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List of largest cities

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Determining the world's largest cities depends on which definitions of city are used, as well as the criteria used for size: this article focuses on population. The United Nations uses three definitions for what constitutes a city, as not all cities may be classified using the same criteria.[1] Cities may be defined as the cities proper, the extent of their urban area, or their metropolitan regions.[1]

For a view of the largest cities by economic stature and integration within the global economy, see Globalization and World Cities Research Network.

Common methods for defining the boundaries of a city

City proper (administrative)

A city can be defined by its administrative boundaries (city proper). UNICEF[1] defines city proper as "the population living within the administrative boundaries of a city or controlled directly from the city by a single authority." A city proper is a locality defined according to legal or political boundaries and an administratively recognised urban status that is usually characterised by some form of local government.[2][3][4] Cities proper and their boundaries and population data may not include suburbs.[5]

The use of city proper as defined by administrative boundaries may not include suburban areas where an important proportion of the population working or studying in the city lives.[5] Because of this definition, the city proper population figure may differ greatly with the urban area population figure, as many cities are amalgamations of smaller municipalities (Australia), and conversely, many Chinese cities govern territories that extend well beyond the traditional "city proper" into suburban and rural areas.[6]

Metropolitan area

A city can be defined by the inhabitants of its demographic population, as by metropolitan area, labour market area, or similar in a metropolitan area. UNICEF[1] defines metropolitan area as follows:

A formal local government area comprising the urban area as a whole and its primary commuter areas, typically formed around a city with a large concentration of people (i.e., a population of at least 100,000). In addition to the city proper, a metropolitan area includes both the surrounding territory with urban levels of residential density and some additional lower-density areas that are adjacent to and linked to the city (e.g., through frequent transport, road linkages or commuting facilities).

Urban area

A city can be defined as a conditionally contiguous urban area, without regard to territorial or other boundaries inside an urban area. UNICEF[1] defines urban area as follows:

The definition of "urban" varies from country to country, and, with periodic reclassification, can also vary within one country over time, making direct comparisons difficult. An urban area can be defined by one or more of the following: administrative criteria or political boundaries (e.g., area within the jurisdiction of a municipality or town committee), a threshold population size (where the minimum for an urban settlement is typically in the region of 2,000 people, although this varies globally between 200 and 50,000), population density, economic function (e.g., where a significant majority of the population is not primarily engaged in agriculture, or where there is surplus employment) or the presence of urban characteristics (e.g., paved streets, electric lighting, sewerage).

Largest cities

Megacities

The following cities have a population greater than 10 million within either city proper, metropolitan area, or urban area.

