|Manufacturer||Foxconn, Pegatron, Wistron |
June 29, 2007
|Units sold||2.2 Billion (as of November 1, 2018)|
|System on a chip|
|Storage||4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, 512GB or 1TB[a] flash memory|
GSM models also include:
|This article is part of a series on the|
The iPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. that use Apple's iOS mobile operating system. The first-generation iPhone was announced by then-Apple CEO Steve Jobs on January 9, 2007. Since then, Apple has annually released new iPhone models and iOS updates. As of November 1, 2018, more than 2.2 billion iPhones had been sold.
The iPhone has a user interface built around a multi-touch screen. It connects to cellular networks or Wi-Fi, and can make calls, browse the web, take pictures, play music and send and receive emails and text messages. Since the iPhone's launch further features have been added, including larger screen sizes, shooting video, waterproofing, the ability to install third-party mobile apps through an app store, and many accessibility features. Up to 2017, iPhones used a layout with a single button on the front panel that returns the user to the home screen. Since 2017, more expensive iPhone models have switched to a nearly bezel-less front screen design with app switching activated by gesture recognition.
The iPhone is one of the two largest smartphone platforms in the world alongside Android, forming a large part of the luxury market. The iPhone has generated large profits for Apple, making it one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies. The first-generation iPhone was described as "revolutionary" and a "game-changer" for the mobile phone industry and subsequent models have also garnered praise. The iPhone has been credited with popularizing the smartphone and slate form factor, and with creating a large market for smartphone apps, or "app economy". As of January 2017[update], Apple's App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications for the iPhone.
History and availability
Development of what was to become the iPhone began in 2004, when Apple started to gather a team of 1,000 employees led by hardware engineer Tony Fadell, software engineer Scott Forstall and design engineer Sir Jonathan Ive to work on the highly confidential "Project Purple."
Apple CEO Steve Jobs steered the original focus away from a tablet (which Apple eventually revisited in the form of the iPad) towards a phone. Apple created the device during a secretive collaboration with Cingular Wireless (which became AT&T Mobility) at the time—at an estimated development cost of US$150 million over thirty months.
Apple rejected the "design by committee" approach that had yielded the Motorola ROKR E1, a largely unsuccessful collaboration with Motorola. Among other deficiencies, the ROKR E1's firmware limited storage to only 100 iTunes songs to avoid competing with Apple's iPod nano.
Cingular gave Apple the liberty to develop the iPhone's hardware and software in-house and even paid Apple a fraction of its monthly service revenue (until the iPhone 3G), in exchange for four years of exclusive U.S. sales, until 2011.
Jobs unveiled the iPhone to the public on January 9, 2007, at the Macworld 2007 convention at the Moscone Center in San Francisco. The two initial models, a 4 GB[a] model priced at US$499 and an 8 GB model at US$599 (both requiring a two-year contract), went on sale in the United States on June 29, 2007, at 6:00 pm local time, while hundreds of customers lined up outside the stores nationwide. The passionate reaction to the launch of the iPhone resulted in sections of the media dubbing it the 'Jesus phone'. Following this successful release in the US, the first generation iPhone was made available in the UK, France, and Germany in November 2007, and Ireland and Austria in the spring of 2008.
On July 11, 2008, Apple released the iPhone 3G in twenty-two countries, including the original six. Apple released the iPhone 3G in upwards of eighty countries and territories. Apple announced the iPhone 3GS on June 8, 2009, along with plans to release it later in June, July, and August, starting with the US, Canada and major European countries on June 19. Many would-be users objected to the iPhone's cost, and 40% of users had household incomes over US$100,000.
The back of the original first-generation iPhone was made of aluminum with a black plastic accent. The iPhone 3G and 3GS feature a full plastic back to increase the strength of the GSM signal. The iPhone 3G was available in an 8 GB black model, or a black or white option for the 16 GB model. The iPhone 3GS was available in both colors, regardless of storage capacity.
The iPhone 4 has an aluminosilicate glass front and back with a stainless steel edge that serves as the antennas. It was at first available in black; the white version was announced, but not released until April 2011, 10 months later.
On January 11, 2011, Verizon announced during a media event that it had reached an agreement with Apple and would begin selling a CDMA iPhone 4. Verizon said it would be available for pre-order on February 3, with a release set for February 10. In February 2011, the Verizon iPhone accounted for 4.5% of all iPhone ad impressions in the U.S. on Millennial Media's mobile ad network.
From 2007 to 2011, Apple spent $647 million on advertising for the iPhone in the US.
On Tuesday, September 27, Apple sent invitations for a press event to be held October 4, 2011, at 10:00 am at the Cupertino headquarters to announce details of the next generation iPhone, which turned out to be iPhone 4S. Over 1 million 4S models were sold in the first 24 hours after its release in October 2011. Due to large volumes of the iPhone being manufactured and its high selling price, Apple became the largest mobile handset vendor in the world by revenue, in 2011, surpassing long-time leader Nokia. American carrier C Spire Wireless announced that it would be carrying the iPhone 4S on October 19, 2011.
In January 2012, Apple reported its best quarterly earnings ever, with 53% of its revenue coming from the sale of 37 million iPhones, at an average selling price of nearly $660. The average selling price has remained fairly constant for most of the phone's lifespan, hovering between $622 and $660. The production price of the iPhone 4S was estimated by IHS iSuppli, in October 2011, to be $188, $207 and $245, for the 16 GB, 32 GB and 64 GB models, respectively. Labor costs are estimated at between $12.50 and $30 per unit, with workers on the iPhone assembly line making $1.78 an hour.
On September 12, 2012, Apple announced the iPhone 5. It has a 4 inches (100 mm) display, up from its predecessors' 3.5 inches (89 mm) screen. The device comes with the same 326 pixels per inch found in the iPhone 4 and 4S. The iPhone 5 has the SoC A6 processor, the chip is 22% smaller than the iPhone 4S' A5 and is twice as fast, doubling the graphics performance of its predecessor. The device is 18% thinner than the iPhone 4S, measuring 7.6 millimetres (0.3 in), and is 20% lighter at 112 grams (4 oz).
On July 22, 2013, the company's suppliers said that Apple is testing out larger screens for the iPhone and iPad. "Apple has asked for prototype smartphone screens larger than 4 inches (100 mm) and has also asked for screen designs for a new tablet device measuring slightly less than 13 inches (330 mm) diagonally, they said."
On September 10, 2013, Apple unveiled two new iPhone models during a press event in Cupertino. The iPhone 5C, a mid-range-priced version of the handset that is designed to increase accessibility due to its price is available in five colors (green, blue, yellow, pink, and white) and is made of plastic. The iPhone 5S comes in three colors (black, white, and gold) and the home button is replaced with a fingerprint scanner (Touch ID). Both phones shipped on September 20, 2013.
On September 9, 2014, Apple revealed the iPhone 6 and the iPhone 6 Plus at an event in Cupertino. Both devices had a larger screen than their predecessor, at 4.7 inches (120 mm) and 5.5 inches (140 mm) respectively.
After the iPhone 6 and 6 Plus was released, some users started complaining about the 6 and 6 Plus bending from normal use. This trend became known as "Bendgate", which later started "Touch Disease." However, they released the iPhone 6S and 6S Plus, a more bend-resistant iPhone than the 6 and 6 Plus, to solve this issue.
On September 7, 2016, Apple unveiled the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, which added water and dust resistance, improved system and graphics performance, a new dual-camera setup on the Plus model, new color options, and featured the removal of the 3.5 mm headphone jack from the iPhone.
On September 12, 2017, Apple officially unveiled the iPhone 8 and 8 Plus, which features a new glass design, camera improvements, a True Tone display, wireless charging, and improved system performance. It also unveiled the iPhone X, which features a near bezel-less design, a facial recognition feature dubbed "Face ID" with facial tracking used for Animojis, an OLED screen with the highest pixel density on an iPhone, a new telephoto lens which works better in low light conditions, and improved cameras for AR.
