God Save the Queen
Publication of an early version in The Gentleman's Magazine, 15 October 1745. The title, on the contents page, is given as "God save our lord the king: A new song set for two voices".
National or royal anthem of
|Also known as||"God Save the King"
(when the monarch is male)
"God Save the Queen"
"God Save the Queen" (alternatively "God Save the King", depending on the gender of the reigning monarch) is the national or royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms, their territories, and the British Crown Dependencies. The author of the tune is unknown and it may originate in plainchant, but a 1619 attribution to John Bull is sometimes made.
It is the national anthem of the United Kingdom and one of two national anthems used by New Zealand since 1977, as well as for several of the UK's territories that have their own additional local anthem. It is also the royal anthem – played specifically in the presence of the monarch – of all the aforementioned countries, as well as Australia (since 1984), Canada (since 1980), Barbados and Tuvalu. In countries not previously part of the British Empire, the tune of "God Save the Queen" has provided the basis for various patriotic songs, though still generally connected with royal ceremony. In the United States, the melody is used for the patriotic song "My Country, 'Tis of Thee". The melody is also used for the national anthem of Liechtenstein, "Oben am jungen Rhein".
Beyond its first verse, which is consistent, "God Save the Queen/King" has many historic and extant versions. Since its first publication, different verses have been added and taken away and, even today, different publications include various selections of verses in various orders. In general, only one verse is sung. Sometimes two verses are sung, and on rare occasions, three.
The sovereign and her or his spouse are saluted with the entire anthem, while other members of the Royal Family who are entitled to royal salute (such as the Prince of Wales) receive just the first six bars. The first six bars also form all or part of the Vice Regal Salute in some Commonwealth realms outside the UK (e.g., in Canada, governors general and lieutenant governors at official events are saluted with the first six bars of "God Save the Queen" followed by the first four and last four bars of "O Canada"), as well as the salute given to governors of British overseas territories.
- 1 History
- 2 Use in the United Kingdom
- 3 Use in other Commonwealth countries
- 4 Use elsewhere
- 5 Musical adaptations
- 6 Reception
- 7 Notes
- 8 External links
In The Oxford Companion to Music, Percy Scholes points out the similarities to an early plainsong melody, although the rhythm is very distinctly that of a galliard, and he gives examples of several such dance tunes that bear a striking resemblance to "God Save the King/Queen". Scholes quotes a keyboard piece by John Bull (1619) which has some similarities to the modern tune, depending on the placing of accidentals which at that time were unwritten in certain cases and left to the discretion of the player (see musica ficta). He also points to several pieces by Henry Purcell, one of which includes the opening notes of the modern tune, set to the words "God Save the King". Nineteenth-century scholars and commentators mention the widespread belief that an old Scots carol, "Remember O Thou Man" was the source of the tune.
The first published version of what is almost the present tune appeared in 1744 in Thesaurus Musicus. The 1744 version of the song was popularised in Scotland and England the following year, with the landing of Charles Edward Stuart and was published in The Gentleman's Magazine (see illustration above). This manuscript has the tune depart from that which is used today at several points, one as early as the first bar, but is otherwise clearly a strong relative of the contemporary anthem. It was recorded as being sung in London theatres in 1745, with, for example, Thomas Arne writing a setting of the tune for the Drury Lane Theatre.
Scholes' analysis includes mention of "untenable" and "doubtful" claims, as well as "an American misattribution". Some of these are:
- The French Marquise de Créquy wrote in her book "Souvenirs", that the tune Grand Dieu Sauve Le Roi, was written by Jean-Baptiste Lully in gratitude for the survival by Louis XIV of an anal fistula operation. The surgical knife that was purpose-built for the occasion is on display in the Musée d'histoire de la médecine. Lully set words by Marie de Brinon to music, and Créquy claims the tune was later plagiarised by Handel. Translated in Latin under the name Domine, Salvum Fac Regem, it became the French anthem until 1792. After the Battle of Culloden, the Hanover dynasty supposedly then adopted this melody as the British anthem.
- James Oswald: He is a possible author of the Thesaurus Musicus, so may have played a part in the history of the song, but is not a strong enough candidate to be cited as the composer of the tune.
- Dr Henry Carey: Scholes refutes this attribution, first on the grounds that Carey himself never made such a claim. Second, when the claim was made by Carey's son (as late as 1795), it was accompanied by a request for a pension from the British Government on that score. Third, the younger Carey claimed that his father had written parts of it in 1745, even though the older Carey had died in 1743. It has also been claimed that the work was first publicly performed by Carey during a dinner in 1740 in honour of Admiral Edward "Grog" Vernon, who had captured the Spanish harbour of Porto Bello (then in Colombia, now Panama) during the War of Jenkins' Ear.
Scholes recommends the attribution "traditional" or "traditional; earliest known version by John Bull (1562–1628)". The English Hymnal (musical editor Ralph Vaughan Williams) gives no attribution, stating merely "17th or 18th cent."
Use in the United Kingdom
"God Save the Queen" is the national anthem of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Like many aspects of British constitutional life, its official status derives from custom and use, not from Royal Proclamation or Act of Parliament. In general only one or two verses are sung, but on rare occasions three. The variation in the UK of the lyrics to "God Save the Queen" is the oldest amongst those currently used, and forms the basis on which all other versions used throughout the Commonwealth are formed; though, again, the words have varied throughout these years.
England has no official national anthem of its own; "God Save the Queen" is treated as the English national anthem when England is represented at sporting events (though there are some exceptions to this rule, such as cricket where Jerusalem is used). There is a movement to establish an English national anthem, with Blake and Parry's "Jerusalem" and Elgar's "Land of Hope and Glory" among the top contenders. Scotland has its own national song and Wales has its own national anthem for political and national events and for use at international football, rugby union and other sports in which those nations compete independently. On all occasions Wales' national anthem is "Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau" (Land of my Fathers). Scotland has no single anthem; "Scotland the Brave" was traditionally used until the 1990s, when "Flower of Scotland" was adopted. In Northern Ireland, "God Save the Queen" is still used as the official anthem.
