Narain Sinha.

Gaya formed a part of the district of Behar and Ramgarh till 1864. It was given the status of independent district in 1865.[2] Subsequently, in May 1981, Magadh Division was created by the Bihar State Government with the districts of Gaya, Nawada, Aurangabad and Jehanabad. All these districts were at the level of sub-division when the Gaya district was created in 1865.

Gaya has seen three districts partitioned off from its territory: Aurangabad and Nawada in 1976,[3] and Jehanabad in 1988.[3]

It is currently a part of the Red Corridor.[4]


Gaya district occupies an area of 4,976 square kilometres (1,921 sq mi),[5] comparatively equivalent to the island of Trinidad.[6]

Headquarters: Gaya
Area:Total 4,976 km2 Rural: 4891.48 Urban: 84.52
Temperature: minimum 0.8 (2002 AD) degree C – maximum 49.8 (1996) degree C
Rivers: Falgu


District No. Constituency Name Party Alliance Remarks
Gaya 225 Gurua Vinay Yadav RJD MGB
226 Sherghati Manju Agrawal RJD MGB
227 Imamganj Jitan Ram Manjhi HAM(S) NDA
228 Barachatti Jyoti Devi HAM(S) NDA
229 Bodh Gaya Kumar Sarvjeet RJD MGB
230 Gaya Town Prem Kumar BJP NDA
231 Tikari Anil Kumar HAM(S) NDA
232 Belaganj Surendra Prasad Yadav RJD MGB
233 Atri Ajay Kumar Yadav RJD MGB
234 Wazirganj Birendra Singh BJP NDA


In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Gaya one of the country's 250 poorest districts (out of a total of 640).[7] It is one of the 36 districts in Bihar currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).[7]



Gaya District comprises 4 Sub-divisions and 24 Blocks:[8]

Sub-divisions Blocks
Gaya Sadar Sadar Gaya
Bodh Gaya
Tekari Konch
Neemchak Bhatani Khizarsarai
Sherghati Gurua
Banke Bazar

Flora and fauna[edit]

In 1976 Gaya district became home to the Gautam Budha Wildlife Sanctuary, which has an area of 260 km2 (100.4 sq mi).[9]


Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
Religions in Gaya district (2011)[11]
Religion Percent
Other or not stated

According to the 2011 census Gaya district has a population of 4,391,418,[12] roughly equal to the nation of Moldova[13] or the US state of Kentucky.[14] This gives it a ranking of 42nd in India (out of a total of 640).[12] The district has a population density of 880 inhabitants per square kilometre (2,300/sq mi) .[12] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 26.08%.[12] Gaya has a sex ratio of 932 females for every 1,000 males,[12] and a literacy rate of 66.35%. 13.24% of the population lives in urban areas. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes make up 30.39% and 0.07% of the population respectively.[12]

Languages in Gaya district (2011)[15]

  Hindi (51.36%)
  Magahi (41.37%)
  Urdu (7.04%)
  Others (0.23%)

At the time of the 2011 Census of India, 51.36% of the population in the district spoke Hindi, 41.37% Magahi and 7.04% Urdu as their first language.[15]


Schools in Gaya are either government run schools or private schools. Schools mainly use Hindi or English as the medium of instruction. The schools are affiliated with the Bihar School Examination Board, the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) or the National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS).[16] Under the 10+2+3/4 plan, after completing their secondary education, students typically enroll in a school with a higher secondary facility affiliated with the BSEB, the NIOS or the CBSE. Students usually choose from one of three streams — liberal arts, commerce, or science, though vocational streams are also available. Upon completing the required coursework, students may enroll in general or professional degree programmed.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "GAYA Tourist Guide| Tourist places near Gaya, Travel Guide". Archived from the original on 2017-12-01. Retrieved 2017-11-26.
  2. ^ "Gaya celebrates 154th establishment day". The Times of India.
  3. ^ a b Law, Gwillim (2011-09-25). "Districts of India". Statoids. Archived from the original on 2011-10-17. Retrieved 2011-10-11.
  4. ^ "83 districts under the Security Related Expenditure Scheme". IntelliBriefs. 2009-12-11. Archived from the original on 2011-10-27. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
  5. ^ Srivastava, Dayawanti et al. (ed.) (2010). "States and Union Territories: Bihar: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. pp. 1118–1119. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7. {{cite book}}: |last1= has generic name (help)
  6. ^ "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 1998-02-18. Archived from the original on 2015-12-01. Retrieved 2011-10-11. Trinidad 5,009km2
  7. ^ a b Ministry of Panchayati Raj (September 8, 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme" (PDF). National Institute of Rural Development. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 5, 2012. Retrieved September 27, 2011. Gaya has the major industry activity in southern South Bihar
  8. ^ "Subdivision and Blocks | Gaya | India". Retrieved 2024-01-07.
  9. ^ Indian Ministry of Forests and Environment. "Protected areas: Bihar". Archived from the original on August 23, 2011. Retrieved September 25, 2011.
  10. ^ "Table A-02 Decadal Variation in Population Since 1901: Bihar" (PDF). census.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
  11. ^ "Table C-01 Population by Religion: Bihar". censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  12. ^ a b c d e f "District Census Handbook: Gaya" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  13. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-01. Moldova 4,314,377 July 2011 est.
  14. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved 2011-09-30. Kentucky 4,339,367
  15. ^ a b "Table C-16 Population by Mother Tongue: Bihar". censusindia.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. 2011.
  16. ^ "Bihar: Failed in Board exam, now students queue up at NIOS". 2016-06-14. Archived from the original on 2017-11-04. Retrieved 2017-12-29.

External links[edit]

24°45′N 85°00′E / 24.750°N 85.000°E / 24.750; 85.000