Lisbon Airport

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Humberto Delgado Airport
Aeroporto Humberto Delgado
Ana topo logo lisboa.jpg
Take off of S4 467 LIS-FNC, July 11, 2011 (5939962876).jpg
Summary
Airport type Public
Owner Vinci Group
Operator ANA Aeroportos de Portugal
Serves Lisbon, Portugal
Location Portela de Sacavém
Hub for
Focus city for
Elevation AMSL 114 m / 374 ft
Coordinates 38°46′27″N 009°08′03″W / 38.77417°N 9.13417°W / 38.77417; -9.13417Coordinates: 38°46′27″N 009°08′03″W / 38.77417°N 9.13417°W / 38.77417; -9.13417
Website www.aeroportolisboa.pt/en
Map
LPPT is located in Portugal
LPPT
LPPT
Location within Portugal
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
03/21 3,805 12,484 Asphalt
17/35 2,304 7,559 Asphalt
Statistics (2017)
Passengers 26,646,079
Passengers change 16–17 Increase18.7%
Aircraft Movements 201,818
Movements change 16-17 Increase 11,3%

Humberto Delgado Airport (IATA: LIS, ICAO: LPPT), also known as Lisbon Airport and Portela Airport, is an international airport located 7 km from the city centre of Lisbon, the capital of Portugal.[2] In Portuguese, it is referred to as Aeroporto de Lisboa, Aeroporto da Portela, or Aeroporto da Portela de Sacavém. It takes its name from the neighbouring parish[citation needed] (freguesia) of Portela in Loures Municipality, formerly known as Portela de Sacavém.

The airport is the main international gateway to Portugal and a major European hub. It is the 20th largest airport in Europe in terms of passenger volume, having served 26,646,079 passengers in 2017 (an increase over the previous year by 18.8%).[3] As of 2017 the airport handled 115.7 thousand tonnes of cargo.[2] It is the most strategically important European hub to Brazil, and one of the most important[clarification needed] European hubs to Africa[citation needed]. The airport is also the largest Star Alliance hub to South America.[2]

The airport is the main hub of TAP Air Portugal\TAP Express and focus city for Azores Airlines, easyJet, Ryanair, euroAtlantic Airways, Hi Fly, Orbest, White Airways. The airport is run by ANA – Aeroportos de Portugal, which was concessioned to the French group Vinci Airports in February 2013.[4]

History[edit]

Early years[edit]

Lisbon Airport in 1951
Entrance hall at Lisbon airport terminal 1
Terminal 1 check-in hall

The airport opened on 15 October 1942, during World War II, and initially operated in conjunction with the Cabo Ruivo Seaplane Base: seaplanes performed transatlantic flights, and passengers were transferred onto continental flights operating from the new airport.[5] As a neutral airport it was open to both German and British airlines, and was a hub for smuggling people into, out of, and across Europe. It is widely referenced in the classic film Casablanca, whose plot revolves around an escape attempt to Lisbon airport. As such, it was heavily monitored by both Axis and Allied spies. Although Portugal was neutral, the airport was used by allied flights en route to Gibraltar, North Africa and Cairo.[6]

At the end of the war the airport developed rapidly, and by 1946 was used by major airlines such as Air France, British European Airways, Iberia, KLM, Sabena, Pan Am and Trans World Airlines[citation needed]. By 1954 the number of passengers reached 100,000.[6]

A 1951–52 airport diagram[7] shows four runways laid out at 45-deg angles: 1350 m Runway 5, 1024 m Runway 9, 1203 m Runway 14, and 1170 m Runway 18. Runways 5 and 36 were each later extended northward to a length of 1999 m.