City Nation Image Population
City proper Metropolitan area Urban area[7]
Chongqing  China 30,484,300
[8]
30,484,300
[9]
8,518,000
[a]
Shanghai  China 24,256,800
[11]
24,750,000
[12]
23,416,000
[b]
Beijing  China 21,516,000
[13]
24,900,000
[14]
21,009,000
Lagos  Nigeria 861,300
[15][c]
21,000,000
[16]
13,123,000
[citation needed]
Mumbai  India Mumbai Skyline at Night.jpg 12,478,447
[17]
20,748,395
[18]
18,414,288
[18]
Dhaka  Bangladesh GulshanDhaka.jpg 8,906,039
[19]
20,000,000
[20]
Chengdu  China Jiuyanqiao.jpg 16,044,700
[21]
11,528,100
[21]
Karachi  Pakistan 14,910,352
[22][23][24][25][26]
Guangzhou  China 14,043,500
[27]
25,000,000
[28]
20,800,654
[29]
Istanbul  Turkey 14,025,000
[30]
13,520,000 14,657,000
[30]
Tokyo  Japan Skyscrapers of Shinjuku 2009 January (revised).jpg 13,839,910
[31]
38,140,000
[32]
38,505,000
[33]
Tianjin  China Tianjin Skyline from Tianjin Water Park 5.jpg 12,784,000
[34]
15,469,500
[citation needed]
6,859,779
[35]
Moscow  Russia 12,197,596
[36]
16,170,000 16,800,000
São Paulo  Brazil 12,252,023
[37]
21,700,000
[37]
Kinshasa  DR Congo Kinshasa-Gombe, from CCIC.JPG 11,855,000
[38]
13,265,000 1,038,195
[39]
Delhi  India Skyscrapers connaught place New Delhi.JPG 11,034,555
[40]
16,314,838
[41]
21,753,486
[18]
Baoding  China 11,194,372
[42]
2,176,857
Lahore  Pakistan Lahore Museum, Lahore.jpg 11,126,285
[43]
13,569,000 10,665,000
[44]
Wuhan  China Yingwuzhou Yangtze River Bridge(20160429) from 699pic.jpg 11,081,000
[45]
8,896,900
[46]
Cairo  Egypt Flickr - archer10 (Dennis) - Egypt-2A-007.jpg 10,230,350
[47]
18,290,000 22,439,541
Seoul  Korea, South 10,197,604
[48]
12,700,000 25,520,000
[49]
Jakarta  Indonesia Jakarta Skyline Part 2.jpg 10,075,310
[50]
30,539,000 30,075,310
[51]
Lima  Peru Lima - Perú.jpg 9,174,855
[52]
10,750,000 9,886,647
[53]
Mexico City  Mexico 9,041,395
[54]
21,654,336
[54]
21,654,336
[54]
London  United Kingdom London from a hot air balloon.jpg 8,825,001
[55]
14,040,163 9,787,426
[56]
Bangkok  Thailand 0005574 - Wat Phra Kaew 010.jpg 8,750,600
[57]
15,931,300
[citation needed]
15,645,000
[citation needed]
Xi'an  China Xi'an City Wall (11523944773).jpg 8,705,600
[58]
13,569,700
[59]
5,206,253
[39]
Bangalore  India UB City.jpg 8,425,970
[17]
10,576,167 8,728,906
[18]
New York  United States Top of Rock Cropped.jpg 8,622,698
[60]
20,153,634
[61]
23,689,255
[62]
Ho Chi Minh City  Vietnam Trung Tam.jpg 8,993,082
[63]
21,310,943
Shenzhen  China 8,378,900
[64][d]
12,084,000
Suzhou  China Gate of the Orient 东方之门 dong fang zhi men Suzhou photo Christian Gänshirt 2015.JPG 10,459,890
[39]
3,302,152
[39]
Nanjing  China Nanjing Xinjiekou Skyline.jpg 8,230,000
[65]
12,652,000
[66]
Tehran  Iran Tehran from Qeytariyeh.jpg 8,154,051
[67]
13,532,000 14,595,904
[68]
Rio de Janeiro  Brazil Rio night.jpg 6,718,903
[37]
12,800,000
[37]
Shantou  China China-shantou03.jpg 5,391,028
[69]
11,535,677
Kolkata  India Sheetalnathji Jain Temple 03.jpg 4,486,679
[17]
14,035,959 14,617,882
[18]
Shijiazhuang  China 4,303,700 10,701,600 4,303,700
Harbin  China Kitayskaya Street.jpg 10,635,971
[39]
6,704,573
[39]
Los Angeles  United States Los Angeles, Winter 2016.jpg 3,884,307
[70]
15,058,000 13,262,220
Buenos Aires  Argentina Buenos Aires Puente de la Mujer 1030985.jpg 3,054,300
[71]
14,122,000 13,074,000
[72]
Osaka  Japan Osaka - Night View.jpg 2,691,742
[73]
19,341,976
[33]
17,444,000
Nagoya  Japan Meieki from Heiwa Park Aqua Tower.jpg 2,296,014
[73]
9,107,414
[33]
10,177,000
Paris  France Paris vue d'ensemble tour Eiffel.jpg 2,229,621 12,405,426 10,601,122
Manila  Philippines Manila by night.jpg 1,780,148
[74]
12,877,253
[74]
24,123,000

Cities and urban areas with over a million inhabitants

The following cities have a population greater than 1 million and less than 10 million within either city proper, metropolitan area, or urban area. They typically are a key component of a megalopolis.

