East Champaran district
East Champaran district
Location of East Champaran district in Bihar
|• Lok Sabha constituencies||Purvi Champaran, Paschim Champaran, Sheohar|
|• Assembly seats||Raxaul, Sugauli, Narkatiya, Harsidhi, Govindganj, Kesaria, Kalyanpur, Pipra, Madhuban, Motihari, Chiraia, Dhaka|
|• Total||3,968 km2 (1,532 sq mi)|
|• Density||1,300/km2 (3,300/sq mi)|
|• Literacy||58.26 per cent|
|• Sex ratio||901|
|Major highways||NH 28A, NH 104|
|Average annual precipitation||1241 mm|
East Champaran District is functioning from 2 November 1972. The headquarter of district is at Motihari. It is situated at 26o 16' to 27o 1' North latitude and 84o 30' to 85o 16' East longitudes. Nepal makes its northern boundary, Sitamadhi and Sheohar eastern while Muzaffarpur South and with part of Gopalganj bounds it in western side. The name Champaran owes its origin to Champa-aranya or Champkatanys. Champa or Champaka means Magnolia and aranya means forest. Hence, Champaranya means Forest of Magnolia (CHAMPA) trees. The District comprises an area of 3968.0 sq km with 1344 villages having population of 50,82,868 as per 2011 census. The Administrative set up of the District is decentralized into 6 sub-division, 27 blocks, 27 Circles, 3 Nagar Parishads (Motihari,Raxaul and Dhaka), 6 Nagar Panchayats and 405 Panchayats. The Buddhist Stupta, Kesaria, Ashokan Pillar, Lauriya, Areraj, Gandhi Memorial, Someshwar Shiv Mandir, Areraj, Orwell's birthplace, Raxaul-Gate way to Nepal.
The Buddha Stupa of Mothihari Motihari is reported to be the tallest and the largest Buddhist Stupa in the world, following its discovery in 1998 through excavation by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). Rising to a height of 104 feet, and much reduced than its reported original height, it is still one foot taller than the famous Borobodur Stupa in Java. The Stupa is located near the town of Kasaria, 120km from Patna, capital of Bihar. According to the National Informatics Centre of East Champaran (Motihari) publication, the Kesaria Stupa was 123 feet tall before the 1934 earthquake in Bihar. Originally the Kesaria Stupa was reported to have been 150 feet tall, 12 feet taller than the Borobodur stupa, which is 138 feet, according to the A.S.I. report. At present Kesaria Stupa is 104 feet and Borobodur Stupa is 103 feet. The height of ‘Sanchi Stupa ‘ a world heritage site is only 77.50 feet. Legend states that Buddha, on his last Journey, is reported to have spent a memorable night at Kesaria, where he reportedly made some historical revelations, which were later recorded in a Buddhist Jataka Story, in which it was written that in his previous births he ruled as a Chakravartin. According to the story, the Buddha also asked Licchivis to return to Vaishali after giving them "Begging Bowl", and it was believed that the Stupa in Kesaria known to the people as "Raja Ben ka deora" was built by Licchivis of Vaishali before the Buddha attained Nirvana. The Chinese pilgrim, Hieun Tshang. reportedly had visited this Stupa site in the seventh century. (Based on historical facts contributed by Sri Chandra Bhusahan Pandey of National Informatics Centre: East Champararan, Motihari.)
Mahatma Gandhi and Motihari
Motihari was the place where Mahatma Gandhi started his 'Satyagrah' (Quest/Search for Truth). According to the All India Congress Committee , the farmers of Champaran were forced to sow a Opium and/or Indigo on a certain portion of their farm plots. They then had to sell the same at a fixed price to the English Traders/Planters. This would cause losses and subsequent hardships to farmers. Furthermore, these crops would render the soil infertile further increasing the woe's of
Raj Kumar Shukla, a farmer in the region invited Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (who had only recently returned from South Africa) to come help them in their plight. Thus, Mahatma Gandhi decided to come to Motihari. On 10 April 1917,the AICC report states that "a large crowd of people of Champaran witnessed the greatest architect of Indian Freedom Struggle in Motihari." The British fearing unrest ordered him to leave the district. His refusal to do the same, let to his arrest. He was offered bail on the condition that he would leave the district. Gandhi reportedly refused to leave the district or put up bail. In his statement to the Court Gandhi reportedly said, "As a law-abiding citizen my first instinct would be, as it was, to obey the order served upon me. But I could not do so without doing violence to my sense of duty to those for whom I came. I feel that I could just now serve them by remaining in their midst. I could not therefore voluntarily retire. Amidst this conflict of duty I could only throw the responsibility of removing me from on the administration". Subsequently, sensing mass disapproval of his arrest he was released.