The phrase "No surrender" is occasionally sung in the bridge before "Send her victorious" by England football fans at matches. The phrase "no surrender" is also associated with Combat 18, a white supremacist group. The phrase is also associated with Ulster loyalism and can sometimes be heard at the same point before Northern Ireland football matches.
Since 2003, "God Save the Queen", considered an all inclusive Anthem for Great Britain and Northern Ireland, as well as other countries within the Commonwealth, has been dropped from the Commonwealth Games. Northern Irish athletes receive their gold medals to the tune of the "Londonderry Air", popularly known as "Danny Boy". In 2006, English winners heard Elgar's Pomp and Circumstance March No. 1, usually known as "Land of Hope and Glory", but after a poll conducted by the Commonwealth Games Council for England prior to the 2010 Games, "Jerusalem" was adopted as England's new Commonwealth Games anthem. In sports in which the UK competes as one nation, most notably as Great Britain at the Olympics, "God Save the Queen" is used to represent anyone or any team that comes from the United Kingdom.
Lyrics in the UK
The phrase "God Save the King" is much older than the song, appearing, for instance, several times in the King James Bible. A text based on the 1st Book of Kings Chapter 1: verses 38–40, "...And all the people rejoic'd, and said: God save the King! Long live the King! May the King live for ever, Amen", has been sung at every coronation since that of King Edgar in 973. Scholes says that as early as 1545 "God Save the King" was a watchword of the Royal Navy, with the response being "Long to reign over us". He also notes that the prayer read in churches on anniversaries of the Gunpowder Plot includes words which might have formed part of the basis for the second verse "Scatter our enemies...assuage their malice and confound their devices".
In 1745, The Gentleman's Magazine published "God save our lord the king: A new song set for two voices", describing it "As sung at both Playhouses" (the Theatres Royal at Drury Lane and Covent Garden). Traditionally, the first performance was thought to have been in 1745, when it was sung in support of King George II, after his defeat at the Battle of Prestonpans by the army of Charles Edward Stuart, son of James Francis Edward Stuart, the Jacobite claimant to the British throne.
It is sometimes claimed that, ironically, the song was originally sung in support of the Jacobite cause: the word "send" in the line "Send him victorious" could imply that the king was absent. However, the Oxford English Dictionary cites examples of "[God] send (a person) safe, victorious, etc." meaning "God grant that he may be safe, etc.". There are also examples of early eighteenth century Jacobean drinking glasses which are inscribed with a version of the words and were apparently intended for drinking the health of King James II and VII.
Scholes acknowledges these possibilities but argues that the same words were probably being used by both Jacobite and Hanoverian supporters and directed at their respective kings.
In 1902, the musician William Hayman Cummings, quoting mid-18th century correspondence between Charles Burney and Sir Joseph Banks, proposed that the words were based on a Latin verse composed for King James II at the Chapel Royal.
O Deus optime Salvum nunc facito Regem nostrum; Sic laeta victoria Comes et gloria Salvum iam facito Tu dominum.
Standard version in the United Kingdom
There is no definitive version of the lyrics. However, the version consisting of the three verses reproduced in the box on the right hand side has the best claim to be regarded as the "standard" British version, appearing not only in the 1745 Gentleman's Magazine, but also in publications such as The Book of English Songs: From the Sixteenth to the Nineteenth Century (1851), National Hymns: How They Are Written and How They Are Not Written (1861), Household Book of Poetry (1882), and Hymns Ancient and Modern, Revised Version (1982).
The same version with verse two omitted appears in publications including Scouting for Boys (1908), and on the British Monarchy website. At the Queen's Golden Jubilee Party at the Palace concert, Prince Charles referred in his speech to the "politically incorrect second verse" of the National Anthem.
According to Alan Michie's Rule, Britannia, which was published in 1952, after the death of King George VI but before the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II, when the first General Assembly of the United Nations was held in London in January 1946 the King, in honour of the occasion, "ordered the belligerent imperious second stanza of 'God Save the King' to be rewritten to bring it more into the spirit of the brotherhood of nations."
In the UK, the first verse is the only verse typically sung, even at official occasions, although the third verse is sung in addition on rare occasions such as during the opening ceremonies of the 2012 Summer Olympics and 2012 Summer Paralympics, and usually at the Last Night of the Proms. At the Closing Ceremony of the 2008 Beijing Olympics, the fourth verse of the William Hickson alternative lyrics was sung instead of the third verse.
Standard version of the music
The standard version of the melody and its key of G major are still those of the originally published version, although the start of the anthem is often signalled by an introductory timpani roll of two bars length. The bass line of the standard version differs little from the second voice part shown in the original, and there is a standard version in four-part harmony for choirs. The first three lines (six bars of music) are soft, ending with a short crescendo into "Send her victorious", and then is another crescendo at "over us:" into the final words "God save the Queen".
In the early part of the 20th century there existed a Military Band version, usually played in march time, in the higher key of B♭, because it was easier for brass instruments to play in that key, though it had the disadvantage of being more difficult to sing: however now most Bands play it in the correct key of G.
Alternative British versions
There have been several attempts to improve the song by rewriting the words. In the nineteenth century there was some lively debate about the national anthem and, even then, verse two was considered to be slightly offensive. Notably, the question arose over the phrase "scatter her enemies." Some thought it placed better emphasis on the respective power of Parliament and the Crown to change "her" to "our"; others pointed out that the theology was somewhat dubious and substituted "thine" instead. Sydney G. R. Coles wrote a completely new version, as did Canon F. K. Harford. In 1836, William Edward Hickson wrote four alternative verses. The first, third, and fourth of these verses are appended to the National Anthem in the English Hymnal (which only includes verses one and three of the original lyrics).
William Hickson's alternative version
William Hickson's alternative (1836) version includes the following verses, of which the first, third, and fourth have some currency as they are appended to the National Anthem in the English Hymnal. The fourth verse was sung after the traditional first verse at the Queen's Golden Jubilee National Service of Thanksgiving in 2002 and during the raising of the Union Flag during the closing ceremonies of the 2008 Summer Olympics.
God bless our native land!
May heaven's protecting hand
Still guard our shore:
May peace her power extend,
Foe be transformed to friend,
And Britain's rights depend
On war no more.