City Nation Image Population
City proper Metropolitan area Urban area
Toronto  Canada Skyline of Toronto viewed from Harbour.jpg 2,929,886[75] 6,346,088[75] 6,129,900
Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur at dawn (18794580599).jpg 1,768,000
[76]
7,200,000
[77]
Cebu City  Philippines Cebu City.jpg 922,611
[78]
2,849,213
[78]
2,300,435
[78]
Maputo  Mozambique Maputo seen from Katembe 2014.png 1,766,184 1,766,823
Budapest  Hungary Budapest - panoramio - joselomba.jpg 1,759,407
[79]
2,927,944
[80]
3,303,786
Warsaw  Poland Warsaw7ob.jpg 1,753,977
[81]
3,100,844
[80]
Lusaka  Zambia Downtown Lusaka.JPG 1,742,979 2,467,467
Kathmandu  Nepal Kathmandu-City-Of-Ruins.jpg 1,744,240 2,517,023 3,207,205
Tabriz  Iran Təbriz.jpg 1,733,033
[82]
Hyderabad  Pakistan Navalrai Market Clock Tower view 2.JPG 1,732,693
[43]
Palembang  Indonesia Jembatan Ampera awak.JPG 1,708,413
Tijuana  Mexico Aguacaliente skyscrapers4.JPG 1,696,923 1,895,797
Patna  India New Flyover At Patna.jpg 1,683,200 2,231,554 2,046,652
[83]
Montreal  Canada 1,649,519 4,127,100 3,407,963
Davao City  Philippines DavaoSkyline.jpg 1,632,991
[84]
2,516,216
[e]
Harare  Zimbabwe Eastgate Centre, Harare, Zimbabwe.jpg 1,606,000 1,619,000
[85]
Barcelona  Spain Panoramic view of Barcelona.jpg 1,604,555
[86]
5,375,774 4,740,000
[87]
Maracaibo  Venezuela MaracaiboView.jpg 1,599,940
[88]
3,897,655 2,658,355
Caloocan  Philippines 09083jfLandscape Caloocan Quezon City Barangays EDSA Balintawak LRT Stationfvf 09.jpg 1,583,978
[74][f]
Philadelphia  United States Philadelphia from South Street Bridge July 2016 panorama 1.jpg 1,567,872
[89]
6,069,875
[90]
7,183,479
[91]
Novosibirsk  Russia Novosibirsk 4.jpg 1,567,087
[92]
Phoenix  United States Phoenix.skyline.750pix.jpg 1,563,025
[93]
4,574,531 3,629,114
Oran  Algeria Place d'armes.jpg 1,560,329
[94]
3,454,078
Semarang  Indonesia Simpang Lima Semarang - panoramio.jpg 1,555,984 3,183,516
Recife  Brazil Via Mangue em construção - Recife, Pernambuco, Brasil.jpg 1,645,727
[37]
3,887,261
[95]
Kobe  Japan Night view from Hotel Okura Kobe 31F 20140225.jpg 1,536,499
[73][g]
Daejeon  Korea, South 대전.JPG 1,535,028
Kampala  Uganda Kampala skyline.jpg 1,507,080
Kawasaki  Japan Musashi-Kosugi , Kawasaki - panoramio (7).jpg 1,496,035
[73][h]
Guadalajara  Mexico