Major upgrades from 1959 to 1962 included a new runway capable of handling the first generation of jets, such as the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8.[6] The first jet aircraft flight was an Air France Caravelle in 1960.[6] In 1962 runway 03/21 came into use. It was 3130 m long and would allow direct transatlantic flights.[6] The first direct flight to New York was operated by TWA with a Boeing 707, who later operated the first Boeing 747 service in 1970.[6] When TAP ordered the 747 in 1972, five large parking bays were built, and the terminal was enlarged.[6] A major upgrade to the buildings and facilities commenced in 1983, and the first air bridges were added in 1991.[6]

Along with the airports in Porto, Faro, Ponta Delgada, Santa Maria, Horta, Flores, Madeira, and Porto Santo, the airport's concessions to provide support to civil aviation were conceded to ANA Aeroportos de Portugal on 18 December 1998, under provisions of decree 404/98. With this concession, ANA became responsible for the planning, development and construction of future infrastructure.[8]

Relocation and expansion plans[edit]

The airport is now surrounded by urban development, being one of the few airports in Europe located inside a major city[citation needed]. This led to a national debate on whether to keep the present location or to build a new airport; the last option was chosen. Initially, Ota, a village 50 km (31 mi) north of Lisbon, was chosen as one of the sites for the new airport. In 2007 an independent study coordinated by the Portuguese Industry Confederation (CIP) suggested Alcochete as an alternative location (see Alcochete Airport). A military training facility currently occupies the site, but the military agreed to abandon the location provided it could transfer its facility to a different area. A second government-contracted study led by the National Laboratory of Civil Engineering (LNEC)[9] concluded in late 2007 that Alcochete was the best location.

The selection of Alcochete was announced on 10 January 2008, more than 35 years after the first capacity increase studies were initiated. Portuguese government announced that Alcochete was the preliminary choice, to be finalised after public consultation.[10][11] The location of Alcochete as the construction site of the future Lisbon Airport was confirmed by the government on 8 May 2008,[12] but the contract was shelved as part of Portugal's cost-cutting austerity measures, and completely dismissed from Portugal's transportation strategy plans in July 2013, with investment being concentrated on expanding and further improving the existing Lisbon Airport infrastructure.[13]

In November 2006 the operating company ANA – Aeroportos de Portugal, announced an expansion plan for some airport structures in order to respond to current passenger traffic growth trends, and full capacity use of the airport, which had been intended to respond to growth until the new airport was to be finished in 2017.[citation needed] This plan involved the construction of a new 2nd terminal called Terminal 2 (concluded and operational since August 2007), and expansion of Terminal 1 with new boarding gates (concluded in 2011), a large new shopping and restaurant area, new airbridges and parking positions, a more efficient use of currently existing structures, and a new underground Metro de Lisboa station inaugurated in July 2012.

Terminal 2 is used by 6 scheduled low-cost flight airlines for departures to European destinations, while Terminal 1 handles all arrivals and regular scheduled and chartered flights. In October 2010, European low cost airline easyJet officially opened a new base at Lisbon Airport, exclusively using Terminal 2 for departures to 20 destinations.[14] A free shuttle bus connects Terminal 1 Departures area and Terminal 2 every 10 minutes.[15]

Between 2007 and 2013, Lisbon Airport underwent several structural and equipment improvements and expansions. These included the construction of Terminal 2, lighting and baggage claim refurbishment, new cargo facilities, fuel storage, north pier and boarding lounge, north bus gate and baggage claim, enlargement of express cargo facilities, electrical refurbishments, departure lounge refurbishments and underground station and other terminal improvements all of which have been completed.[16] As part of the definite solution for Lisbon Airport, in July 2013 a new commercial area was inaugurated in the Terminal 1 air side area with 20 new stores and spacious naturally lighted internal circulation areas.[17] In July 2015, a significantly larger food court was introduced, catering to more tastes and delicacies.[18]

With the long-term concession of ANA – Aeroportos de Portugal to the French group Vinci Airports[4] the project for a new airport was postponed in July 2013, and it was decided that the existing Lisbon Airport would be further upgraded to surpass 22 million passengers annually[19] and would remain the present solution for this major European gateway.[20] Ryanair has predicted that it will double the number of passengers it carries from the airport in the three years from 2014.[21]

Name change[edit]

