Voiced dental non-sibilant affricate
|Voiced dental non-sibilant affricate|
The voiced dental non-sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are 〈d͡ð〉, 〈d͜ð〉, 〈d̪͡ð〉 and 〈d̟͡ð〉.
Features of the voiced dental non-sibilant affricate:
- Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is dental, which means it is articulated with the tongue at either the upper or lower teeth, or both. (Most stops and liquids described as dental are actually denti-alveolar.)
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages (like Swiss German) it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|English||Dublin||they||[d̟͡ðeɪ̯]||'they'||Corresponds to [ð] in other dialects; may be [d̪] instead|
|New York||Corresponds to [ð] in other dialects, may also be pronounced [d] and [ð]|
- Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003), The Phonetics of English and Dutch, Fifth Revised Edition, ISBN 9004103406
- Labov, William (1966), The Social Stratification of English in New York City (2nd ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press