Voiced bilabial implosive

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Voiced bilabial implosive
ɓ
IPA number 160
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɓ
Unicode (hex) U+0253
X-SAMPA b_<
Kirshenbaum b`
Braille ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠃ (braille pattern dots-12)
Sound

A voiced bilabial implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɓ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is b_<.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced bilabial implosive:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a stop.
  • Its place of articulation is bilabial, which means it is articulated with both lips.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the centrallateral dichotomy does not apply.
  • The airstream mechanism is implosive (glottalic ingressive), which means it is produced by pulling air in by pumping the glottis downward. Since it is voiced, the glottis is not completely closed, but allows a pulmonic airstream to escape through it.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Ega[1] [ɓá] 'send away'
Fula[2] fulɓe [fulɓe] 'Fulbe person' (g.)
Goemai as [ɓas] 'to fetch'
Hausa ɓaɓewa [ɓaɓɛua] 'quarreling'
Jamaican[3] beat [ɓiːt] 'beat' Allophone of /b/ in the onset of prominent syllables
Kalabari[4] á [ɓá] 'kill'
Khmer បី [ɓəj] 'three'
Mono[5] ‘balœ [ɓálə́] 'at'
Seereer-Siin[6] [ɓood] 'to crawl' Contrasts phonemically with voiceless implosive
Sindhi ٻر [ɓaˑrʊ] 'child'
Tera[7] ɓala [ɓala] 'to talk' Contrasts phonemically with palatalized implosive, /ɓʲ/
Tukang Besi [aɓa] 'previous'
Vietnamese[8] bạn [ɓan̪˧ˀ˨ʔ] 'you' In free variation with [ʔb]. See Vietnamese phonology
Zulu ubaba [uˈɓaːɓa] 'my father'

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Connell, Bruce; Ahoua, Firmin; Gibbon, Dafydd (2002), "Ega", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 32 (1): 99–104, doi:10.1017/S002510030200018X 
  • Devonish, H; Harry, Otelamate G. (2004), "Jamaican phonology", in Kortman, B; Shneider E. W., A Handbook of Varieties of English, phonology 1, Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter, pp. 441–471 
  • Harry, Otelamate G. (2003), "Kalaḅarị-Ịjo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 113–120, doi:10.1017/S002510030300121X 
  • Keer, Edward (1999), Geminates, The OCP and The Nature of CON, Rutgers University 
  • Mc Laughlin, Fiona (2005), "Voiceless implosives in Seereer-Siin", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 201–214, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002215 
  • Olson, Kenneth (2004), "Mono", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 233–238, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001744 
  • Tench, Paul (2007), "Tera", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (1): 228–234, doi:10.1017/s0025100307002952 
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232