Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate
|Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate|
The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ⟨d͡ʑ⟩, ⟨d͜ʑ⟩, ⟨ɟ͡ʑ⟩ and ⟨ɟ͜ʑ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are d_z\ and J\_z\, though transcribing the stop component with ⟨ɟ⟩ (J\ in X-SAMPA) is rare. The tie bar is sometimes omitted, yielding ⟨dʑ⟩ or ⟨ɟʑ⟩ in the IPA and dz\ or J\z\ in X-SAMPA. This is potentially problematic in case of at least some affricates, because there are languages that contrast certain affricates with stop-fricative sequences. Polish words czysta ('clean (f.)', pronounced with an affricate /t͡ʂ/) and trzysta ('three hundred', pronounced with a sequence /tʂ/) are an example of a minimal pair based on such a contrast.
Neither [d] nor [ɟ] are a completely narrow transcription of the stop component, which can be narrowly transcribed as [d̠ʲ] (retracted and palatalized [d]), [ɟ̟] or [ɟ˖] (both symbols denote an advanced [ɟ]). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are d_-' or d_-_j and J\_+, respectively.
This affricate used to have a dedicated symbol ⟨ʥ⟩, which was one of the six dedicated symbols for affricates in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It is the sibilant equivalent of voiced palatal affricate.
Features of the voiced alveolo-palatal affricate:
- Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is alveolo-palatal. This means that:
- Its place of articulation is postalveolar, meaning that the tongue contacts the roof of the mouth in the area behind the alveolar ridge (the gum line).
- Its tongue shape is laminal, meaning that it is the tongue blade that contacts the roof of the mouth.
- It is heavily palatalized, meaning that the middle of the tongue is bowed and raised towards the hard palate.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Bengali||যখন||[d͡ʑɔkʰon]||'when'||See Bengali phonology|
|Catalan||All dialects||metge||[ˈmedd͡ʑə]||'doctor'||See Catalan phonology|
|Japanese||知人/chijin||[t͡ɕid͡ʑĩɴ]||'acquaintance'||See Japanese phonology|
|Korean||감자/gamja||[kɐmd͡ʑɐ]||'potato'||See Korean phonology|
|Polish||dźwięk||[d͡ʑvjɛŋk] (help·info)||'sound'||See Polish phonology|
|Romanian||Banat dialect||des||[d͡ʑes]||'frequent'||Corresponds to [d] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology|
|Russian||дочь бы||[ˈd̪o̞d͡ʑ bɨ]||'daughter would'||Allophone of /t͡ɕ/ before voiced consonants. See Russian phonology|
|Sema||aji||[à̠d͡ʑì]||'blood'||Possible allophone of /ʒ/ before /i, e/; can be realized as [ʑ ~ ʒ ~ d͡ʒ] instead.|
|Serbo-Croatian||ђаво / đavo||[d͡ʑâ̠ʋo̞ː]||'devil'||Merges with /d͡ʒ/ in most Croatian and some Bosnian accents. See Serbo-Croatian phonology|
- Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya (2013), "Xumi, Part 1: Lower Xumi, the Variety of the Lower and Middle Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 363–379, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000157
- Chirkova, Katia; Chen, Yiya; Kocjančič Antolík, Tanja (2013), "Xumi, Part 2: Upper Xumi, the Variety of the Upper Reaches of the Shuiluo River" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 43 (3): 381–396, doi:10.1017/S0025100313000169
- Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
- Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
- Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar, Uralic and Altaic Series, 18, Bloomington: Indiana University
- Teo, Amos B. (2014), A phonological and phonetic description of Sumi, a Tibeto-Burman language of Nagaland (PDF), Canberra: Asia-Pacific Linguistics, ISBN 978-1-922185-10-5
- Wheeler, Max W (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925814-7