Lisbon city council, in February 2015, unanimously agreed to propose that the name of Lisbon International Airport, currently known as Portela due to its geographical location, be changed to Humberto Delgado Airport. The proposal, tabled by the Socialist leadership under former Mayor António Costa, was agreed to by councillors from across party lines.[22][23]

The Portuguese government under current Prime Minister António Costa, announced in February 2016 that Lisbon Portela Airport would be renamed on 15 May 2016 after Humberto Delgado, in memory of the late Portuguese air force general and famous politician. "He was an opposition figure to the dictatorship regime...and had a very important role in the field of civil aviation," Minister of Planning and Infrastructure Pedro Marques said at a press conference after the meeting of Council of Ministers, stressing that it was Humberto Delgado, who presided over the foundation of Portugal's flagship airline TAP and "so it is very fair this assignment name to the airport". 2016 marks the 110th anniversary of the birth of Humberto Delgado, who was also known as the "General without Fear" due to his staunch opposition to Salazar's rule and his participation in the Portuguese presidential election, 1958.[24]

Terminals[edit]

Lisbon Humberto Delgado Airport features two passenger terminal buildings:[25]

Terminal 1[edit]

Terminal 1 is the main building and features large landside and airside areas containing several shops and service facilities. It consists of two check-in halls, the older one containing 13 desks (1–13), and the newer one housing 68 desks (37–89 and 90–106). The joint departures area features 29 gates, most of which are equipped with jet-bridges, with 7 of them designated to non-Schengen destinations.[25] As the airport features several more apron stands, bus boarding is also frequently used here. Most airlines use Terminal 1, including TAP Air Portugal and its Star Alliance partners.

Terminal 2[edit]

Terminal 2 is the much smaller and newer of the two terminals, used mainly by low-cost carriers. It is located away from Terminal 1 on the southern border of the airport. It has 21 check-in desks (201–222) and 15 departure gates (201–215) using mainly walk boarding but also bus. There are only basic facilities and a few shops and service counters. The terminal is only reachable via the free airport shuttle service from Terminal 1.[25] The main users of Terminal 2 are Ryanair, easyJet and Wizz Air.

Airlines and destinations[edit]

Passenger[edit]

The following airlines operate regular scheduled passenger flights at Lisbon Airport:

