Voiceless labial–velar stop

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Voiceless labial–velar stop
k͡p
k͜p
IPA number 109 (101)
Encoding
Entity (decimal) k​͡​p
Unicode (hex) U+006B U+0361 U+0070
Sound

The voiceless labial–velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It is a [k] and [p] pronounced simultaneously. To make this sound, say Coe, but close your lips as if you were saying Poe; release your lips at the same time as, or a fraction of a second after, you pronounce the C of Coe. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is k͡p.

The voiceless labial–velar stop is found in Vietnamese and various languages in West and Central Africa. In Yoruba it is written with a simple p.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless labial–velar stop:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a stop.
  • Its place of articulation is labial–velar, which means it is simultaneously articulated with the lips and with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the velum). The dorsal closure is made and released slightly before the labial closure, but they overlap for most of their duration.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Ega[1] [k͡pá] 'build a hedge to enclose a field'
Kalabari[2] àkpà [àk͡pà] 'bag'
Mono[3] kpa [k͡pa] 'flee'
Vietnamese[4] c [luk͡p˧ˀ˥] 'time' Allophone of /k/ after /u/ and /w/. See Vietnamese phonology.

Rounded variant[edit]

Some languages, especially in Papua New Guinea and in Vanuatu, combine this voiceless labial–velar stop with a labial–velar approximant release, hence [k͡pʷ]. Thus Mwotlap (Banks Islands, north Vanuatu) has [k͡pʷɪlɣɛk] ('my father-in-law').[5]

In the Banks Islands languages which have it, the phoneme /k͡pʷ/ is written q in local orthographies. In other languages of Vanuatu further south (such as South Efate, or Lenakel), the same segment is spelled .

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Connell, Bruce; Ahoua, Firmin; Gibbon, Dafydd (2002), "Ega", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 32 (1): 99–104, doi:10.1017/S002510030200018X 
  • François, Alexandre (2005), "A typological overview of Mwotlap, an Oceanic language of Vanuatu", Linguistic Typology 9 (1): 115–146, doi:10.1515/lity.2005.9.1.115 
  • Harry, Otelemate (2003), "Kalaḅarị-Ịjo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 113–120, doi:10.1017/S002510030300121X 
  • Olson, Kenneth (2004), "Mono", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 233–238, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001744 
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232