The AICC report further states that that it was in Champaran that the theory and practice of Satyagrah came to be associated for the first time with the fight for freedom. "Mahatmaji went about from village to village in Champaran preaching love and inspiring faith and confidence among the people. Here he felt that his efforts for the uplift of the masses could not have enduring results unless an urge was created within them. For this, it was necessary to educate them. On the 13th of November, 1917 Mahatma Gandhi opened his first school at Barharwa Lakhansen, a village at a distance of about 20 miles to the east of Motihari. Another school was opened by Gandhiji on the 20th of November in a village called Bhitiharwa. A third school was opened on the 17th of January, 1918 at Madhuban, which had among its teachers, Mahadeva Desai."
This was the first such experiment on a large scale undertaken in India. The Motihari refusal to obey the Magistrate’s order was a case of individual civil disobedience, though limited to small district. The struggle went on for a few months. All pressure was brought by giving agriculturists notices of forfeiture of lands, but thanks to the presence of Gandhiji and his constant movement in the district from place to place, the people were not only non-violent, but were also very firm and prepared for any amount of sacrifices for the common cause. The AICC report further states, "It is worth mentioning that the Satyagrah of Champaran was responsible for initiation in the service of the motherland of two volunteers Acharya Kripalani and Deshratna Dr. Rajendra Prasad. While Bihar’s indebtedness to Mahatma Gandhi is irretrievable not only for having succored her million from the tentacles of white planters but also for having breathed into her soul the new message." A museum and a stone pillar has been laid down in the memory of Mahatma Gandhi's presence in Motihari. It also contains Gandhiji's courageous statement given before the Magistrate inscribed on a stone. According to Sri Chandra Bhusahan Pandey, National Informatics Center: East Champaran, Motihari,
"The foundation stone of this Gandhi memorial pillar was laid on June 10, 1972 by the then Governor, Mr. D.K.Barooch, and it was dedicated to the nation by Mr. Vidyakar Kavi, a grandson, on 18 April 1978.... The 48 fect long Chunar stone pillar stands exactly on the place where Mahatma Gandhi was produced before the court of the then S.D.M., Motihari in violation of orders under section 144 Cr. P. C. as far back as April 18, 1917. Mahatma Gandhi first Satyagrah was experimented on this soil of Motihari in Champaran and so Champaran has been starting point of India’s independence movement launched by Gandhi ji." The district occupies an area of 3969 km2 and has a population of 3,933,636 (as of 2001[update]). East Champaran is a part of Tirhut Division  (Tirhut). It is currently a part of the Red Corridor.
East Champaran district occupies an area of 3,968 square kilometres (1,532 sq mi), comparatively equivalent to Vanuatu's Espiritu Santo. Gandak, Burhi Gandak and Baghmati are important rivers flowing through this region.
According to the 2011 census East Champaran district has a population of 5,082,868, roughly equal to the United Arab Emirates or the US state of Colorado. This gives it a ranking of 21st in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 1,281 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,320/sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 29.01%. Purbi Champaran has a sex ratio of 901 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 58.26%.
- Motihari Sadar
- Shikarahna (Dhaka)
Some Villages:-Sihorwa, Ranigunj, Chakia Paharpur, pipra kothi, Ujjain Lohiyar Manganuaa, Gayghat, Yadavpur etc. There are three Nagar Paris had towns in E.Champaran: Motihari,Raxaul and Dhaka. Chakia has emerged as a new town with second highest costly land after Raxaul.
- "Tirhut Division". tirhut-muzaffarpur.bih.nic.in. Retrieved 11 April 2018.
- "83 districts under the Security Related Expenditure Scheme". IntelliBriefs. 2009-12-11. Retrieved 2011-09-17.
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- Srivastava, Dayawanti et al. (ed.) (2010). "States and Union Territories: Bihar: Government". India 2010: A Reference Annual (54th ed.). New Delhi, India: Additional Director General, Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (India), Government of India. pp. 1118–1119. ISBN 978-81-230-1617-7.
- "Island Directory Tables: Islands by Land Area". United Nations Environment Program. 1998-02-18. Retrieved 2011-10-11.
Espiritu Santo 3,956km2
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01.
United Arab Emirates 5,148,664
- "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-10-19. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- M. Paul Lewis, ed. (2009). "Bhojpuri: A language of India". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- East Champaran district website
- one and only software development company of motihari
- Official Website of Tirhut Division
- http://tirhut-muzaffarpur.bih.nic.in Official Website of Tirhut Division