AirlinesDestinations
Aegean Airlines Athens
Aer Lingus Cork (resumes 26 October 2018),[26] Dublin
Aeroflot Moscow–Sheremetyevo
Aigle Azur Paris–Orly
Air Algérie Algiers
airBaltic Riga
Air Canada Rouge Toronto–Pearson
Seasonal: Montréal–Trudeau
Air Europa Madrid
Seasonal: Menorca
Air France Paris-Charles de Gaulle
Air Malta Malta
Air Moldova Chişinău
Air Transat Montréal–Trudeau, Toronto–Pearson
American Airlines Seasonal: Philadelphia
Arkia Seasonal: Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion
Atlantic Airways Seasonal: Vágar
Azores Airlines Horta (PSO),[27] Pico Island (PSO),[27] Ponta Delgada, Santa Maria (PSO),[27] Terceira
Azul Brazilian Airlines Campinas
Beijing Capital Airlines Beijing–Capital, Hangzhou
Binter Canarias Gran Canaria, Tenerife-North
Blue Air Bucharest, Turin
Bulgaria Air Seasonal: Sofia
British Airways London–Heathrow
Brussels Airlines Brussels
Cabo Verde Airlines Praia, Sal
Croatia Airlines Zagreb
Czech Airlines Prague
Delta Air Lines New York–JFK
Seasonal: Atlanta
easyJet Amsterdam, Basel/Mulhouse, Berlin–Schönefeld, Bordeaux, Bristol, Edinburgh, Funchal, Geneva, Lille, Liverpool, London–Gatwick, London–Luton, Luxembourg, Lyon, Madrid, Milan–Malpensa, Nantes, Nice, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Zürich
Seasonal: Manchester (begins 28 October 2018)[28]
easyJet Switzerland Basel/Mulhouse, Geneva
El Al Tel Aviv-Ben Gurion (begins 28 October 2018)[29]
Emirates Dubai–International
euroAtlantic Airways Bissau
Eurowings Cologne/Bonn, Düsseldorf, Stuttgart
Evelop Airlines Seasonal: Mahon, Palma de Mallorca, Tenerife-South
Finnair Helsinki
FlyOne Seasonal: Chişinău
Iberia Madrid
Iberia Regional Seasonal: Menorca, Palma de Mallorca, Santander
Israir Seasonal: Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion
Joon Paris–Charles de Gaulle
KLM Amsterdam
LATAM Brasil São Paulo-Guarulhos (begins 2 September 2018)[30]
Lufthansa Frankfurt, Munich
Luxair Luxembourg
Norwegian Air Shuttle Copenhagen, Stockholm–Arlanda
Seasonal: Oslo–Gardermoen
Nouvelair Seasonal: Djerba, Monastir
Orbest Seasonal: Cancún, Punta Cana
Primera Air Billund
Royal Air Maroc Casablanca
Ryanair Beauvais, Bergamo, Berlin–Schönefeld, Bologna, Brussels, Charleroi, Dublin, Edinburgh (begins 29 October 2018), Eindhoven, Hahn, Frankfurt, Glasgow (ends 25 October 2018)[31], Hamburg, Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden, Krakow, London–Stansted, Luxembourg, Manchester, Marseille, Naples, Pisa, Ponta Delgada, Porto, Rome–Ciampino, Terceira, Toulouse, Warsaw–Modlin, Wrocław
Seasonal: Bremen
Scandinavian Airlines Seasonal: Copenhagen, Stockholm–Arlanda
STP Airways São Tomé
Sun D'Or Seasonal: Tel Aviv–Ben Gurion (ends 24 October 2018)[32]
Swiss International Air Lines Geneva, Zürich
TAAG Angola Airlines Luanda
TAP Air Portugal A Coruña, Abidjan, Accra, Alicante, Amsterdam, Asturias, Barcelona, Belém, Belo Horizonte–Confins, Berlin–Tegel, Bilbao, Bissau, Boa Vista, Bologna, Bordeaux, Boston, Brasília, Brussels, Bucharest, Budapest, Caracas, Copenhagen, Casablanca, Cologne/Bonn, Dakar–Diass, Düsseldorf, Faro, Fez, Florence, Fortaleza, Frankfurt, Funchal, Geneva, Gran Canaria, Hamburg, Helsinki, Lomé, London–City, London–Gatwick, London–Heathrow, Luanda, Luxembourg, Lyon, Madrid, Málaga, Manchester, Maputo, Marrakech, Marseille, Miami, Milan–Malpensa, Moscow–Domodedovo, Munich, Nantes, Natal, New York–JFK, Newark, Nice, Oslo–Gardermoen, Paris–Orly, Ponta Delgada, Porto, Porto Alegre, Porto Santo, Prague, Praia, Recife, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão, Rome–Fiumicino, Sal, Salvador, São Paulo–Guarulhos, São Tomé, São Vicente, Seville, Stockholm–Arlanda, Stuttgart, Tangier, Terceira, Toronto–Pearson, Toulouse, Valencia, Venice, Vienna, Vigo, Warsaw–Chopin, Zürich
Transavia Amsterdam, Eindhoven, Rotterdam
Transavia France Lyon, Nantes, Paris–Orly
Tunisair Tunis
Turkish Airlines İstanbul–Atatürk
United Airlines Newark
Seasonal: Washington–Dulles
Vueling Amsterdam, Barcelona, Bilbao, Ibiza, Palma de Mallorca, Paris–Orly, Zürich
Wizz Air Bucharest (ends 27 October 2018), Budapest, Kiev–Zhuliany, Sofia, Vienna (begins 22 February 2019),[33]
Seasonal: Gdańsk, Katowice, Warsaw–Chopin

Cargo[edit]

AirlinesDestinations
ASL Airlines Belgium Liège, Porto
DHL Aviation Barcelona, Leipzig/Halle, Vitoria
Swiftair Funchal, Madrid
UPS Airlines Cologne/Bonn, Porto