O Lord, our monarch bless
With strength and righteousness:
Long may she reign:
Her heart inspire and move
With wisdom from above;
And in a nation's love
Her throne maintain
May just and righteous laws
Uphold the public cause,
And bless our isle:
Home of the brave and free,
Thou land of liberty,
We pray that still on thee
Kind heaven may smile.
Not in this land alone,
But be God's mercies known
From shore to shore:
Lord make the nations see
That men should brothers be,
And form one family
The wide world over
Official peace version
A less militaristic version of the song, titled "Official peace version, 1919", was first published in the hymn book Songs of Praise in 1925. This was "official" in the sense that it was approved by the British Privy Council in 1919. However, despite being reproduced in some other hymn books, it is largely unknown today.
God save our gracious Queen
Long live our noble Queen
God save The Queen!
Send her victorious
Happy and glorious
Long to reign over us
God save The Queen!
One realm of races four
Blest more and ever more
God save our land!
Home of the brave and free
Set in the silver sea
True nurse of chivalry
God save our land!
Of many a race and birth
From utmost ends of earth
God save us all!
Bid strife and hatred cease
Bid hope and joy increase
Spread universal peace
God save us all!
Historic alternative verses
Around 1745, anti-Jacobite sentiment was captured in a verse appended to the song, with a prayer for the success of Field Marshal George Wade's army then assembling at Newcastle. These words attained some short-term use, although they did not appear in the published version in the October 1745 Gentleman's Magazine. This verse was first documented as an occasional addition to the original anthem by Richard Clark in 1822, and was also mentioned in a later article on the song, published by the Gentleman's Magazine in October 1836. Therein, it is presented as an "additional verse... though being of temporary application only... stored in the memory of an old friend... who was born in the very year 1745, and was thus the associate of those who heard it first sung", the lyrics given being:
Lord, grant that Marshal Wade,
May by thy mighty aid,
May he sedition hush,
and like a torrent rush,
Rebellious Scots to crush,
God save the King.
The 1836 article and other sources make it clear that this verse was not used soon after 1745, and certainly before the song became accepted as the British national anthem in the 1780s and 1790s. It was included as an integral part of the song in the Oxford Book of Eighteenth Century Verse of 1926, although erroneously referencing the "fourth verse" to the Gentleman's Magazine article of 1745.
On the opposing side, Jacobite beliefs were demonstrated in an alternative verse used during the same period:
In May 1800, following an attempt to assassinate King George III at London's Drury Lane theatre, playwright Richard Sheridan immediately composed an additional verse, which was sung from the stage the same night:
From every latent foe
From the assassins blow
God save the King
O'er him Thine arm extend
For Britain's sake defend
Our father, king, and friend
God save the King!
Various other attempts were made during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to add verses to commemorate particular royal or national events. For example, according to Fitzroy Maclean, when Jacobite forces bypassed Wade's force and reached Derby, but then retreated and when their garrison at Carlisle Castle surrendered to a second government army led by King George's son, the Duke of Cumberland, another verse was added. Other short-lived verses were notably anti-French, such as the following, quoted in the book Handel by Edward J. Dent:
From France and Pretender
Great Britain defend her,
Foes let them fall;
From foreign slavery,
Priests and their knavery,
And Popish Reverie,
God save us all.
However, none of these additional verses survived into the twentieth century. Updated "full" versions including additional verses have been published more recently, including the standard three verses, Hickson's fourth verse, Sheridan's verse and the Marshal Wade verse.
Performance in the UK
The style most commonly heard in official performances was proposed as the "proper interpretation" by King George V, who considered himself something of an expert (in view of the number of times he had heard it). An Army Order was duly issued in 1933, which laid down regulations for tempo, dynamics and orchestration. This included instructions such as that the opening "six bars will be played quietly by the reed band with horns and basses in a single phrase. Cornets and side-drum are to be added at the little scale-passage leading into the second half of the tune, and the full brass enters for the last eight bars". The official tempo for the opening section is a metronome setting of 60, with the second part played in a broader manner, at a metronome setting of 52. In recent years the prescribed sombre-paced introduction is often played at a faster and livelier tempo.
Until the latter part of the 20th century, theatre and concert goers were expected to stand while the anthem was played after the conclusion of a show. In cinemas this brought a tendency for audiences to rush out while the end credits played to avoid this formality. (This can be seen in the 1972 Dad's Army episode A Soldier's Farewell.)
The anthem was traditionally played at closedown on the BBC, and with the introduction of commercial television to the UK this practice was adopted by some ITV companies (with the notable exception of Granada). BBC Two never played the anthem at closedown, and ITV dropped the practice in the late 1980s, but it continued on BBC One until the final closedown on 8 November 1997 (thereafter BBC1 began to simulcast with BBC News after end of programmes). The tradition is carried on, however, by BBC Radio 4, which plays the anthem each night as a transition piece between the end of the Radio Four broadcasting and the move to BBC World Service. Radio 4 and Radio 2 also play the National Anthem at 0700 and 0800 on the actual and official birthdays of the Queen and the birthdays of senior members of the Royal Family.
The anthem usually prefaces The Queen's Christmas Message (although in 2007 it appeared at the end, taken from a recording of the 1957 television broadcast), and important royal announcements, such as of royal deaths, when it is played in a slower, sombre arrangement.
Other British anthems
Frequently, when an anthem is needed for one of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom – at an international sporting event, for instance – an alternative song is used:
- England generally uses "God Save the Queen", but "Jerusalem", "Rule, Britannia!" and "Land of Hope and Glory" have also been used.
- At international test cricket matches, England has, since 2004, used "Jerusalem" as the anthem.
- At international rugby league matches, England uses "God Save the Queen" and also "Jerusalem".
- At international rugby union and football matches, England uses "God Save the Queen".
- At the Commonwealth Games, Team England uses "Jerusalem" as their victory anthem.
- Scotland uses "Flower of Scotland" as their anthem for most sporting occasions.
- Wales uses Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau ("Land of My Fathers") for governmental ceremonies and sporting occasions. At official occasions, especially those with royal connections, "God Save the Queen" is also played.