1,460,148
[96]
5,086,375
[54]
5,086,375
[54]
Auckland  New Zealand Skyline of Auckland 2012 flickr.jpg 1,495,000
[97]
1,614,300
[98]
Vijayawada  India Exterior View of Mall.jpg 1,491,202
[99]
5,873,588
Fukuoka  Japan Night view of Fukuoka from Atago jinja.jpg 1,483,052
[73]
5,590,378
Gwangju  Korea, South Geumnam-ro.jpg 1,477,780
[100]
Porto Alegre  Brazil Vista de Porto Alegre a partir do Rio Guaíba 03.jpg 1,483,771
[37]
4,181,836
[95]
Kyoto  Japan Kyoto Skyline - Pentinlo.jpg 1,474,570
[73][i]
San Antonio  United States Downtown San Antonio.jpg 1,469,845
[101]
2,454,061
Santa Cruz de la Sierra  Bolivia Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, Skyline Zona norte Centro.jpg 1,453,549
[citation needed]
1,749,000
Munich  Germany Historische Altstadt Muenchen 01.JPG 1,450,381
[102]
2,606,021
Kharkiv  Ukraine Харків, Успенський собор18.JPG 1,449,414
[103]
1,650,000
[104]
Yekaterinburg  Russia Городской пруд Исеть.jpg 1,428,042
San Diego  United States Skyline seen from Coronado.jpg 1,394,928
[101]
3,095,313 2,956,746
Barranquilla  Colombia Vista de la ciudad de Barranquilla desde el río Magdalena.jpg 1,386,865
[105]
2,370,753
[105]
Milan  Italy Full Milan skyline from Duomo roof.jpg 1,359,905
[106]
3,206,465
[j]
Ibadan  Nigeria Skyline, Modern Ibadan.jpg 1,338,659 2,837,000 3,375,000
Makassar  Indonesia Makassar CBD Skyline.jpg 1,338,633 1,976,168
Córdoba  Argentina Plaza Dr. Roberto Cisneros, Barrio Alberdi, Córdoba, Argentina.JPG 1,330,023
[107]
1,528,000
Prague  Czech Republic Prague panorama 2 (38077109662).jpg 1,324,000
[108]
2,619,000 2,600,000
Mandalay  Myanmar Mandalay Palace (15659114331).jpg 1,319,452
[109]
1,726,889
Dallas  United States 1,317,929
[110]
7,233,323
[111]
5,121,892
[112]
Montevideo  Uruguay 2016 Plaza de La Intdependencia Palacio Salvo y estatua ecuestre de Artigas - Montevideo.jpg 1,305,082
[113]
1,947,604 1,719,453
Qom  Iran نمایی از شهر قم از بالای بلوار شهید عماد مغنیه.jpg 1,201,158
Ahvaz  Iran Ahvaz in night 09.jpg 1,184,788 1,260,817
Sofia  Bulgaria Ivan Vazov National Theatre.jpg 1,260,120 1,682,340 1,547,472
Kazan  Russia Kazan Kremlin exterior view 08-2016 img3.jpg 1,251,969 1,560,000
Nizhny Novgorod  Russia NN Spit from Fedorovskogo Embankment 08-2016 img2.jpg 1,250,619
[114]
Abuja  Nigeria Abuja, Federal Capital Territory.jpg 1,235,880 6,000,000
[115]
2,440,000
Calgary  Canada 1,235,171
[116]
1,214,839 1,095,404
Saitama  Japan ShintoshinSouth2.jpg 1,226,656
[73][k]
Suwon  Korea, South Hwaseong Third North Secret Gate and Dongbuk Gangnu - 2009-03-01.JPG 1,202,310
Hiroshima  Japan Atomic Bomb Dome and Motoyasugawa River from Aioibashi Bridge 2.jpg 1,196,274
Rosario  Argentina Rosario desde el Rio Parana.jpg 1,193,605
[117]
1,276,000
[118]
Brisbane  Australia 1,180,285
[119]
2,360,241
[120][121]
Allahabad  India On the banks of New Yamuna bridge, Allahabad.jpg 1,117,094
[citation needed]
Belgrade  Serbia Belgrade iz balona.jpg 1,166,763
[122]
1,233,796
[122]
1,659,440
[122]
Campinas  Brazil Avenida Aquidaban - panoramio (1).jpg 1,204,073
[37]
3,043,217
[95]
Ulsan  Korea, South 태화강,울산.jpg 1,163,690
[49]
Albuquerque  United States Abqdowntown.jpg 560,218
[123]
915,927
[124]
1,171,664
[125]
Omsk  Russia Omsk Pushkin Library.jpg 1,154,116
[114]
Dakar  Senegal Dakar skyline da gorè.jpg 1,146,053
[126]
2,452,656
[126]
Abu Dhabi  United Arab Emirates Abu Dhabi - Corniche - Skyline - Abu Dhabi Investment Authority - The Domain Tower - The Landmark - The Trust Tower - Baynunah Hilton - الكورنيش - الأفق - panoramio.jpg 1,145,000
[citation needed]
Monterrey  Mexico DelValleCity.jpg 1,109,171
[96]
4,975,651
[54]
4,975,651
[54]
Tripoli  Libya Tripoli Central Business District from Oea Park.JPG 1,126,000
[citation needed]
2,267,000 2,325,000
Rostov-on-Don  Russia С высоты птичьего полёта, Ростов-на-Дону.jpg 1,119,900
[127]
T'bilisi  Georgia Dzveli Tbilisi, Tbilisi, Georgia - panoramio (4).jpg 1,118,035
[128]
1,485,293
Fez  Morocco Vue sur la médina.jpg 1,112,072
[129]
Birmingham  United Kingdom Birmingham-Skyline-from-Edgbaston-crop.jpg 1,111,300
[citation needed]
3,683,000 2,440,986
Yerevan  Armenia Mount Ararat and the Yerevan skyline in spring (50mm).jpg 1,060,138
[130]
Cologne  Germany 2013-08-10 07-09-10 Ballonfahrt über Köln EH 0578.jpg 1,057,327
[131]
3,573,500
Tunis  Tunisia Vue de Tunis.jpg 1,056,247
[citation needed]
2,643,695 2,294,547
Bulawayo  Zimbabwe Bulawayo CBD.jpg 1,050,000
[citation needed]
1,200,000
[132]
Nur-Sultan  Kazakhstan Astana, capital of Kazakhstan 01.jpg  1029556
[133]
1,200,000
[134]
Islamabad  Pakistan Faisal Mosque in the background of Centaurus Mall.jpg 1,014,825
[135]
1,829,180
Cartagena  Colombia Cartagena skyline, Colombia.jpg 1,013,389
[136]
1,013,389 1,013,389
Tucson  United States Tucson shab1.JPG 545,975 843,168 1,010,025