Statistics[edit]

Terminal 1 airside exterior
Control tower
Radar Tower
Busiest routes from Lisbon Airport (2013)[34]
Rank City, airport Passengers %
change
Top carriers
Continental
1  Spain, Madrid 975,849 Decrease 12.2% Air Europa, easyJet, Iberia, Portugália, TAP Air Portugal
2  France, Paris–Orly 884,063 Increase 19.9% Aigle Azur, TAP Air Portugal, Transavia France, Vueling
3  United Kingdom, London–Heathrow 753,173 Increase 2.8% British Airways, TAP Air Portugal
4  Netherlands, Amsterdam 663,778 Increase 13.2% easyJet, KLM, TAP Air Portugal, Transavia, Vueling
5  Germany, Frankfurt 558,519 Increase 1.1% Lufthansa, TAP Air Portugal
6  France, Paris–Charles de Gaulle 542,947 Decrease 0.4% Air France, Air Méditerranée, easyJet
7  Spain, Barcelona 514,813 Decrease 14.5% Portugália, TAP Air Portugal, Vueling
8   Switzerland, Geneva 468,017 Increase 10.7% easyJet Switzerland, Swiss International Air Lines, TAP Air Portugal
9  Belgium, Brussels 398,930 Increase 0.8% Brussels Airlines, TAP Air Portugal
10   Switzerland, Zürich 389,647 Increase 18.6% Swiss International Air Lines, TAP Air Portugal
11  Germany, Munich 388,027 Increase 5.2% Lufthansa, TAP Air Portugal
12  Italy, Rome–Fiumicino 382,934 Decrease 3.6% easyJet, TAP Air Portugal
13  Italy, Milan–Malpensa 304,811 Increase 5.7% easyJet, TAP Air Portugal
14  Denmark, Copenhagen 199,974 Increase 32.0% easyJet, Norwegian Air Shuttle, TAP Air Portugal
15  United Kingdom, London–Gatwick 189,336 Increase 1.2% easyJet, TAP Air Portugal
16  France, Lyon–Satolas 173,384 Increase 7.5% Air Méditerranée, easyJet, Portugália
17  United Kingdom, London–Luton 154,820 Increase 1.0% easyJet
18  Italy, Venice–Marco Polo 135,704 Increase 17.0% easyJet, TAP Air Portugal
19  Germany, Hamburg 134,063 Increase 13.0% TAP Air Portugal
20  Germany, Berlin–Schönefeld 122,806 Increase 55.8% easyJet, TAP Air Portugal
Intercontinental
1  Angola, Luanda 386,387 Increase 4.3% TAAG Angola Airlines, TAP Air Portugal
2  Brazil, São Paulo–Guarulhos 275,419 Increase 1.7% TAP Air Portugal
3  Brazil, Rio de Janeiro–Galeão 258,690 Decrease 1.2% TAP Air Portugal
4  United States, Newark 238,663 Increase 0.9% TAP Air Portugal, United Airlines
5  United Arab Emirates, Dubai 176,016 Increase 144.9% Emirates
6  Brazil, Fortaleza 157,217 Increase 1.2% TAP Air Portugal
7  Brazil, Brasília 151,427 Increase 0.8% TAP Air Portugal
8  Brazil, Recife 148,121 Increase 0.6% TAP Air Portugal
9  Brazil, Salvador 146,186 Increase 1.0% TAP Air Portugal
10  Brazil, Belo Horizonte–Confins 131,455 Decrease 3.2% TAP Air Portugal
Domestic
1  Portugal, Funchal 787.992 Increase 4.4% easyJet, Portugália Airlines, TAP Air Portugal
2  Portugal, Porto 411,799 Increase 2.5% Portugália, TAP Air Portugal
3  Portugal, Ponta Delgada 294,297 Decrease 3.0% SATA International, TAP Air Portugal
4  Portugal, Faro 186,475 Decrease 4.9% Portugália, TAP Air Portugal
5  Portugal, Terceira 144,529 Decrease 7.4% Sata International, TAP Air Portugal