- Northern Ireland uses "God Save the Queen" as its national anthem. Northern Ireland also uses "Londonderry Air" as its victory anthem at the Commonwealth Games. However, many Irish nationalists feel unrepresented by the unionist anthem and seek an alternative.
- The British and Irish Lions rugby union tour used the song "The Power of Four", but this anthem was especially designed for the 2005 tour and was used only then.
In April 2007 there was an early day motion, number 1319, to the British Parliament to propose that there should be a separate England anthem: "That this House ... believes that all English sporting associations should adopt an appropriate song that English sportsmen and women, and the English public, would favour when competing as England". An amendment (EDM 1319A3) was proposed by Evan Harris that the song "should have a bit more oomph than God Save The Queen and should also not involve God."
For more information see also:
Use in other Commonwealth countries
"God Save the King/Queen" was exported around the world via the expansion of the British Empire, serving as each country's national anthem. Throughout the Empire's evolution into the Commonwealth of Nations, the song declined in use in most states which became independent. In some countries it remains as one of the official national anthems, such as in New Zealand, or as an official royal anthem, as is the case in Australia, Canada, Jamaica, and Tuvalu, to be played during formal ceremonies involving national royalty or vice-royalty.
In Australia, the song has standing through a Royal Proclamation issued by Governor-General Sir Ninian Stephen on 19 April 1984. It declared "God Save the Queen" to be the Royal Anthem and that it is to be played when the Australian monarch or a member of the Royal Family is present, though not exclusively in such circumstances. The same proclamation made "Advance Australia Fair" the national anthem and the basis for the "Vice-Regal Salute" (the first four and last two bars of the anthem). Prior to 1974, "God Save the Queen" was the national anthem of Australia.
By convention, "God Save the Queen" is the Royal Anthem of Canada. It is sometimes played or sung together with the national anthem, "O Canada", at private and public events organised by groups such as the Government of Canada, the Royal Canadian Legion, police services, and loyal groups. The governor general and provincial lieutenant governors are accorded the "Viceregal Salute", comprising the first three lines of "God Save the Queen", followed by the first and last lines of "O Canada".
"God Save the Queen" has been sung in Canada since the late 1700s and by the mid 20th century was, along with "O Canada", one of the country's two de facto national anthems, the first and last verses of the standard British version being used. By-laws and practices governing the use of either song during public events in municipalities varied; in Toronto, "God Save the Queen" was employed, while in Montreal it was "O Canada". Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson in 1964 said one song would have to be chosen as the country's national anthem and, three years later, he advised Governor General Georges Vanier to appoint the Special Joint Committee of the Senate and House of Commons on the National and Royal Anthems. Within two months, on 12 April 1967, the committee presented its conclusion that "God Save the Queen", whose music and lyrics were found to be in the public domain, should be designated as the Royal Anthem of Canada and "O Canada" as the national anthem, one verse from each, in both official languages, to be adopted by parliament. The group was then charged with establishing official lyrics for each song; for "God Save the Queen", the English words were those inherited from the United Kingdom and the French words were taken from those that had been adopted in 1952 for the coronation of Elizabeth II. When the bill pronouncing "O Canada" as the national anthem was put through parliament, the joint committee's earlier recommendations regarding "God Save the Queen" were not included.
The Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces regulates that "God Save the Queen" be played as a salute to the monarch and other members of the Canadian Royal Family, though it may also be used as a hymn, or prayer. The words are not to be sung when the song is played as a military royal salute and is abbreviated to the first three lines while arms are being presented. Elizabeth II stipulated that the arrangement in G major by Lieutenant Colonel Basil H. Brown be used in Canada. The authorised version to be played by pipe bands is Mallorca.
Lyrics in Canada
The first verse of "God Save the Queen" has been translated into French, as shown below:
- Dieu protège la reine
- De sa main souveraine!
- Vive la reine!
- Qu'un règne glorieux
- Long et victorieux,
- Rende son peuple heureux.
- Vive la reine!
There is a special Canadian verse in English which was once commonly sung in addition to the two standing verses:
- Our loved Dominion bless
- With peace and happiness
- From shore to shore;
- And let our Empire be
- Loyal, united, free,
- True to herself and Thee
- For evermore.
"God Save the Queen" was the sole official national anthem until 1977 when "God Defend New Zealand" was added as a second. "God Save the Queen" is now most often only played when the sovereign, governor-general or other member of the Royal Family is present, or on some occasions such as Anzac Day.
In New Zealand, the second more militaristic verse is sometimes replaced with Hickson's verse "Nor in this land alone..." (often sung as "Not in this land alone"), otherwise known as a "Commonwealth verse".
When Rhodesia issued its Unilateral Declaration of Independence from the UK on 11 November 1965, it did so while still maintaining loyalty to Queen Elizabeth II as the Rhodesian head of state, despite the non-recognition of the Rhodesian government by the United Kingdom and the United Nations; "God Save the Queen" therefore remained the Rhodesian national anthem. This was supposed to demonstrate the continued allegiance of the Rhodesian people to the monarch, but the retention in Rhodesia of a song so associated with the UK while the two countries were at loggerheads regarding its constitutional status caused Rhodesian state occasions to have "a faintly ironic tone", in the words of The Times. Nevertheless, "God Save the Queen" remained Rhodesia's national anthem until March 1970, when the country formally declared itself a republic. "Rise, O Voices of Rhodesia" was adopted in its stead in 1974 and remained in use until the country returned to British control in December 1979. Since the internationally recognised independence of the Republic of Zimbabwe in April 1980, "God Save the Queen" has had no official status there.
"God Save the King" was one of the first songs to successfully be used as a national anthem, only the Dutch Het Wilhelmus (~1568) is older. (The Spanish La Marcha Real is older as well, but took longer to become popular. Japan's anthem Kimigayo has lyrics which are older still, but a more recent melody). Its success prompted a number of other countries to pen similar anthems to help construct a concrete national identity - many of which used the same tune:
- The Imperial anthem of Germany, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (originally the royal anthem of Prussia since 1795), used the melody of "God Save the King". In addition, several German states used the tune, including Bavaria (Heil unserm König, Heil! - Hail to our King, Hail!), Saxony (Gott segne Sachsenland - God bless Saxony) and Liechtenstein, which did not join the German Empire (see below). During the reign of Otto of Greece, the Bavarian royal anthem also served as the Greek anthem.