On September 12, 2018, Apple officially unveiled the iPhone XS, XS Max and XR at the Steve Jobs theater at Apple Park. The XS and XS Max feature an improved Super Retina Display with Dolby Vision and HDR10 support with the XS Max featuring a larger 6.5 inches (170 mm) display, improved cameras with Smart HDR, and the A12 Bionic chip. The iPhone XS and XS Max are IP68 water, liquid, and dust resistant which allow the devices to be submerged in up to 2 meters for a duration of 30 minutes, while iPhone XR retained the IP67 certification found in the first-generation iPhone X and also features an IPS LCD display instead of the OLED displays found in the higher-end models. The iPhone XS/XS Max's IP68 certifications were tested using various liquids such as chlorinated-water, saltwater, tea, wine, beer, and juices. Apple also announced the fourth generation of Apple Watch, the Apple Watch Series 4.
Up to the iPhone 4, all iPhones and other iOS devices were manufactured by Foxconn, based in Taiwan. In 2011, new CEO Tim Cook changed Apple's manufacturing strategy to diversify its suppliers. The iPhone 4s in 2012 was the first model to be manufactured simultaneously by two stand-alone companies: Foxconn and Pegatron, the latter also based in Taiwan. Although Foxconn still produces more iPhones, Pegatron's orders have been slowly increased: the company made part of the iPhone 5C line in 2013, and 30% of iPhone 6 devices in 2014. The 6 Plus model was produced solely by Foxconn. In 2019, Apple investigated reports that some Foxconn managers had used rejected parts to build iPhones. In India, Apple pays Wistron, a Taiwan-based manufacturer with a plant near Bangalore, to assemble iPhones to sell in the region.
33 iPhone models have been produced. The models in bold are devices of the latest generation:
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2021)
The iPhone contains most of the hardware parts of a typical modern smartphone. Some hardware elements, such as 3D Touch and the Taptic Engine, are unique to the iPhone. The main hardware of the iPhone is the touchscreen, with current models offering screens of 4.7 inches and larger. A range of sensors are included on the device, such as a proximity sensor, ambient light sensor, accelerometer, gyroscopic sensor, magnetometer, facial recognition sensor, fingerprint sensor and barometer.
All iPhones include a rear-facing camera, and a front-facing camera being included on all models since the iPhone 4. The iPhone 7 Plus introduced multiple lenses to the rear-facing camera to the iPhone.
The iPhone runs an operating system known as iOS (formerly iPhone OS). It is a variant of the Darwin operating system core found in macOS. Also included is the "Core Animation" software component from Mac OS X v10.5 Leopard. Together with the graphics hardware (and on the iPhone 3GS, OpenGL ES 2.0), it is responsible for the interface's motion graphics. The iPhone comes with a set of bundled applications developed by Apple, and supports downloading third-party applications through the App Store.
|model||release(d)||discontinued||support||launch price ($US)|
|with OS||date||ended||final OS||lifespan|
|iPhone||iPhone OS 1.0||June 29, 2007||June 9, 2008||June 20, 2010||iPhone OS 3.1.3||2 years, 11 months||2 years||$499/$599*|
|iPhone 3G||iPhone OS 2.0||July 11, 2008||August 9, 2010||March 3, 2011||iOS 4.2.1||2 years, 7 months||6 months||$199/$299*|
|iPhone 3GS||iPhone OS 3.0||June 19, 2009||September 12, 2012||September 18, 2013||iOS 6.1.6||4 years, 2 months||1 year|
|iPhone 4||iOS 4.0||June 24, 2010||September 10, 2013||September 17, 2014||iOS 7.1.2|
|iPhone 4S||iOS 5.0||October 14, 2011||September 9, 2014||September 12, 2016
(late, single update: July 22, 2019 )
|4 years, 10 months||2 years||$199/$299/$399*|
|iPhone 5||iOS 6.0||September 21, 2012||September 10, 2013||September 18, 2017
(late, single update: July 22, 2019 )
|4 years, 11 months||4 years|
|iPhone 5C||iOS 7.0||September 20, 2013||September 9, 2015||September 18, 2017||iOS 10.3.3||3 years, 11 months||2 years||$99/$199*|
|iPhone 5S||iOS 7.0||September 20, 2013||March 21, 2016||September 18, 2019
(latest, exclusive update: September 23, 2021 )
|5 years, 11 months||3 years, 5 months||$199/$299/$399*|
|iPhone 6 / 6 Plus||iOS 8.0||September 19, 2014||September 7, 2016||4 years, 11 months||3 years||$199/$299/$399*|
|iPhone 6S / 6S Plus||iOS 9.0.1||September 25, 2015||September 12, 2018||current||latest iOS||6 years||3 years, 1 month||$199/$299/$399*|
|iPhone SE (1st)||iOS 9.3||March 31, 2016||September 12, 2018||5 years, 6 months||3 years, 1 month||$399/$499|
|iPhone 7 / 7 Plus||iOS 10.0.1||September 16, 2016||September 10, 2019||5 years, 1 month||2 years, 1 month||$199/$299/$399*|
|iPhone 8 / 8 Plus||iOS 11.0||September 22, 2017||April 15, 2020||4 years||1 year, 6 months||$699/$849|
|iPhone X||iOS 11.0.1||November 3, 2017||September 12, 2018||3 years, 11 months||3 years, 1 month||$549/$699*|
|iPhone XR||iOS 12.0||October 26, 2018||September 14, 2021||2 years, 11 months||1 month||$749/$799/$899|
|iPhone XS / XS Max||iOS 12.0||September 21, 2018||September 10, 2019||3 years, 1 month||2 years, 1 month||$999/$1149/$1349|
|iPhone 11||iOS 13.0||September 20, 2019||current||latest iOS||2 years||$699/$749/$849|
|iPhone 11 Pro / 11 Pro Max||iOS 13.0||September 20, 2019||October 13, 2020||current||latest iOS||2 years||1 year||$999/$1149/$1349|
|iPhone SE (2nd)||iOS 13.4||April 24, 2020||current||latest iOS||1 year, 5 months||$399/$449/$549|
|iPhone 12 / 12 Mini||iOS 14.1 (12)
iOS 14.2 (12 Mini)
|October 23, 2020
November 13, 2020(12 Mini)
|11 months (12)
11 months (12 Mini)
|iPhone 12 Pro / 12 Pro Max||iOS 14.1 (12 Pro)
iOS 14.2 (12 Pro Max)
|October 23, 2020
November 13, 2020(12 Pro Max)
|September 14, 2021||current||latest iOS||11 months (12 Pro)
11 months (12 Pro Max)
|iPhone 13 / 13 Mini||iOS 15.0||September 24, 2021||current||latest iOS||0 months||$829/$929/$1129**
|iPhone 13 Pro / 13 Pro Max||iOS 15.0||September 24, 2021||$999/$1099/$1299/$1499
The interface is based around the home screen, a graphical list of available applications. iPhone applications normally run one at a time. Starting with the iPhone 4, a primitive version of multitasking came into play. Users could double click the home button to select recently opened applications. However, the apps never ran in the background. Starting with iOS 7, though, apps can truly multitask, and each open application runs in the background when not in use, although most functionality is still available when making a call or listening to music. The home screen can be accessed by a hardware button below the screen on the iPhone 8 and earlier. iPhone X and later models, with the exception of the second-generation iPhone SE, instead use touch-based gestures.
