Uvular flap

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Uvular flap
ɢ̆
ʀ̆
IPA number 112 505
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɢ​̆
Unicode (hex) U+0262 U+0306

The uvular flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. There is no dedicated symbol for this sound in the IPA. It can specified by adding a 'short' diacritic to the letter for the uvular plosive, ɢ̆, but normally it is covered by the unmodified letter for the uvular trill, ʀ,[1] since the two have never been reported to contrast.

The uvular flap is not known to exist as a phoneme in any language.

More commonly, it is said to vary with the much more frequent uvular trill, and is most likely a single-contact trill [ʀ̆] rather than an actual flap in these languages. (The primary difference between a flap and a trill is that of the airstream, not the number of contacts.)

Features[edit]

Features of the uvular flap:

  • Its manner of articulation is flap, which means it is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (usually the tongue) is thrown against another.
  • Its place of articulation is uvular, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the uvula.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch[2] rood [ʀ̆oːt] 'red' More common than a uvular trill.[3] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
German Standard[4] ehre [ˈʔeːʀ̆ə] 'honour' Common intervocallic realization of /ʀ/.[4] See German phonology
Okanagan Southern[5] [ɢ̆àlə́p] 'lose' Allophone of /ʕ/;[5] it corresponds to [ʕ] in other dialects.[5]
Supyire[6] tadugugo [taduɢ̆uɢ̆o] 'place to go up' May be in free variation [ɡ].[6]
Wahgi[7] [example needed] Allophone of /ʟ̝/.[7]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bruce Connell, Lower Cross Wordlist[1]
  2. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:42 and 199)
  3. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:42)
  4. ^ a b Lodge (2009:46)
  5. ^ a b c Kinkade (1967:232)
  6. ^ a b Carlson (1994:10)
  7. ^ a b Phillips (1976:?)

Bibliography[edit]