- The anthem of the Kingdom of Hanover, Heil dir, Hannover, used the melody of "God Save the King". Hanover was in personal union with the Kingdom of Great Britain and subsequently the United Kingdom from 1714 to 1837.
- The national anthem of Imperial Russia from 1816 to 1833 was Molitva russkikh ("The Prayer of Russians"), which used the melody of "God Save the King" and lyrics by Vasily Zhukovsky.
- In Switzerland (Rufst Du, mein Vaterland or Ô monts indépendants, until 1961).
- "God Save the King" was used as the national anthem of the Kingdom of Hawaii before 1860
- E Ola Ke Alii Ke Akua, from 1860 to 1886 the national anthem of Hawaii, was set to the same melody.
- The American patriotic hymn "My Country, 'Tis of Thee", the lyrics of which were written by Samuel Francis Smith in 1831. The song is often quoted – alongside "Hail, Columbia" – as a de facto national anthem for the United States, before the de jure adoption of "The Star-Spangled Banner" in 1931.
- Norway's royal anthem Kongesangen uses the melody.
- The Swedish royal anthem Bevare Gud vår kung between 1805 and 1880, used the melody.
- Liechtenstein's anthem Oben am jungen Rhein uses the same melody. In consequence, the tune was played twice before a Euro 2004 qualifying match between England and Liechtenstein; and again before the Euro 96 qualifier between Northern Ireland and Liechtenstein. (When England plays Northern Ireland, the tune is only played once).
- Iceland's de facto national anthem in the 19th century was Íslands minni ("To Iceland", better known as Eldgamla Ísafold), a poem by Bjarni Thorarensen set to the melody of "God Save the King". This lasted until the current national anthem was adopted, first by popular consent and later by law. The tune remains a popular one in Iceland and many different texts—serious, satirical and comical—have been set to it.
The melody is also used as a hymn tune by Christian churches in various countries, including by the United Methodists of the southern United States, Mexico, and Latin America, among other denominations. "Glory to God on High" is frequently sung to the tune, as is "Since I Have My Retreat" in the Protestant Church of Korea, and the Dutch hymn "Eeuwig en machtig Heer".
The Ren & Stimpy Show uses a parody version of the tune for the anthem of the "Royal Canadian Kilted Yaksmen".
About 140 composers have used the tune in their compositions, including Beethoven, Haydn, Brahms, Clementi, J. C. Bach, Liszt, Britten, Carl Maria von Weber, Niccolò Paganini, Johann Strauss I, and Edward Elgar.
Ludwig van Beethoven composed a set of seven piano variations in the key of C major to the theme of "God Save the King", catalogued as WoO.78 (1802–1803). He also quotes it in his orchestral work Wellington's Victory.
Muzio Clementi used the theme to "God Save the King" in his Symphony No. 3 in G major, often called the "Great National Symphony", catalogued as WoO. 34. Clementi paid a high tribute to his adopted homeland (the United Kingdom) where he grew up and stayed most of his lifetime. He based the Symphony (about 1816–1824) on "God Save the King", which is hinted at earlier in the work, not least in the second movement, and announced by the trombones in the finale. • Symphony No. 3 " Great National Symphony " in en sol majeur/G-dur/G major/sol maggiore 1. Andante sostenuto – Allegro con brio 2. Andante un poco mosso 3. Minuetto. Allegretto 4. Finale. Vivace
Johann Christian Bach composed a set of variations on "God Save the King" for the finale to his sixth keyboard concerto (Op. 1) written c. 1763.
Joseph Haydn was impressed by the use of "God Save the King" as a national anthem during his visit to London in 1794, and on his return to Austria composed "Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser" ("God Save Emperor Francis") for the birthday of the last Holy Roman Emperor and Roman-German King, Francis II. It became the anthem of the Austrian Empire after the end of the Holy Roman Empire with revised lyrics, its tune ultimately being used for the German national anthem. The tune of "God Save the King" was adopted for the Prussian royal anthem "Heil Dir im Siegerkranz".
Franz Liszt wrote a piano paraphrase on the anthem (S.259 in the official catalogue, c. 1841).
Johann Strauss I quoted "God Save the Queen" in full at the end of his waltz Huldigung der Königin Victoria von Grossbritannien (Homage to Queen Victoria of Great Britain) Op. 103, where he also quoted Rule, Britannia! in full at the beginning of the piece.
Heinrich Marschner used the anthem in his "Grande Ouverture solenne", op.78 (1842).
Joachim Raff used this anthem in his Jubelouverture, Opus 103 (1864) dedicated to Adolf, Herzog von Nassau, on the 25th anniversary of his reign.
Gioachino Rossini used this anthem in the last scene of his "Il viaggio a Reims", when all the characters, coming from many different European countries, sing a song which recalls their own homeland. Lord Sidney, bass, sings "Della real pianta" on the notes of "God Save the King". Samuel Ramey used to interpolate a spectacular virtuoso cadenza at the end of the song.
Fernando Sor used the anthem in his 12 Studies, Op. 6: No. 10 in C Major in the section marked 'Maestoso.'
Claude Debussy opens with a brief introduction of "God Save the King" in one of his Preludes, Hommage à S. Pickwick Esq. P.P.M.P.C. The piece draws its inspiration from the main character of the Charles Dickens novel The Pickwick Papers.
Niccolò Paganini wrote a set of highly virtuosic variations on "God Save the King" as his Opus 9.