The original iPhone contained the following apps: Messages (SMS and MMS messaging), Calendar, Photos, Camera, YouTube, Stocks, Maps (Google Maps), Weather, Voice Memos, Notes, Clock, Calculator, Settings and iTunes (store). The App Store was introduced in iPhone OS 2 for the original iPhone and iPhone 3G. Compass was added in iPhone OS 3 for the iPhone 3GS. FaceTime and Game Center were added in iOS 4 and 4.1 respectively. In iOS 5, Reminders and Newsstand were added, and the iPod application was split into separate Music and Videos applications. iOS 6 added Passbook as well as a new version of Maps called Apple Maps that relies on data provided by TomTom as well as other sources, and YouTube no longer came as a pre-installed application starting from that version. iOS 7 introduced a modern flat design for the interface and added a motion-based parallax feature to give the device a quasi-3D effect. iOS 8 added Health app. iOS 9 replaced Newsstand and Passbook with News and Wallet. iOS 10 introduced Home and dedicated a page on the home screen for the widgets. iOS 11 added Files. iOS 12 introduced Measure, an app that uses AR technology to measure objects and things. It is available on devices with an A9 chip or newer.
Docked at the base of the screen, four icons for Phone, Mail, Safari (Internet), and Music delineate the iPhone's main purposes. On January 15, 2008, Apple released software update 1.1.3, allowing users to create "Web Clips", home screen icons that resemble apps that open a user-defined page in Safari. After the update, iPhone users can rearrange and place icons (by holding down on any icon and moving it to the desired location once they start shaking) on up to nine other adjacent home screens, accessed by a horizontal swipe.
Users can also add and delete icons from the dock, which is the same on every home screen. The dock holds up to four icons and is located at the bottom section of the screen. Each home screen holds up to twenty icons for the first-generation iPhone, 3G, 3GS, 4 and 4S; The iPhone 5, 5C, 5S, and first-generation iPhone SE hold up to twenty-four icons; while the iPhone 6 and later iPhone models support up to twenty-eight icons. Users can delete Web Clips and third-party applications at any time and may select only certain applications for transfer from iTunes. Apple's default programs could only be removed since the iOS 10 update. The 3.0 update added a system-wide search, known as Spotlight, to the left of the first home screen.
Almost all input is given through the touch screen, which understands complex gestures using multi-touch. The iPhone's interaction techniques enable the user to move the content up or down by a touch-drag motion of the finger. For example, zooming in and out of web pages and photos is done by placing two fingers on the screen and spreading them farther apart or bringing them closer together, a gesture known as "pinching".
Scrolling through a long list or menu is achieved by sliding a finger over the display from bottom to top, or vice versa to go back. In either case, the list moves as if it is pasted on the outer surface of a wheel, slowly decelerating as if affected by friction. In this way, the interface simulates the physics of a real object. Unlike previous scrollable views, in which the user pressed a "down" control to move the view "downwards", on iOS the user pushes upwards, as if moving a "plank of wood floating on the water", creating the impression that the user is directly manipulating the content displayed on the screen.
Other user-centered interactive effects include horizontally sliding sub-selection, the vertically sliding keyboard and bookmarks menu, and widgets that turn around to allow settings to be configured on the other side. Menu bars are found at the top and bottom of the screen when necessary. Their options vary by program but always follow a consistent style motif. In menu hierarchies, a "back" button in the top-left corner of the screen displays the name of the parent folder.
The iPhone allows audio conferencing, call holding, call merging, caller ID, and integration with other cellular network features and iPhone functions. For example, if music is playing when a call is received, the music fades out and fades back in when the call has ended.
The proximity sensor shuts off the screen and touch-sensitive circuitry when the iPhone is brought close to the face, both to save battery and prevent unintentional touches. The iPhone does not support video calling or videoconferencing on versions prior to the fourth generation, as there is only one camera on the opposite side of the screen.
The iPhone 4 supports video calling using either the front or back camera over Wi-Fi, a feature Apple calls FaceTime. Voice control, introduced in the iPhone 3GS, allows users to say a contact's name or number and the iPhone will dial it. The first two models only support voice dialing through third-party applications.
The iPhone includes a visual voicemail (in some countries) feature allowing users to view a list of current voicemail messages on-screen without having to call into their voicemail. Unlike most other systems, messages can be listened to and deleted in a non-chronological order by choosing any message from an on-screen list.
A music ringtone feature was introduced in the United States on September 5, 2007. Users can create custom ringtones from songs purchased from the iTunes Store for a small additional fee. The ringtones can be three to 30 seconds long from any part of a song, can fade in and out, pause from half a second to five seconds when looped, or loop continuously. All customizing can be done in iTunes, or with Apple's GarageBand software 4.1.1 or later (available only on Mac OS X) or third-party tools.
With the release of iOS 6, which was released on September 19, 2012, Apple added features that enable the user to have options to decline a phone call when a person is calling them. The user can reply with a message, or set a reminder to call them back at a later time.
The layout of the music library is similar to that of an iPod. The iPhone can sort its media library by songs, artists, albums, videos, playlists, genres, composers, podcasts, audiobooks, and compilations. Options are presented alphabetically, except in playlists, which retain their order from iTunes. The iPhone uses a large font that allows users plenty of room to touch their selection.
Users can rotate their device horizontally to landscape mode to access Cover Flow. Like on iTunes, this feature shows the different album covers in a scroll-through photo library. Scrolling is achieved by swiping a finger across the screen. Alternatively, headset controls can be used to pause, play, skip, and repeat tracks. On the iPhone 3GS, the volume can be changed with the included Apple Earphones, and the Voice Control feature can be used to identify a track, play songs in a playlist or by a specific artist, or create a Genius playlist.
The iPhone supports gapless playback. Like the fifth-generation iPods introduced in 2005, the iPhone can play digital video, allowing users to watch TV shows and movies in widescreen. Double-tapping switches between widescreen and fullscreen video playback.
The iPhone allows users to purchase and download songs from the iTunes Store directly to their iPhone. The feature originally required a Wi-Fi network, but since 2012, it can be used on a cellular data network.
The iPhone includes software that allows the user to upload, view, and email photos taken with the camera. The user zooms in and out of photos by sliding two fingers further apart or closer together, much like Safari. The camera application also lets users view the camera roll, the pictures that have been taken with the iPhone's camera. Those pictures are also available in the Photos application, along with any transferred from iPhoto or Aperture on a Mac, or Photoshop on a Windows PC.
Internet access is available when the iPhone is connected to a local area Wi-Fi or a wide area GSM or EDGE network, both second-generation (2G) wireless data standards. Networks accessible from iPhone models include 1xRTT (represented by a 1× on the status bar) and GPRS (shown as GPRS on the status bar), EDGE (shown as a capital E on the status bar), UMTS and EV-DO (shown as 3G), a faster version of UMTS and 4G (shown as a 4G symbol on the status bar), and LTE (shown as LTE on the status bar). The iPhone 3G introduced support for third-generation UMTS and HSDPA 3.6, the iPhone 4S introduced support for HSUPA networks (14.4 Mbit/s), and support for HSDPA 7.2 was introduced in the iPhone 3GS. and the iPhone 5 introduced support for 4G LTE. 5G Evolution is now supported on AT&T in areas where implemented and stylized as a larger 5G and reduced size capital E. 5GE uses the 4x4 MIMO doubling the number of antennas, 256-QAM, and three-way carrier aggregation. True 5G support was added starting with the iPhone 12 series in fall 2020. All iPhone 12 models support sub-6 GHz frequencies, but only models purchased in the United States support mmWave.
AT&T introduced 3G in July 2004, but as late as 2007, Steve Jobs stated that it was still not widespread enough in the US, and the chipsets not energy efficient enough, to be included in the iPhone. Support for 802.1X, an authentication system commonly used by university and corporate Wi-Fi networks, was added in the 2.0 version update.