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Sum of the 2014 population estimates for the "urban-function core district" and "urban-function extended district" of Chongqing, which were 3,677,600 and 4,512,200 respectively.[10]
  2. ^ Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Suzhou, Wuxi, Ningbo, Changzhou, Shaoxing, and urban area of Zhangjiaggang-Jiangyin within the prefecture-level cities of Suzhou and Wuxi are treated as separate urban areas which constitute the Yangtze River Delta economic zone. Huai'an (1,856,000; 148 km2), Xuzhou (1,246,000; 233 km2), Nantong (1,036,000; 233 km2), Lianyungang (985,000; 155 km2), Zhenjiang (983,000; 168 km2), Yancheng (797,000; 207 km2), Huzhou (690,000; 111 km2), Taizhou (in Jiangsu Province; 300,000; 117 km2) and Suqian (220,000; 36 km2), as well as urban areas of Yangzhou (1,593,000; 233 km2) and Gaoyou (180,000; 39 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Yangzhou, urban areas of Kunshan (1,596,000; 492 km2), Changshu (1,139,000; 285 km2) and Taicang (523,000; 117 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Suzhou, urban areas of Cixi (1,200,000; 298 km2) and Yuyao (650,000; 122 km2) within the sub-provincial city of Ningbo, urban areas of Jiaxing (1,044,000; 259 km2) and Tongxiang (510,000; 52 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Jiaxing, urban areas of Wenling (510,000; 52 km2), Jiaojiang (375,000; 41 km2) and Huangyan (200,000; 34 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Taizhou (in Zhejiang Province), urban areas of Zhuji (500,000; 117 km2) and Shangyu (400,000; 158 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Shaoxing, urban areas of Yiwu-Dongyang (925,000; 233 km2), Jinhua (520,000; 186 km2), Yongkang (500,000; 223 km2), Dongyang (260,000; 104 km2) and Lanxi (220,000; 34 km2) within the prefecture-level city of Jinhua, and urban area of Fuyang (450,000; 49 km2) within the sub-provincial city of Hangzhou are also excluded.
  3. ^ The population of Ikeja, the local government area and capital of Lagos is included here.
  4. ^ Shenzhen, Dongguan and Foshan are all part of the Pearl River Delta, centered on Guangzhou.
  5. ^ Davao City and its neighbouring cities and towns are all under part of Metropolitan Davao
  6. ^ Quezon City and Caloocan City are both under the administration of Metropolitan Manila
  7. ^ Kyoto and Kobe are both part of the Keihanshin, centered on Osaka.
  8. ^ The cities of Yokohama, Kawasaki and Saitama are all part of the Greater Tokyo Area
  9. ^ Kyoto and Kobe are both part of the Keihanshin, centered on Osaka.
  10. ^ Milan and its neighbouring comunes are all under the administration of Metropolitan City of Milan
  11. ^ The cities of Yokohama, Kawasaki and Saitama are all part of the Greater Tokyo Area