A week before the Coronation Ode was due to be premiered at the June 1902 "Coronation Gala Concert" at Covent Garden (it was cancelled, owing to the King's illness), Sir Edward Elgar introduced an arrangement of "Land of Hope and Glory" as a solo song performed by Clara Butt at a "Coronation Concert" at the Albert Hall. Novello seized upon the prevailing patriotism and requested that Elgar arrange the National Anthem as an appropriate opening for a concert performed in front of the Court and numerous British and foreign dignitaries. This version for orchestra and chorus, which is enlivened by use of a cappella and marcato effects, was also performed at the opening of the British Empire Exhibition at Wembley on St. George’s Day, 1924, and recorded under the composer's Baton in 1928, with the LSO and the Philharmonic Choir. Elgar also used the first verse of the Anthem as the climax of a short "Civic Procession and Anthem", written to accompany the mayoral procession at the opening of the Hereford Music Festival on 4 September 1927. This premiere performance was recorded, and is today available on CD; the score was lost following the festival, and Elgar resorted to reconstructing it by ear from the recording.
Carl Maria von Weber uses the "God Save the King" theme at the end of his "Jubel Overture"
Charles Ives wrote Variations on "America" for organ in 1891 at age seventeen. It included a polytonal section in three simultaneous keys, though this was omitted from performances at his father's request, because "it made the boys laugh out loud". Ives was fond of the rapid pedal line in the final variation, which he said was "almost as much fun as playing baseball". The piece was not published until 1949; the final version includes an introduction, seven variations and a polytonal interlude. The piece was adapted for orchestra in 1963 by William Schuman. This version became popular during the bicentennial celebrations, and is often heard at pops concerts.
Muthuswami Dikshitar (1776–1835), one of the musical trinity in South Indian classical (Carnatic) music composed some Sanskrit pieces set to Western tunes. These are in the raga Sankarabharanam and are referred to as "nottu swaras". Among these, the composition "Santatam Pahimam Sangita Shyamale" is set to the tune of "God Save the Queen"
Johan Nepomuk Hummel (1778-1837) Variations from God Save the King in D major op10
Adrien-François Servais (1807–66) and Joseph Ghys (1801–48) wrote Variations brillantes et concertantes sur l'air "God Save the King", Op. 38, for violin and cello and performed it in London and St Petersburg.
Georges Onslow (1784-1853) used the tune in his String Quartet No. 7 in G Minor, op.9, second movement.
The Beatles performed an impromptu version of "God Save the Queen" during their 30 January 1969 rooftop concert, atop the Apple building. They had also whistled the melody of the song on their first fan club Christmas record in 1963.
Jimi Hendrix of The Jimi Hendrix Experience played an impromptu version of "God Save the Queen" to open his set at the Isle of Wight Festival 1970. Just before walking onto the stage, he can be seen (on the DVD) and heard to ask "How does it go again?" in reference to said UK national anthem. He may have been able to simply hear it mimicked by voice and then perform it, though the same melody was (and is) widely known in the United States to the lyrics "My country, 'tis of thee". Hendrix gave the same sort of distortion and improvisation of "God Save the Queen", as he had done with "The Star-Spangled Banner" at the Woodstock Festival, 1969.
The rock band Queen recorded an instrumental version of "God Save the Queen" on their 1975 album A Night at the Opera. It was arranged by guitarist Brian May and features his distinctive layers of overdubbed electric guitars. A tape of this version would be played at the end of almost every concert, with Freddie Mercury walking around the stage wearing a crown and a cloak on their Magic Tour in 1986. The song was played whilst all the Queen members would take their bows. On 3 June 2002, during the Queen's Golden Jubilee, Brian May performed the anthem on his Red Special electric guitar for Party at the Palace, performing from the roof of Buckingham Palace, and features on the 30th Anniversary DVD edition of A Night at the Opera.
|"God Save the Queen"|
|Song by Queen|
|from the album A Night at the Opera|
|Recorded||1975 at Sarm East Studios|
|Label||EMI, Parlophone (Europe)
Elektra, Hollywood (US)
|Producer(s)||Queen, Roy Thomas Baker|
|A Night at the Opera track listing|
In 1977, the Sex Pistols recorded a song titled "God Save the Queen" in open reference to the National Anthem and the Queen's Silver Jubilee celebrations that year, with the song intending to stand for sympathy for the working class and resentment of the monarchy. They were banned from many venues, censored by mainstream media, and reached number 2 on the official U.K. singles charts and number 1 on the NME chart.
The philosopher and reformer Jeremy Bentham praised "God Save the King" in 1796: "the melody recommending itself by beauty to the most polished ears, and by its simplicity to the rudest ear. A song of this complexion, implanted by the habit of half a century in the mass of popular sentiment, can not be refused a place in the inventory of the national blessings." Ludwig van Beethoven wrote "I have to show the English a little of what a blessing 'God Save the King' is". Alex Marshall, the British author of Republic or Death!: Travels in Search of National Anthems, called the anthem "ludicrous".
- "National Anthem". The official website of The British Monarchy. Archived from the original on 2 September 2014. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- "Isle of Man". nationalanthems.info. Archived from the original on 27 September 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
- MacLeod, Kevin S. (2008), A Crown of Maples (PDF) (1 ed.), Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada, p. I, ISBN 978-0-662-46012-1, retrieved 25 June 2010
- "United Kingdom - God Save the Queen". NationalAnthems.me. Retrieved 23 November 2011.
- cf. the versions in the hymn books English Hymnal, Hymns Ancient and Modern, and Songs of Praise
- Scholes, Percy A. The Oxford Companion to Music, Tenth Edition. Oxford University Press.
- Sousa, John Philip (1890). National, Patriotic, and Typical Airs of All Lands.
[Remember O Thou Man] is the air on the ground of which God Save the King Is sometimes claimed for Scotland. It is in two strains of 8 bars each and has the rhythm and melody of the modern tune in the first and third bars of the second strain. But it is in minor.
- Pinkerton, John (1830). The Literary Correspondence of John Pinkerton, Esq.
Remember O thou man is unquestionably the root of God save the King
- "Chap. IV: Souvenirs de mme de Créquy". Penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2014-02-12.
- Devlieger., Michiel (21 March 2011). "De Laatste Show" (in Dutch). VRT (Flemish National Television).
- see the sheet music available online: "Domine Salvum Fac Regem" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 November 2006. Retrieved 1 April 2007.
- Dearmer, Percy; Vaughan Williams, Ralph (1906). The English Hymnal with Tunes. Oxford University Press. p. 724.Hymn No. 560 "National Anthem"
- "National anthems & national songs". British Council. Archived from the original on 20 November 2007. Retrieved 2 February 2008.