By default, the iPhone will ask to join newly discovered Wi-Fi networks and prompt for the password when required. Alternatively, it can join closed Wi-Fi networks manually. The iPhone will automatically choose the strongest network, connecting to Wi-Fi instead of EDGE when it is available. Similarly, the iPhone 3G and onwards prefer 3G to 2G, and Wi-Fi to either.
Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and 3G (on the iPhone 3G onwards) can all be deactivated individually. Airplane mode disables all wireless connections at once, overriding other preferences. However, once in Airplane mode, one can explicitly enable Wi-Fi and/or Bluetooth modes to join and continue to operate over one or both of those networks while the cellular network transceivers remain off.
Safari is the iPhone's native web browser, and it displays pages similar to its Mac and Windows counterparts. Web pages may be viewed in portrait or landscape mode and the device supports automatic zooming by pinching together or spreading apart fingertips on the screen, or by double-tapping text or images. Safari does not allow file downloads except for predefined extensions.
The iPhone does not support Flash, which was still popular when the iPhone was introduced. Consequently, the UK's Advertising Standards Authority adjudicated that an advertisement claiming the iPhone could access "all parts of the internet" should be withdrawn in its current form, on grounds of false advertising. In a rare public letter in April 2010, Apple CEO Steve Jobs outlined the reasoning behind the absence of Flash on the iPhone (and iPad). The iPhone supports SVG, CSS, HTML Canvas, and Bonjour. Google Chrome was introduced to the iOS on June 26, 2012, and Opera mini is also available.
The Maps application can access Google Maps in map, satellite, or hybrid form. It can also generate directions between two locations, while providing optional real-time traffic information. During the iPhone's announcement, Jobs demonstrated this feature by searching for nearby Starbucks locations and then placing a prank call to one with a single tap. Support for walking directions, public transit, and street view was added in the version 2.2 software update, but no voice-guided navigation.
The iPhone 3GS and iPhone 4 can orient the map with its digital compass. Apple also developed a separate application to view YouTube videos on the iPhone, which streams videos after encoding them using the H.264 codec. Simple weather and stock quotes applications also tap into the Internet.
iPhone users can and do access the Internet frequently, and in a variety of places. According to Google, in 2008, the iPhone generated 50 times more search requests than any other mobile handset. According to Deutsche Telekom CEO René Obermann, "The average Internet usage for an iPhone customer is more than 100 megabytes. This is 30 times the use for our average contract-based consumer customers." Nielsen found that 98% of iPhone users use data services, and 88% use the internet. In China, the iPhone 3G and iPhone 3GS were built and distributed without Wi-Fi.
With the introduction of the Verizon iPhone in January 2011, the issue of using the internet while on the phone was brought to the public's attention. Under the two U.S. carriers, internet and phone could be used simultaneously on AT&T networks, whereas Verizon networks only support the use of each separately. However, in 2014, Verizon announced that the iPhone 6 and 6 Plus would allow simultaneous voice and data over its LTE Network. T-Mobile and Sprint have enabled calls over Wi-Fi, with Verizon and AT&T soon doing the same.
For text input, the iPhone implements a virtual keyboard on the touchscreen. It has automatic spell checking and correction, predictive word capabilities, and a dynamic dictionary that learns new words. The keyboard can predict what word the user is typing and complete it, and correct for the accidental pressing of keys near the presumed desired key.
The keys are somewhat larger and spaced farther apart when in landscape mode, which is supported by only a limited number of applications. Touching a section of text for a brief time brings up a magnifying glass, allowing users to place the cursor in the middle of existing text. The virtual keyboard can accommodate 21 languages, including character recognition for Chinese.
Alternative characters with accents (for example, letters from the alphabets of other languages) and emoji can be typed from the keyboard by pressing the letter for two seconds and selecting the alternative character from the popup. The 3.0 update brought support for cut, copy, or pasting text, as well as landscape keyboards in more applications. On iPhone 4S and above, Siri allows dictation.
Since iOS 8, third party keyboards, distributed through the App Store, are allowed. Previously, they were only available on jailbroken iPhones.
Email and text messages
The iPhone also features an email program that supports HTML email, which enables the user to embed photos in an email message. PDF, Word, Excel, and PowerPoint attachments to mail messages can be viewed on the phone. Yahoo! offers a free push-email service for the iPhone. IMAP (although not Push-IMAP) and POP3 mail standards are also supported, including Microsoft Exchange and Kerio Connect.
In the first versions of the iPhone firmware, this was accomplished by opening up IMAP on the Exchange server. Apple has also licensed Microsoft ActiveSync and supports the platform (including push email) with the release of iPhone 2.0 firmware. The iPhone will sync email account settings over from Apple's own Mail application, Microsoft Outlook, and Microsoft Entourage, or it can be manually configured on the device itself. The email program can access almost any IMAP or POP3 account.
Text messages are presented chronologically in a mailbox format similar to Mail, which places all text from recipients together with replies. Text messages are displayed in speech bubbles (similar to iChat) under each recipient's name. The iPhone has built-in support for email message forwarding, drafts, and direct internal camera-to-email picture sending. Support for multi-recipient SMS was added in the 1.1.3 software update. Support for MMS was added in the 3.0 update, but not for the original first generation iPhone and not in the U.S. until September 25, 2009.
At WWDC 2007 on June 11, 2007, Apple announced that the iPhone would support third-party web applications using Ajax that share the look and feel of the iPhone interface. On October 17, 2007, Steve Jobs, in an open letter posted to Apple's "Hot News" weblog, announced that a software development kit (SDK) would be made available to third-party developers in February 2008. The iPhone SDK was officially announced and released on March 6, 2008, at the Apple Town Hall facility.
It is a free download, with an Apple registration, that allows developers to develop native applications for the iPhone and iPod Touch, then test them in an "iPhone simulator". However, loading an application onto a real device is only possible after paying an Apple Developer Connection membership fee. Developers are free to set any price for their applications to be distributed through the App Store, of which they will receive a 70% share.
Developers can also opt to release the application for free and will not pay any costs to release or distribute the application beyond the membership fee. The App Store was launched with the release of iPhone OS 2.0, on July 11, 2008. The update was free for iPhone users; owners of older iPod Touches were required to pay US$10 for it.
Once a developer has submitted an application to the App Store, Apple holds firm control over its distribution. Apple can halt the distribution of applications it deems inappropriate, for example, I Am Rich, a US$1000 program that simply demonstrated the wealth of its user, and Send Me To Heaven, a game that encouraged users to throw their phones in the air. Apple has been criticized for banning third-party applications that enable a functionality that Apple does not want the iPhone to have: In 2008, Apple rejected Podcaster, which allowed iPhone users to download podcasts directly to the iPhone claiming it duplicated the functionality of iTunes. Apple has since released a software update that grants this capability.
NetShare, another rejected app, would have enabled users to tether their iPhone to a laptop or desktop, using its cellular network to load data for the computer. Many carriers of the iPhone later globally allowed tethering before Apple officially supported it with the upgrade to the iPhone OS 3.0, with AT&T Mobility being a relative latecomer in the United States. In most cases, the carrier charges extra for tethering an iPhone.
Before the SDK was released, third parties were permitted to design "Web Apps" that would run through Safari. Unsigned native applications are also available for "jailbroken" phones. The ability to install native applications onto the iPhone outside of the App Store is not supported by Apple, the stated reason being that such native applications could be broken by any software update, but Apple has stated it will not design software updates specifically to break native applications other than those that perform SIM unlocking.
Starting with the iPhone 4S, Apple added an accessibility feature to optimize the function of the iPhone with hearing aids. Apple released a program of Made for iPhone Hearing Aids. These hearing aids deliver a power-efficient, high-quality digital audio experience and allow the user to manage the hearing aid right from the iPhone. Made for iPhone hearing aids also feature Live Listen. With Live Listen the iPhone acts as a remote microphone that sends sound to a Made for iPhone hearing aid. Live Listen can help the user hear a conversation in a noisy room or hear someone speaking across the room.