Ground transportation[edit]

Train[edit]

Trains to all parts of the country are available at Gare do Oriente station, the main train station in Lisbon. The airport connects to the station via metro in approximately 10 minutes. Alternatively travelers can take the bus to the station, albeit with slightly longer travel times.[35]

Metro[edit]

Metro de Lisboa station at Lisbon Humberto Delgado Airport

Aeroporto Metro station lies at the Southern edge of the Terminal 1 arrivals area. The Aeroporto Saldanha line takes approximately 20 minutes to reach downtown Lisbon. To use the metro, passengers must purchase a 7 Colinas/Viva Viagem card, which can be topped up and used on the metro and bus network.[35]

Preceding station   Lisbon Metro   Following station
Red LineTerminus

Bus[edit]

Carris city buses stop at the airport arrivals section, and connect to Marquis of Pombal Square, and Amoreiras. Night routes run to downtown Baixa, as well as Cais do Sodré and Gare do Oriente train stations. City buses have a maximum luggage size of 50x40x20cm. Travelers with larger luggage must take the aerobus or airport shuttle.[35]

Aerobus[edit]

Aerobuses prepared for traveling with large luggage are available at Terminal 1 and Terminal 2 between 7:30 and 23:00 daily, and connect the airport with a number of major destinations in the downtown area, including the Sete Rios bus and train terminal, and Entrecampos, Cais do Sodré, and Rossio railway terminals. Buses have access for those with reduced mobility, and offer free Wi-Fi and USB chargers.[36]

Shuttle[edit]

Shuttles are available to transport travelers around the airport, and to locations not serviced by aerobuses.[35]

Taxi[edit]

Lisbon city taxis are readily available 24 hours a day outside the arrival and departure areas of the airport.[35] A trip to Lisbon city centre by taxi takes approximately 15 minutes.[37]

Car[edit]

The airport is easily accessible by several major highways and main roads. ANA operates several covered and open parking areas.[38] Valet service, car hire, and chauffeur limousine services are also available.[39]

Car Sharing[edit]

Lisbon also has car sharing companies that operate in the city. There are a few that offer their services at Lisbon Airport such as DriveNow Car Sharing.[40]

Bicycle[edit]

Two bicycle paths connect the airport roundabout, situated 300 m South of Terminal 1 to the city's 70 km cycle infrastructure network.[41] One path heads West along Av. do Brasil to the Universidade de Lisboa main campus, passing through the central neighbourhoods of Alvalade, Campo Grande and Entrecampos and connecting with other paths to Telheiras, Colegio Militar, Benfica, and Monsanto Forest Park. The other bicycle path heads East from the roundabout towards Olivais, Gare do Oriente train station and Parque das Nações Expo 98 site, connecting with the riverside bicycle path Southwards along Lisbon harbour to Santa Apolónia train station, cruise ship and ferry terminals, and the historic centre, and North to the Caminho do Tejo pilgrimage trail to Fátima and Santiago de Compostela.

Other facilities[edit]

TAP Air Portugal has a complex at Lisbon Airport housing many head offices and the TAP Museum Archives, where visitors can make appointments to view materials including photographs, advertising material, flight logs and manuals.[42] The complex is 22.45 hectares (55.5 acres) large. In 1989 TAP became the owner of the complex due to a governmental decree.[43] TAP's head office is in Building 25.[44] The TAP subsidiary Serviços Portugueses de Handling, S.A. (SPdH) has its head office on the 6th floor of Building 25.[45] Sociedade de Gestão e Serviços, S.A. (TAPGER), another TAP subsidiary, has its head office on the 8th floor of the same building.[46] Building 19 has the head office of Sociedade de Serviços e Engenharia Informática, S.A. (Megasis), a TAP information services subsidiary.[47][48] The TAP documentation and archive is in the annex of Building 19.[49] Building 34, on the far north side of the complex, houses the company's new data processing centre.[50]

ANA – Aeroportos de Portugal has its head office in Building 120.[51] Portugália has its head office in Building 70.[52] The TAP catering subsidiary, Catering de Portugal, S.A. (CATERINGPOR), has its head office in Building 59.[53] Cuidados Integrados de Saúde, S.A. (UCS) is based out of Building 35.[54]

Accolades[edit]

Skytrax World Airport Awards ranks Lisbon Airport 4th out of the top 10 Best Airports in Southern Europe,[55] and 68th out of The Worlds Top 100 Airports for 2017.[56]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/.