- Les Back; Tim Crabbe; John Solomos (1 November 2001). The Changing Face of Football: Racism, Identity and Multiculture in the English Game. Berg Publishers. p. 266. ISBN 978-1-85973-478-0. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
- Marina Hyde (29 March 2013). "Race issues (News), FA (Football Association), England football team, Rio Ferdinand, John Terry, Football, Sport, UK news". The Guardian. London.
- Anthem 4 England – At the 2010 Commonwealth games Blake and Parry's Jerusalem was used by the England team Land of Hope and Glory Archived 7 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- 1 Samuel x. 24; 2 Samuel xvi. 16 and 2 Kings xi. 12
- "Guide to the Coronation Service", Westminster Abbey website, London, U.K.: Dean and Chapter of Westminster, 2009, retrieved 20 August 2009,
Meanwhile the choir sings the anthem Zadok the Priest, the words of which (from the first Book of Kings) have been sung at every coronation since King Edgar’s in 973. Since the coronation of George II in 1727 the setting by Handel has always been used.
- Wood, William (1919). Flag and Fleet: How the British Navy Won the Freedom of the Seas. Macmillan.
- "The Watchword in the Night shall be, 'God save King Henrye!' The other shall answer, 'Long to raign over Us!'
- The Gentleman's Magazine Vol. 15, October 1745, p.552
- Scholes p.412
- God Save the King, William H. Cummings, Novello and Company Ltd, London 1902
- used to be popish
- Mackay, Charles (1851). The Book of English Songs: From the Sixteenth to the Nineteenth Century. p. 203.
- White, Richard Grant (1861). National Hymns: How They are Written and how They are Not Written. Rudd & Carleton. p. 42.
- Dana, Charles Anderson (1882). Household Book of Poetry. p. 384.
- Hymns Ancient and Modern, Revised Version. SCM-Canterbury Press Ltd. 1982. p. 504. ISBN 0-907547-06-0.
- Baden-Powell, Robert (1908). Scouting for Boys. p. 341.
- Official versions published by Kneller Hall Royal Military School of Music
- Jeffrey Richards (2002). Imperialism And Music: Britain 1876-1953. Manchester University Press. p. 120. ISBN 0719045061.
- Richards p.91
- Dearmer, Percy; Vaughan Williams, Ralph (1925). Songs of Praise. Oxford University Press.
- "Forgotten National Anthem Sung at Halesowen Service". Black Country Bugle. 15 March 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2017. Source describes it as an "unusual and little known version of the national anthem ... taken from the order of service for the blessing of Halesowen's borough charter ... on Sunday, 20 September 1936."
- Clark, Richard (1822). An Account of the National Anthem Entitled God Save the King!. London. pp. 8–9.
- Richards, Jeffrey (2002). Imperialism and Music: Britain 1876 to 1953. Manchester University Press. p. 90. ISBN 0-7190-4506-1. "A fourth verse was briefly in vogue at the time of the rebellion, but was rapidly abandoned thereafter: God grant that Marshal Wade...etc"
- "The history of God Save the King": The Gentleman's Magazine, Vol 6 (new series), 1836, p.373. "There is an additional verse... though being of temporary application only, it was but short-lived...[but]...it was stored in the memory of an old friend of my own... 'Oh! grant that Marshal Wade... etc.'
- "The Oxford Book of Eighteenth Century Verse". Questia.com. Retrieved 28 July 2010.
- Groom, Nick (2006). The Union Jack: the Story of the British Flag. Atlantic Books. Appendix. ISBN 1-84354-336-2.
- "The horrid assassin Is Hatfield, attempting to shoot the king in Drury Lane theatre- on the 15th of May, 1800". British Museum. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
- Ford, Franklin L. (1985). Political Murder: From Tyrannicide to Terrorism. Harvard University Press. p. 207. ISBN 0-674-68636-5.
- Maclean, Fitzroy (1989). Bonnie Prince Charlie. Canongate Books Ltd. ISBN 0-86241-568-3. Note that the verse he quotes appears to have a line missing.
- See:etext 9089 at project Gutenberg and p35 at FullTextArchive.com
- Richards p.90.
- "God Save the Queen - lyrics". London: The Telegraph. 3 June 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- "Should Welsh Olympics 2012 stars sing God Save the Queen anthem?". Wales Online. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- Percy A Scholes: Oxford Companion to Music, Tenth Edition, Oxford University Press
- "Radio 4 keeps flying the flag". London: The Guardian. 17 March 2010. Retrieved 9 March 2013.
- Brantley, Ben (20 July 2009). "Time, and the Green and Pleasant Land". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 April 2010.
- Britannia History – Rule Britannia! Retrieved 26 February 2011
- Sing Jerusalem for England! BBC Sport Retrieved 26 February 2011
- Hubert Parry: The Composer – Icons of England Archived 9 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 26 February 2011
- Home nations fans 'back England' BBC Sport Retrieved 26 February 2011
- Commonwealth Games 2010: England stars discuss Jerusalem BBC Sport Retrieved 26 February 2011
- Flower of Scotland The Herald (13 July 1990) Retrieved 26 February 2011[dead link]
- Land of My Fathers v La Marseillaise: Clash of rugby's greatest anthems The Daily Telegraph Retrieved 26 February 2011
- Tara Magdalinski, Timothy Chandler (2002) With God on Their Side: Sport in the Service of Religion p.24. Routledge, 2002
- "Poll: Should God Save the Queen be dropped for Northern Ireland sports events - and what could replace it? - BelfastTelegraph.co.uk". BelfastTelegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-05-23.
- Sing when you're winning BBC Sport Retrieved 26 February 2011
- "Parliamentary Information Management Services. Early day Motion 1319". Edmi.parliament.uk. Retrieved 2014-02-12.