The Braille Displays for the iOS program was announced by Apple coinciding with the release of the iPhone 3GS, iPad and iPod Touch (3rd Generation). This program added support for more than 50 Bluetooth wireless braille displays that work with iOS out of the box. The user only needs to pair the keyboard to the device to start using it to navigate the iOS device with VoiceOver without any additional software. iOS supports braille tables for more than 25 languages.
iPhone lets the user know when an alert is sent to it, in a variety of notice methods. It delivers both visual and vibrating alerts for incoming phone and FaceTime calls, new text messages, new and sent mail, and calendar events. Users can set an LED light flash for incoming calls and alerts or have incoming calls display a photo of the caller. Users can choose from different vibration patterns or even create their own.
The iPhone can enlarge text to make it more accessible for vision-impaired users, and can accommodate hearing-impaired users with closed captioning and external TTY devices. The iPhone 3GS also features white on black mode, VoiceOver (a screen reader), and zooming for impaired vision, and mono audio for limited hearing in one ear. Apple regularly publishes Voluntary Product Accessibility Templates which explicitly state compliance with the U.S. regulation "Section 508".
With the release of iOS 9 for all iPhones, users have the ability to choose between two different screen view options. The user can choose to have a standard view or zoomed view. When the iPhone is placed in a standard view setting, the icons are normal size and the text remains the same. With a zoomed view option, the icons on the screen and the text become slightly larger. This enables the user to have a more customized appearance and it can potentially help some users read the screen easier.
AssistiveTouch helps to adapt the Multi-Touch screen of an iOS device to a user's unique physical needs. This can be of great assistance to those who have difficulty with some gestures, like pinch, one can make them accessible with just a tap of a finger. The user can create their own gestures and customize the layout of the AssistiveTouch menu. If the user has trouble pressing the Home button, it can be set so that it can be activated with an onscreen tap. Gestures, like rotate and shake, are available even when if the iOS device is mounted on a wheelchair.
Guided Access helps people with autism or other attention and sensory challenges stay focused on the task (or app) at hand. With Guided Access, a parent, teacher, or therapist can limit an iOS device to stay on one app by disabling the Home button and limit the amount of time spent in an app. The user can restrict access to the keyboard or touch input on certain areas of the screen.
In 2019 Apple began developing satellites so that the iPhone could skip wireless carriers.
iPhone Upgrade Program
The iPhone Upgrade Program is a 24-month program designed for consumers to be able to get the latest iPhone every year, without paying the whole price up-front. The program consists of "low monthly payments", where consumers will gradually pay for the iPhone they have over a 24-month period, with an opportunity to switch (upgrade) to the new iPhone after 12 months of payment have passed. Once 12 months have passed, consumers can trade their current iPhone with a new one, and the payments are transferred from the old device to the new device, and the program "restarts" with a new 24-month period.
Additional features of the program include unlocked handsets, which means consumers are free to pick the network carrier they want, and two-year AppleCare+ protection, which includes "hardware repairs, software support, and coverage for up to two incidents of accidental damage".
Criticism of the program includes the potential endless cycle of payments, with The Huffington Post's Damon Beres writing, "Complete the full 24-month payment cycle, and you're stuck with an outdated phone. Upgrade every 12 months, and you'll never stop owing Apple money for iPhones". Additionally, the program is limited to just the iPhone hardware; cell phone service from a network operator is not included.
LG Electronics claimed the design of the iPhone was copied from the LG Prada. Woo-Young Kwak, head of LG Mobile Handset R&D Center, said at a press conference: "we consider that Apple copied Prada phone after the design was unveiled when it was presented in the iF Design Award and won the prize in September 2006." Conversely, the iPhone has also inspired its own share of high-tech clones.
On September 3, 1993, Infogear filed for the U.S. trademark "I PHONE" and on March 20, 1996, applied for the trademark "IPhone". "I Phone" was registered in March 1998, and "IPhone" was registered in 1999. Since then, the I PHONE mark had been abandoned. Infogear trademarks cover "communications terminals comprising computer hardware and software providing integrated telephone, data communications and personal computer functions" (1993 filing), and "computer hardware and software for providing integrated telephone communication with computerized global information networks" (1996 filing).
In 2000, Infogear filed an infringement claim against the owners of the iPhones.com domain name. The owners of the iPhones.com domain name challenged the infringement claim in the Northern District Court of California. In June 2000, Cisco Systems acquired Infogear, including the iPhone trademark. In September 2000, Cisco Systems settled with the owners of iPhones.com and allowed the owners to keep the iPhones.com domain name along with intellectual property rights to use any designation of the iPhones.com domain name for the sale of cellular phones, cellular phones with Internet access (WAP PHONES), handheld PDAs, storage devices, computer equipment (hardware/software), and digital cameras (hardware/software). The intellectual property rights were granted to the owners of the iPhones.com domain name by Cisco Systems in September 2000.
In October 2002, Apple applied for the "iPhone" trademark in the United Kingdom, Australia, Singapore, and the European Union. A Canadian application followed in October 2004, and a New Zealand application in September 2006. As of October 2006, only the Singapore and Australian applications had been granted.
In September 2006, a company called Ocean Telecom Services applied for an "iPhone" trademark in the United States, United Kingdom, and Hong Kong, following a filing in Trinidad and Tobago. As the Ocean Telecom trademark applications use exactly the same wording as the New Zealand application of Apple, it is assumed that Ocean Telecom is applying on behalf of Apple. The Canadian application was opposed in August 2005, by a Canadian company called Comwave who themselves applied for the trademark three months later. Comwave has been selling VoIP devices called iPhone since 2004.
Shortly after Steve Jobs' January 9, 2007 announcement that Apple would be selling a product called iPhone in June 2007, Cisco issued a statement that it had been negotiating trademark licensing with Apple and expected Apple to agree to the final documents that had been submitted the night before. On January 10, 2007, Cisco announced it had filed a lawsuit against Apple over the infringement of the trademark iPhone, seeking an injunction in federal court to prohibit Apple from using the name. In February 2007, Cisco claimed that the trademark lawsuit was a "minor skirmish" that was not about money, but about interoperability.
On February 2, 2007, Apple and Cisco announced that they had agreed to temporarily suspend litigation while they held settlement talks, and subsequently announced on February 20, 2007, that they had reached an agreement. Both companies will be allowed to use the "iPhone" name in exchange for "exploring interoperability" between their security, consumer, and business communications products.
On October 22, 2009, Nokia filed a lawsuit against Apple for infringement of its GSM, UMTS and WLAN patents. Nokia alleges that Apple has been violating ten Nokia patents since the iPhone initial release.
In December 2010, Reuters reported that some iPhone and iPad users were suing Apple Inc. because some applications were passing user information to third-party advertisers without permission. Some makers of the applications such as Textplus4, Paper Toss, The Weather Channel, Dictionary.com, Talking Tom Cat and Pumpkin Maker have also been named as co-defendants in the lawsuit.
In August 2012, Apple won a smartphone patent lawsuit in the U.S. against Samsung, the world's largest maker of smartphones; however, on December 6, 2016, SCOTUS reversed the decision that awarded nearly $400 million to Apple and returned the case to Federal Circuit court to define the appropriate legal standard to define "article of manufacture" because it is not the smartphone itself but could be just the case and screen to which the design patents relate.
In March 2013, an Apple patent for a wraparound display was revealed.
Apple tightly controls certain aspects of the iPhone. According to Jonathan Zittrain, the emergence of closed devices like the iPhone have made computing more proprietary than early versions of Microsoft Windows.