  1. ^ AIP Part 3 – AD 2 Aerodromes Archived 2 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
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  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ a b acquires ANA, concession company for Portuguese airports. VINCI Airports.
  5. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 April 2015. Retrieved 30 July 2015.  History of the Airport from the Associação Náutica da Marina do Parque das Nações (in Portuguese)
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  7. ^ Aviation Week 28 January 1952 p68
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  29. ^ https://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-5303165,00.html
  30. ^ https://www.routesonline.com/news/38/airlineroute/278955/latam-brasil-adds-lisbon-service-from-sep-2018/
  31. ^ https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/02/27/ryanair-axes-20-routes-base-glasgow-airport
  32. ^ https://www.ynet.co.il/articles/0,7340,L-5303165,00.html
  33. ^ "Wizz Air announces major expansion of Vienna operations". 
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  40. ^ drive-now.com. "Lisbon Airport Car Sharing". www.drive-now.com. 
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  46. ^ "2009 Annual Report." TAP Portugal. 92. Retrieved on 15 December 2011. "REGISTERED OFFICE Aeroporto de Lisboa Reduto TAP, Edifício 25 – 8° 1704–801 Lisboa"
  47. ^ "Annual Report 2010." TAP Portugal. 92. Retrieved on 15 December 2011. "Registered Office Aeroporto de Lisboa, Reduto TAP, Edifício 19"
  48. ^ "Contactos Archived 26 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine.." Megasis. Retrieved on 15 December 2011. 1 Archived 26 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine., 2 Archived 26 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine., 3 Archived 26 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine..
  49. ^ "Museum -> Schedule Archived 15 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine.." TAP Portugal. Retrieved on 15 December 2011.
  50. ^ "Viagem ao novo Centro de Processamento de dado." Jornal TAP, TAP Portugal. December 2009, No. 72. p. 6. Retrieved on 15 December 2011. "Edifício 34, no extremo norte do reduto TAP. Uma construção aparentemente banal, de paredes frágeis. É essa a visão com que se depara, do exterior, o visitante do novo Centro de Processamento de Dados da empresa, o CPD2."
  51. ^ "Contacts Archived 19 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.." ANA – Aeroportos de Portugal. Retrieved on 9 September 2010.
  52. ^ "Contact Information Archived 10 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine.." Portugália. Retrieved on 15 December 2011. "Aeroporto de Lisboa Rua C – Edifício 70 1749-078 Lisboa PORTUGAL" – See map Archived 11 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
  53. ^ "2009 Annual Report." TAP Portugal. 95. Retrieved on 15 December 2011. "REGISTERED OFFICE Aeroporto de Lisboa Rua C, Edifício 59 1749–036 Lisboa"
  54. ^ "2009 Annual Report." TAP Portugal. 96. Retrieved on 15 December 2011. "Aeroporto de Lisboa Edifício 35 Apartado 8426 1804–001 Lisboa"
  55. ^ "The Best Airports in the World ranked by Region". www.worldairportawards.com. 
  56. ^ "The World's Top 100 Airports in 2017". www.worldairportawards.com. 
  57. ^ Accident description Pan Am Boeing 314. Aviation Safety Network
  58. ^ Accident description Air France Douglas C-47. Aviation Safety Network
  59. ^ Accident description Portuguese Air Force Douglas C-47. Aviation Safety Network
  60. ^ Ferreira, Hugo Gil.; Marshall, Michael W. (1986). Portugals revolution: ten years on. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521322049. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Lisbon Portela Airport at Wikimedia Commons