- "Letter from Buckingham Palace to the Governor-General of New Zealand". Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 3 April 2007. – Royal assent that the two songs should have equal status
- Commonwealth of Australia Gazette; No. S 142; 19 April 1984
- "National Anthem". Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
- Department of Canadian Heritage. "Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Promotion > Royal anthem "God Save the Queen"". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
- MacLeod 2008, pp. 54, I
- Kallmann, Helmut, "The Canadian Encyclopedia", in Marsh, James Harley, Encyclopedia of Music in Canada > Musical Genres > National and royal anthems, Toronto: Historica Foundation of Canada, archived from the original on 10 October 2011, retrieved 25 June 2010
- Office of the Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia. "History of the Lieutenant Governor > Royal Salute > Royal Salute (Formerly known as the Vice-Regal Salute)". Queen's Printer for Nova Scotia. Retrieved 25 June 2010.
- Hoiberg, Dale (ed.), "Encyclopædia Britannica", O Canada, Toronto: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., retrieved 25 June 2010
- Citizenship and Immigration Canada (2009). Discover Canada (PDF). Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-100-12739-2. Retrieved 16 January 2011.
- Alberta Police and Peace Officers' Memorial Day 2009 Order of Service, Queen's Printer for Alberta, 27 September 2009
- Department of Canadian Heritage. "Ceremonial and Canadian Symbols Promotion > The National Flag of Canada". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
- Royal Canadian Legion Dominion Command (4 November 2009). "National Remembrance Day Ceremony". Royal Canadian Legion. Archived from the original on 12 March 2010. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
- Department of Veterans Affairs. "Canada Remembers > Partnering Opportunities > Community Engagement Partnership Fund > Nova Scotia > Community Engagement Partnership Fund: Nova Scotia". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
- Remembrance Day (PDF), Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation, 11 November 2009, retrieved 5 July 2010
- "Honours and Salutes". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
- Bélanger, Claude. "The Quebec History Encyclopedia". In Marianopolis College. National Anthem of Canada. Montreal: Marianopolis College. Retrieved 5 July 2010.
- Department of Canadian Heritage. "National Anthem: O Canada > Parliamentary Action". Queen's Printer for Canada. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- Department of National Defence (1 April 1999), The Honours, Flags and Heritage Structure of the Canadian Forces (PDF), Ottawa: Queen's Printer for Canada, p. 503, A-AD-200-000/AG-000, archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009, retrieved 30 October 2009
- "Hymne royal " Dieu protège la Reine " at Government of Canada website" (in French). Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
- Max Cryer. "Hear Our Voices, We Entreat—The Extraordinary Story of New Zealand’s National Anthems". Exisle Publishing. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
- "New Zealand's National Anthems". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
- "Protocol for using New Zealand's National Anthems". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 17 February 2008.
- Wood, J. R. T. (April 2008). A matter of weeks rather than months: The Impasse between Harold Wilson and Ian Smith: Sanctions, Aborted Settlements and War 1965–1969. Victoria, British Columbia: Trafford Publishing. pp. 1–8. ISBN 978-1-4251-4807-2.
- Buch, Esteban (May 2004) . Beethoven's Ninth: A Political History. Trans. Miller, Richard. Chicago, Illinois: University Of Chicago Press. p. 243. ISBN 978-0-226-07824-3.
- Buch, Esteban (May 2004) . Beethoven's Ninth: A Political History. Trans. Miller, Richard. Chicago, Illinois: University Of Chicago Press. p. 247. ISBN 978-0-226-07824-3.
- Fisher, J. L. (2010). Pioneers, settlers, aliens, exiles: the decolonisation of white identity in Zimbabwe. Canberra: ANU E Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-1-921666-14-8.
- "Zimbabwe athlete sings own anthem". London: BBC. 19 July 2004. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- Bale, Tim. European Politics: A Comparative Introduction. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 330. ISBN 9781137105868.
- "Russian Anthems museum" Archived 2 October 2010 at Archive-It
- Daisy (ed.) (2006). A history of Icelandic literature. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln. pp. 262, 518.
- Granville Bantock (1913). Sixty Patriotic Songs of All Nations. Ditson. p. xv.
- "His Music : Orchestral Arrangements and Transcriptions". Elgar. Retrieved 2014-02-12.
- Jerrold Northrop Moore, Edward Elgar, a Creative Life, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1987
- "Benjamin Britten - The National Anthem". Boosey.com. 2013-08-21. Retrieved 2014-02-12.
- Bederova, Julia (2002). Kremerata Baltica: "Happy Birthday" (Media notes). New York: Nonesuch Records. 7559-79657-2.
- Cross, Craig (2004) Beatles-Discography.com: Day-By-Day Song-By-Song Record-By-Record p.212. iUniverse, 2004. Retrieved 26 February 2011
- Hopkins, Jerry (1998) The Jimi Hendrix experience p.290. Arcade Publishing, 1996
- For the first time ever...Queen: Ten great hits from the sensational rock band Mail Online Retrieved 11 March 2011
- A Night at the Opera, 30th Anniversary CD/DVD Allmusic Retrieved 26 February 2011
- God Save the Queen Ultimate Queen Retrieved 26 February 2011
- Fred Vermorel, Judy Vermorel (1987) Sex Pistols: the inside story p.83. Omnibus Press. Retrieved 26 February 2011
- Chart Stats – The Sex Pistols – God Save The Queen Retrieved 26 February 2011
- Ska Revival Albums: Bad Manners Albums, Madness (Band) Albums, the Beat Albums, the Members Albums, the Specials Albums, the Toasters Albums. General Books, 2010
- Guitar Hero National Anthems Archived 27 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Steve Ouimette.com Retrieved 26 February 2011
- Bentham, Jeremy (2001). Quinn, Michael, ed. Writings on the Poor Laws, Vol. I. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 136. ISBN 0199242321.
- Mathew, Nicholas (2013). Political Beethoven, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-107-00589-1 (p. 151)
- Marshall, Alex (2015). Republic or Death!: Travels in Search of National Anthems. London: Random House. p. 314. ISBN 9781847947413.
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to God Save the Queen.|
- National Anthem at the Royal Family website
- Streaming audio, lyrics and information about God Save the Queen
- Department of Canadian Heritage – Royal anthem page
- God Save Great George our King: – article discussing different versions of the lyrics
- Free sheet music of God Save the Queen from Cantorion.org
- A Point of View: Is it time for a new British national anthem? BBC NEWS. Published 15 January 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2017.