The hacker community has found many workarounds, most of which are disallowed by Apple and make it difficult or impossible to obtain warranty service. "Jailbreaking" allows users to install apps not available on the App Store or modify basic functionality. SIM unlocking allows the iPhone to be used on a different carrier's network. However, in the United States, Apple cannot void an iPhone's warranty unless it can show that a problem or component failure is linked to the installation or placement of an after-market item such as unauthorized applications, because of the Federal Trade Commission's Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act of 1975.
The iPhone normally prevents access to its media player and web features unless it has also been activated as a phone with an authorized carrier. On July 3, 2007, Jon Lech Johansen reported on his blog that he had successfully bypassed this requirement and unlocked the iPhone's other features with a combination of custom software and modification of the iTunes binary. He published the software and offsets for others to use.
Unlike the first generation iPhone, the iPhone 3G must be activated in the store in most countries. This makes the iPhone 3G more difficult, but not impossible, to hack. The need for in-store activation, as well as the huge number of first-generation iPhone and iPod Touch users upgrading to iPhone OS 2.0, caused a worldwide overload of Apple's servers on July 11, 2008, the day on which both the iPhone 3G and iPhone OS 2.0 updates as well as MobileMe were released. After the update, devices were required to connect to Apple's servers to authenticate it, causing many devices to be temporarily unusable.
Users on the O2 network in the United Kingdom, however, can buy the phone online and activate it via iTunes as with the previous model. Even where not required, vendors usually offer activation for the buyer's convenience. In the US, Apple has begun to offer free shipping on both the iPhone 3G and the iPhone 3GS (when available), reversing the in-store activation requirement. Best Buy and Walmart will also sell the iPhone.
Unapproved third-party software and jailbreaking
The iPhone's operating system is designed to only run software that has an Apple-approved cryptographic signature. This restriction can be overcome by "jailbreaking" the phone, which involves replacing the iPhone's firmware with a slightly modified version that does not enforce the signature check. Doing so may be a circumvention of Apple's technical protection measures. Apple, in a statement to the United States Copyright Office in response to Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) lobbying for a DMCA exception for this kind of hacking, claimed that jailbreaking the iPhone would be copyright infringement due to the necessary modification of system software. However, in 2010, Jailbreaking was declared officially legal in the United States by the DMCA. Jailbroken iPhones may be susceptible to computer viruses, but few such incidents have been reported.
In 2007, 2010, and 2011, developers released a series of tools called JailbreakMe that used security vulnerabilities in Mobile Safari rendering to jailbreak the device (which allows users to install any compatible software on the device instead of only App Store apps). Each of these exploits were quickly fixed by iOS updates from Apple. Theoretically these flaws could have also been used for malicious purposes.
In July 2011, Apple released iOS 4.3.5 (4.2.10 for CDMA iPhone) to fix a security vulnerability with certificate validation.
Following the release of the iPhone 5S model, a group of German hackers called the Chaos Computer Club announced on September 21, 2013, that they had bypassed Apple's new Touch ID fingerprint sensor by using "easy everyday means." The group explained that the security system had been defeated by photographing a fingerprint from a glass surface and using that captured image as verification. The spokesman for the group stated: "We hope that this finally puts to rest the illusions people have about fingerprint biometrics. It is plain stupid to use something that you can't change and that you leave everywhere every day as a security token."
Most iPhones were and are still sold with a SIM lock, which restricts the use of the phone to one particular carrier, a common practice with subsidized GSM phones. Unlike most GSM phones, however, the phone cannot be officially unlocked by entering a code. The locked/unlocked state is maintained on Apple's servers per IMEI and is set when the iPhone is activated.[failed verification]
While the iPhone was initially sold in the U.S. only on the AT&T network with a SIM lock in place, various hackers have found methods to "unlock" the phone from a specific network. Although AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile and Verizon are the only authorized iPhone carriers in the United States, unlocked iPhones can be used with other carriers. For example, an unlocked iPhone may be used on the T-Mobile network in the U.S. but, while an unlocked iPhone is compatible with T-Mobile's voice network, it may not be able to make use of 3G or 4G functionality (i.e. no mobile web or e-mail, etc.).[failed verification] More than a quarter of the original first generation iPhones sold in the U.S. were not registered with AT&T. Apple speculates that they were likely shipped overseas and unlocked, a lucrative market before the iPhone 3G's worldwide release.
On March 26, 2009, AT&T in the United States began selling the iPhone without a contract, though still SIM-locked to their network. The up-front purchase price of such iPhone units is often twice as expensive as those bundled with contracts.
Outside of the United States, policies differ, especially in U.S. territories and insular areas like Guam; GTA Teleguam was the exclusive carrier for the iPhone since its introduction, as none of the four U.S. carriers (AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile, and Verizon) have a presence in the area. Since 2013, Docomo Pacific ended GTA's exclusivity starting with the iPhone 5.
Beginning April 8, 2012, AT&T began offering a factory SIM unlock option (which Apple calls a "whitelisting", allowing it to be used on any carrier the phone supports) for iPhone owners.
It has been reported that all of the Verizon 4G LTE phones come factory unlocked. After such discovery, Verizon announced that all of their 4G LTE phones, including iPhones, would remain unlocked. This is due to the regulations that the FCC has placed on the 700 MHz C-Block spectrum, which is used by Verizon. Apple loses more money than it makes on repair services in the US.
In the United Kingdom, O2, EE, 3, Vodafone, and Tesco Mobile sell the device under subsidized contracts, or for use on a pay as you go. They are locked to the network initially, though they can usually be unlocked either after a certain period of contract length has passed, or for a small fee (with the exception of the 3 network, which will unlock the device at any time for no charge). However, all current versions of iPhone are available for purchase SIM-free from the Apple Store or Apple's Online Store, consequently, they are unlocked for use on any GSM network too.
In Canada, all iPhones purchased for full retail price at an Apple Store or online at apple.com come unlocked which allows customer selection of carriers. iPhones sold in Canada purchased through mobile carries such as TELUS, Rogers, or Bell were locked to their respective networks and unlocking required visiting a carrier store and paying an unlocking fee. Third-party methods to unlock iPhones existed but were highly unreliable and sometimes rendered phones unusable. However, in 2017 the CRTC abolished SIM-locking and required that all mobile devices sold after December 1, 2017, come unlocked. The CRTC also mandated that carriers must offer unlocking services of existing devices for free to consumers, regardless of whether or not they had purchased the phone themselves. In Australia, the three major carriers (Optus, Telstra and Vodafone) offer legitimate unlocking, now at no cost for all iPhone devices, both current and prior models.
Internationally, policies vary, but many carriers sell the iPhone unlocked for full retail price.
Prevention of repair
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Apple takes numerous measures that make third-party repairs difficult. Only Apple and service providers / independent repair providers explicitly authorized by Apple are able to perform genuine replacements.
In the past (with models as early as the iPhone 6), there have been reports such as denial of operation if the home button is detected to have been tampered with, upon which an Error 53 is indicated instead. There have also been issues caused by swapping a display made by one manufacturer with one made by another, as Apple uses multiple suppliers for its displays.
In more recent models (starting with the iPhone XR), Apple displays non-removable warnings if the battery, display, or camera is replaced by a third party. Additionally, features are disabled upon detection of a "non-genuine" replacement such as disabling true tone or hiding the battery health feature. iFixit notes that a proprietary, cloud-linked System Configuration tool is required to "complete" a part repair, meaning that even replacing a genuine part with another genuine part will fail Apple's "genuine parts" check unless said tool is used.
Legal battles over brand name
In Mexico, the trademark iFone was registered in 2003 by a communications systems and services company, iFone. Apple tried to gain control over its brand name, but a Mexican court denied the request. The case began in 2009, when the Mexican firm sued Apple. The Supreme Court of Mexico upheld that iFone is the rightful owner and held that Apple iPhone is a trademark violation.