References

  1. ^ a b c d e "SOWC-2012-DEFINITIONS". UNICEF. Archived from the original on 8 December 2013. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
  2. ^ "World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision Population Database". United Nations. Archived from the original on 22 August 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
  3. ^ "United Nations Statistics Division – Demographic and Social Statistics". United Nations. Archived from the original on 23 June 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
  4. ^ Demographic Yearbook 2005, Volume 57. United Nations. 2008. p. 241. ISBN 978-92-1-051099-8. Archived from the original on 2 May 2016.
  5. ^ a b World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 Revision. United Nations. 2004. ISBN 92-1-151396-0.
  6. ^ Alexander, Ruth (29 January 2012). "The world's biggest cities: How do you measure them?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 2 March 2015. Retrieved 16 March 2015.
  7. ^ Demographia (January 2015). Demographia World Urban Areas (PDF) (11 ed.). Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 December 2016. Retrieved 2 March 2015.
  8. ^ 2017年重庆市国民经济和社会发展统计公报 (in Chinese). 凤凰网. 28 January 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  9. ^ 2016年重庆常住人口3670万人 继续保持增长态势 (in Chinese). 凤凰网. 28 January 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  10. ^ 2014年重庆市国民经济和社会发展统计公报 [Chongqing Economic and Social Development Statistical Bulletin 2014] (in Chinese). Chongqing Bureau of Statistics. 16 March 2015. Archived from the original on 23 May 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2015.
  11. ^ 2014年上海市国民经济和社会发展统计公报 [Shanghai Economic and Social Development Statistical Bulletin 2014] (in Chinese). Shanghai Bureau of Statistics. 28 February 2015. Archived from the original on 9 March 2015. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
  12. ^ "National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) People's Republic of China". en.ndrc.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 27 May 2017. Retrieved 5 August 2017.
  13. ^ 北京市2014年国民经济和社会发展统计公报 [Beijing Economic and Social Development Statistical Bulletin 2014] (in Chinese). Beijing Bureau of Statistics. 12 February 2015. Archived from the original on 1 March 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2015.
  14. ^ (Chinese) 国家统计局北京调查总队, "北京市2013年国民经济和社会发展统计公报", 北京市统计局 Archived 10 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine 13 February 2014.
  15. ^ "Metro Lagos". City Population. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
  16. ^ "Population". Lagos State Government. Archived from the original on 18 October 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  17. ^ a b c "Provisional Population Totals, Census of India 2011" (PDF). Census of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 7 May 2012. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  18. ^ a b c d e "India Stats : Million plus cities in India as per Census 2011". pibmumbai.gov.in. Archived from the original on 30 June 2015. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  19. ^ "Dhaka (Bangladesh): City Districts and Subdistricts - Population Statistics, Charts and Map". www.citypopulation.de.
  20. ^ "Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics-Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh". bbs.gov.bd. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  21. ^ a b 成都市统计局关于2017年成都市主要人口数据的公告 (in Chinese). Government of Chengdu. 12 February 2018. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  22. ^ "Assembly rejects initial census results". The Nation. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  23. ^ "After PPP and PSP, MQM-Pakistan rejects census 2017 results". NewsOne. 29 August 2017. Retrieved 21 January 2018.
  24. ^ Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. "Population of Major Cities - Census 2017" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 August 2017.
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