In Brazil, the brand IPHONE was registered in 2000 by the company then called Gradiente Eletrônica S.A., now IGB Eletrônica S.A. According to the filing, Gradiente foresaw the revolution in the convergence of voice and data over the Internet at the time. The final battle over the brand name concluded in 2008. On December 18, 2012, IGB launched its own line of Android smartphones under the tradename to which it has exclusive rights in the local market. In February 2013, the Brazilian Patent and Trademark Office (known as "Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial") issued a ruling that Gradiente Eletrônica, not Apple, owned the "iPhone" mark in Brazil. The "iPhone" term was registered by Gradiente in 2000, seven years before Apple's release of its first iPhone. This decision came three months after Gradiente Eletrônica launched a lower-cost smartphone using the iPhone brand. In June 2014, Apple won, for the second time, the right to use the brand name in Brazil. The court ruling determined that the Gradiente's registration does not own exclusive rights on the brand. Although Gradiente intended to appeal, with the decision Apple can use freely the brand without paying royalties to the Brazilian company.
In the Philippines, Solid Group launched the MyPhone brand in 2007. Stylized as "my|phone", Solid Broadband filed a trademark application of that brand. Apple later filed a trademark case at the Intellectual Property Office of the Philippines (IPOPHL) against Solid Broadband's MyPhone for "confusingly similar" to the iPhone and that it may likely "deceive" or "cause confusion" among consumers. Apple lost the trademark battle to Solid Group in a 2015 decision made by IPO director Nathaniel Arevalo, who also reportedly said that it was unlikely that consumers would be confused between the "iPhone" and the "MyPhone". "This is a case of a giant trying to claim more territory than what it is entitled to, to the great prejudice of a local 'Pinoy Phone' merchant who has managed to obtain a significant foothold in the mobile phone market through the marketing and sale of innovative products under a very distinctive trademark", Arevalo later added.
Location tracking controversies
Around April 20, 2011, a hidden unencrypted file on the iPhone and other iOS devices was widely discussed in the media. It was alleged that the file, labeled "consolidated.db", constantly stores the iPhone user's movement by approximating geographic locations calculated by triangulating nearby cell phone towers, a technology proven to be inaccurate at times. The file was released with the June 2010 update of Apple iOS4 and may contain almost a year's worth of data. Previous versions of iOS stored similar information in a file called "h-cells.plist".
F-Secure discovered that the data is transmitted to Apple twice a day and postulate that Apple is using the information to construct their global location database similar to the ones constructed by Google and Skyhook through wardriving. Nevertheless, unlike the Google "Latitude" application, which performs a similar task on Android phones, the file is not dependent upon signing a specific EULA or even the user's knowledge, but it is stated in the 15,200 word-long terms and conditions of the iPhone that "Apple and [their] partners and licensees may collect, use, and share precise location data, including the real-time geographic location of [the user's] Apple computer or device".
The file is also automatically copied onto the user's computer once synchronized with the iPhone. An open-source application named "iPhoneTracker", which turns the data stored in the file into a visual map, was made available to the public in April 2011. While the file cannot be erased without jailbreaking the phone, it can be encrypted.
Apple gave an official response on their web site on April 27, 2011, after questions were submitted by users, the Associated Press and others. Apple clarified that the data is a small portion of their crowd-sourced location database cache of Wi-Fi hotspots and cell towers which is downloaded from Apple into the iPhone for making location services faster than with only GPS, therefore the data does not represent the locations of the iPhone. The volume of data retained was an error. Apple issued an update for iOS (version 4.3.3, or 4.2.8 for the CDMA iPhone 4) which reduced the size of the cache, stopped it being backed up to iTunes, and erased it entirely whenever location services were turned off. The upload to Apple can also be selectively disabled from "System services", "Cell Network Search." Regardless, in July 2014, a report on state-owned China Central Television labeled the iPhone a "national security concern."
The "Frequent Locations" feature found in "Settings" under "Location Services" stores commonly visited locations locally on the device. This feature is said to help the accuracy of the GPS and Apple Maps since it can log information about the locations the user has frequently visited. However, this feature also keeps track of the number of times that the user has been to that location, the dates, and the exact times. Media outlets have publicized instructions on how this can be disabled for concerned users.
Transmission of private and technical data
A privacy experiment conducted by the Washington Post determined that the iPhone transmitted a host of personal data without the user's knowledge or consent, including phone number, email, exact location, device model and IP address, to "a dozen marketing companies, research firms and other personal data guzzlers" via 5,400 hidden app trackers. Some of the information shared with third parties was found to be in violation of the apps' own privacy regulations.
Encryption and intelligence agency access
It was revealed as a part of the 2013 mass surveillance disclosures that the American and British intelligence agencies, the National Security Agency (NSA) and the Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) have access to the user data in iPhones, BlackBerrys, and Android phones, respectively. They can read almost all smartphone information, including SMS, location, emails, and notes.
According to an article in The New York Times titled "Signaling Post-Snowden Era, New iPhone Locks Out N.S.A.", Apple has developed a new encryption method for iOS 8, described as "so deep that Apple could no longer comply with government warrants asking for customer information to be extracted from devices."
Throughout 2015, prosecutors in the United States argued for the U.S. government to be able to compel decryption of iPhone contents. After the 2015 San Bernardino attack, the FBI recovered an iPhone 5C that was issued to one of the shooters by his employer, and iCloud backups of that phone from a month and a half before the shooting. (The shooters had destroyed their personal phones.) The U.S. government attempted to obtain a court order under the All Writs Act compelling Apple to produce an IPSW file that would allow investigators to brute force the device passcode. Tim Cook responded on the company's website, outlining a need for encryption, arguing that if they produce a backdoor for one device, it would inevitably be used to compromise the privacy of other iPhone users. On February 19, Apple communicated to journalists that the password for the Apple ID for the iPhone had been changed within a day of the government obtaining it, preventing Apple from producing a workaround that would only target older devices. See FBI–Apple encryption dispute.
Apple iOS in combination with their specific hardware uses crypto-shredding when activating the "Erase all content and settings" by obliterating all the keys in 'effaceable storage'. This renderes all user data on the device cryptographically inaccessible.
Reception and legacy
The original iPhone has been described as "revolutionary", a "game-changer" for the mobile phone industry, and has been credited with helping to make Apple one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies by 2011. Newer iterations have also received praise, such as being called "the best phone", although in more recent years this has often not been the case.
The iPhone attracts users of all ages, and besides consumer use, the iPhone has also been adopted for business purposes. Research has shown that iPhones are commonly associated with wealth, and that the average iPhone user has 40% more annual income than the average Android user. Women are more likely than men to own an iPhone.
Before the release of the iPhone, handset manufacturers such as Nokia and Motorola were enjoying record sales of cell phones based more on fashion and brand rather than technological innovation. The smartphone market, dominated at the time by BlackBerry OS and Windows Mobile devices, was a "staid, corporate-led smartphone paradigm" focused on enterprise needs. Phones at the time were designed around carrier and business limits which were conservative with regards to bandwidth usage and battery life. Phones were sold in a very large number of models, often segmented by marketing strategy, confusing customers and sapping engineering resources. For example, phones marketed at business were often deliberately stripped of cameras or the ability to play music and games. Apple's approach was to deliberately simplify its product line by offering just one model a year for all customers while making it an expensive, high-end product.
Apple's marketing, building on successful iPod campaigns, helped the phone become a mass-market product with many buyers on launch day. Some market research has found that, compared to other products, a greater proportion of iPhone users are female. In 2012, Ars Technica wrote that Apple had avoided the kind of "patronizing" marketing that competitors used to sell low-quality, high-priced products to women.
When then-CEO of Research in Motion Mike Lazaridis pried open an iPhone, his impression was of a Mac stuffed into a cellphone, as it used much more memory and processing power than the smartphones on the market at the time. With its capacitive touchscreen and consumer-friendly design, the iPhone fundamentally changed the mobile industry; Steve Jobs proclaimed in 2007 that the phone was not just a communication tool but a way of life.
The dominant mobile operating systems at the time such as Symbian, BlackBerry OS, and Windows Mobile were not designed to handle tasks beyond communication and basic functions. These operating systems never focused on applications and developers, and due to infighting among manufacturers as well as the complexity of developing on their low-memory hardware, they never developed a thriving ecosystem like Apple's App Store or Android's Google Play. iPhone OS (renamed iOS in 2010) was designed with capabilities such as multitasking and graphics to meet future consumer demands. Many services were provided by mobile carriers, who often extensively customized devices. Meanwhile, Apple's decision to base its OS on OS X had the unexpected benefit of allowing OS X developers to rapidly expand into iOS development. Rival manufacturers have been forced to spend more on software and development costs to catch up to the iPhone. The iPhone's success has led to a decline in sales of high-end fashion phones and business-oriented smartphones such as Vertu and BlackBerry, as well as Nokia. Nokia realised the limitations of its operating system Symbian and attempted to develop a more advanced system, Maemo, without success. It ultimately agreed to a technology-sharing deal and then a takeover from Microsoft.
Before the iPhone, "Handsets were viewed largely as cheap, disposable lures, massively subsidized to snare subscribers and lock them into using the carriers' proprietary services." However, Wired wrote, "Apple retained complete control over the design, manufacturing, and marketing of the iPhone", meaning that it and not the carrier would control the software updates, and by extension security patches. By contrast, Google has allowed carriers and OEMs to dictate the "pace of upgrades and pre-load phones with their own software on top of Android". As a result, many Android OEMs often lag months behind Google's release of the next iteration of Android; although Google Nexus and Pixel devices are guaranteed two years of operating system updates and a third additional year for security. However, Apple has supported older iterations of iPhones for over four years. Some of the newer generations of iPhone have hit six years of support.
Apple sold 6.1 million first generation iPhone units over five quarters. Apple had achieved a 1.1% worldwide mobile phone share for the year 2008; in the smartphone market it held an 8.2% share. Sales in the fourth quarter of 2008 temporarily surpassed those of Research In Motion's (RIM) BlackBerry sales of 5.2 million units, which briefly made Apple the third largest mobile phone manufacturer by revenue, after Nokia and Samsung (however, some of this income is deferred). Numbers were lower in the first three quarters of 2009 until the fourth quarter surpassed sales of Q4 2008. Recorded sales grew steadily thereafter, and by the end of fiscal year 2010, a total of 73.5 million iPhones had been sold.
By 2010, the iPhone had a market share of barely 4% of all cell phones; however, Apple pulled in more than 50% of the total profit that global cellphone sales generated. Apple sold 14.1 million iPhones in the third quarter of 2010, representing a 91% unit growth over the year-ago quarter, which was well ahead of IDC's latest published estimate of 64% growth for the global smartphone market in the September quarter. Apple's sales surpassed that of Research in Motion's 12.1 million BlackBerry units sold in their most recent quarter ended August 2010. In the United States market alone for the third quarter of 2010, while there were 9.1 million Android-powered smartphones shipped for 43.6% of the market, Apple iOS was the number two phone operating system with 26.2% but the 5.5 million iPhones sold made it the most popular single device.
On March 2, 2011, at the iPad 2 launch event, Apple announced that they had sold 100 million iPhones worldwide. As a result of the success of the iPhone sales volume and high selling price, headlined by the iPhone 4S, Apple became the largest mobile handset vendor in the world by revenue in 2011, surpassing long-time leader Nokia. While the Samsung Galaxy S II proved more popular than the iPhone 4S in parts of Europe, the iPhone 4S was dominant in the United States. By 2012, the two-year-old iPhone 4 had outsold the original iPhone, iPhone 3G and iPhone 3GS models put together.
In January 2012, Apple reported its best quarterly earnings ever, with 53% of its revenue coming from the sale of 37 million iPhones, at an average selling price of nearly $660. The average selling price has remained fairly constant for most of the phone's lifespan, hovering between $622 and $660.
For the eight largest phone manufacturers in Q1 2012, according to Horace Dediu at Asymco, Apple and Samsung combined to take 99% of industry profits (HTC took the remaining 1%, while RIM, LG, Sony Ericsson, Motorola, and Nokia all suffered losses), with Apple earning 73 cents out of every dollar earned by the phone makers. As the industry profits grew from $5.3 billion in the first quarter of 2010 to $14.4 billion in the first quarter of 2012 (quadruple the profits in 2007), Apple had managed to increase its share of these profits. This is due to increasing carrier subsidies and the high selling prices of the iPhone, which had a negative effect on the wireless carriers (AT&T Mobility, Verizon, and Sprint) who have seen their EBITDA service margins drop as they sold an increasing number of iPhones.
In the fourth quarter of 2012, the iPhone 5 and iPhone 4S were the best-selling handsets with sales of 27.4 million (13% of smartphones worldwide) and 17.4 million units, respectively, with the Samsung Galaxy S III in third with 15.4 million. According to Strategy Analytics' data, this was "an impressive performance, given the iPhone portfolio's premium pricing", adding that the Galaxy S III's global popularity "appears to have peaked" (the Galaxy S III was touted as an iPhone-killer by some in the press when it was released). While Samsung has led in worldwide sales of smartphones, Apple's iPhone line has still managed to top Samsung's smartphone offerings in the United States, with 21.4% share and 37.8% in that market, respectively. iOS grew 3.5% to 37.8%, while Android slid 1.3% to fall to a 52.3% share.
The continued top popularity of the iPhone despite growing Android competition was also attributed to Apple being able to deliver iOS updates over the air, while Android updates are frequently impeded by carrier testing requirements and hardware tailoring, forcing consumers to purchase a new Android smartphone to get the latest version of that OS. However, by 2013, Apple's market share had fallen to 13.1%, due to the surging popularity of the Android offerings.
Apple announced on September 1, 2013, that its iPhone trade-in program would be implemented at all of its 250 specialty stores in the US. For the program to become available, customers must have a valid contract and must purchase a new phone, rather than simply receive a credit to be used at a later date. A significant part of the program's goal is to increase the number of customers who purchase iPhones at Apple stores rather than carrier stores.
On September 20, 2013, the sales date of the iPhone 5S and 5C models, the longest ever queue was observed at the New York City flagship Apple store, in addition to prominent queues in San Francisco, and Canada; however, locations throughout the world were identified for the anticipation of corresponding consumers. Apple also increased production of the gold-colored iPhone 5S by an additional one-third due to the particularly strong demand that emerged. Apple had decided to introduce a gold model after finding that gold was seen as a popular sign of a luxury product among Chinese customers.
Apple released its opening weekend sales results for the 5C and 5S models, showing an all-time high for the product's sales figures, with nine million handsets sold—the previous record was set in 2012, when five million handsets were sold during the opening weekend of the 5 model. This was the first time that Apple has simultaneously launched two models and the inclusion of China in the list of markets contributed to the record sales result. Apple also announced that, as of September 23, 2013[update], 200 million devices were running the iOS 7 update, making it the "fastest software upgrade in history."
An Apple Store located at the Christiana Mall in Newark, Delaware, claimed the highest iPhones sales figures in November 2013. The store's high sales results are due to the absence of a sales tax in the state of Delaware.
The finalization of a deal between Apple and China Mobile, the world's largest mobile network, was announced in late December 2013. The multi-year agreement provides iPhone access to over 760 million China Mobile subscribers.
On July 27, 2016, Apple had announced that that have sold their 1 billionth iPhone.
- History of the iPhone
- Newton (platform), an early personal digital assistant and the first tablet platform developed by Apple
- Pocket-sized computer
- Telephones portal
- 1 GB = 1 billion bytes, 1 TB = 1 trillion bytes
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