2010s

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Millennium: 3rd millennium
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Years: 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019

The 2010s (pronounced "twenty-tens" or "two thousand (and) tens") is the current decade of the Gregorian calendar. It began on January 1, 2010 and will end on December 31, 2019.

Pronunciation[edit]

Two pronunciations are used to mention specific years of the 21st century in English.[1][2][3][4][5] For example, 2016 is either pronounced "twenty-sixteen" or "two thousand (and) sixteen".[2]

Global financial crisis[edit]

See also: § Economy

The 2010s began amidst a global financial crisis that started in the late 2000s. In particular, the Eurozone debt crisis, which began during 2009, continued into the 2010s. Despite the crisis, the American Dow Jones Industrial Average had its longest stretch of gains since the late 1990s tech boom.[6] However, economic issues, including inflation and an increase in commodity prices, sparked unrest in many lower-income countries. In some countries, particularly those in the Arab world, political unrest evolved into socioeconomic crises. This set off numerous revolutions, including those in Kyrgyzstan and Tunisia in 2010, and Libya, Syria, Yemen, and Egypt in 2011 and 2012. This trend is commonly known as the Arab Spring.[citation needed]

Social/Political relations and crises[edit]

With the exception of ongoing conflicts from prior decades, mostly in the Middle East, North and Central Africa, and South Asia, the 2010s started out with a relatively mild geopolitical climate. However, after the start of the Arab Spring, tensions arose between world powers that gradually worsened in the first few years. In 2014, Russian military intervention in Ukraine triggered a sharp downward trend in East-West relations, plunging them to their lowest since the Cold War ended in 1991. That same year, the rise of the jihadist group known as the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in Iraq and Syria prompted renewed western intervention in the region. Other Islamist groups, such as Al-Qaeda, the Taliban, Boko Haram, and Al-Shabaab remain active as of to date. Inter-Arab relations deteriorated along increasingly sectarian lines, particularly between Saudi Arabia and Iran, which both vie for regional influence and back opposing sides in the Syrian and Yemeni civil wars. The rise of China in international affairs has also gained momentum.[citation needed]

Starting in 2015, a huge influx of migrants caused internal strife in the European Union, which, on 23 June 2016, the United Kingdom voted to leave. Events in the United States have been marked by severe political polarization, growing economic inequality, an increase in racism, and multiple mass shootings that have ignited fierce debate over American gun culture. The LGBT movements in the United States scored several victories, with the historic Obergefell v. Hodges case legalizing same-sex marriage nationwide.[citation needed]

Wars[edit]

The prominent wars of the decade include:

International wars[edit]

  • Israeli–Palestinian conflict (May 14, 1948 –) – Since 1948, conflict between Jewish and Palestinian communities in Israel and the West Bank has continued to this day.[7] After Israel occupied the West Bank, it began and continues to make settlements there, which has been a major stumbling block to the peace process.[8] Tensions also remained high as Hamas, which controls the Gaza Strip, has been launching rockets and cross-border raids into Israeli territory, which Israel has responded with brutal force.[9]
  • War on Terror (September 11, 2001 –) – Since the September 11 attacks, the United States and other governments in the world have been engaged in a war to eliminate terrorism. However, over time the war began to be seen more negatively, with various consequences.[10][11][12] On May 23, 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama declared the war to be over, saying a war cannot be declared on a tactic and that anti-terrorism operations will be focused on specific groups instead.[13]
    • War in Afghanistan (October 7, 2001 – December 28, 2014) – The United States, with support from NATO, invaded Taliban-controlled Afghanistan and overthrew the government.[14] However, the Taliban later regrouped and began an insurgency in the country.[15] Combat operations were declared over on December 28, 2014, though several thousand troops remain in the country to support Afghanistan's military.[16]
    • Iraq War (March 20, 2003 – December 18, 2011) – On the pretext that the government of Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction,[17] the United States and a coalition of partners invaded Iraq and overthrew Hussein.[18] After the invasion, the U.S. occupied the country.[19] However, the occupation subsequently created an insurgency by jihadist groups opposed to it and sectarian violence between Shiite and Sunni Muslims in the country.[20] At the end of 2011, U.S. forces officially withdrew from Iraq.[21]
  • Military intervention in Libya (March 19 – October 31, 2011) – In Libya, anti-government protests evolved into an armed rebellion after forces loyal to Muammar Gaddafi began military operations against protesters.[22] In response to the brutal crackdown, the United Nations authorized an international intervention in support of anti-Gaddafi militias.[23] International forces, mainly from NATO countries, began airstrikes and enforced a no-fly zone.[24] The intervention came to an end following the death of Gaddafi in Sirte.[25]
  • War in Donbass and Russian military intervention in Ukraine (April 6, 2014- and February 20, 2014- present)
  • Military intervention against ISIL (June 13, 2014 –) – In late 2013, a terrorist organization called the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant began making rapid advances and territorial gains in Iraq and Syria. It captured Mosul in June[26] and made Al-Raqqah its capital,[27] declaring itself to be a worldwide caliphate.[28] Various international coalitions were formed to help fight the militants.[29][30] By early 2016, ISIL had lost around 40% and 20% of its territory in Iraq and Syria respectively.[31]
  • Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen (March 26, 2015 –) – After Houthi rebels overtook Sana'a on February 6, 2015, the internationally recognized government of Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi relocated to Aden.[32] In response to a Houthi advance to the coastal city, the Hadi government made a plea for international assistance in taking out the Houthi rebels.[33] Neighbouring Saudi Arabia and its allies accepted the plea and began carrying out airstrikes across the country to target the Houthi rebels and other non-state actors.[34]
  • Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War (September 30, 2015 –) – By early 2015, Syrian President Bashar al-Assad's forces in Syria's civil war began experiencing major setbacks.[35] The Syrian government requested Russian military intervention.[36] The Russian Air Force subsequently began airstrikes with the alleged target being jihadist like ISIL,[37] but instead mostly targeted Syrian opposition rebels opposed to Assad.[38][39]

Civil wars[edit]

  • War in North-West Pakistan (March 16, 2004 –) –Since 2004, Pakistan has been fighting an insurgency by various armed militant groups in the country.[40] The violence has killed almost 57,000 people since,[41] with over 3 million more affected.[42] By 2014, however, casualties from terrorist and militant attacks had dropped by around 40%.[43]
  • Houthi insurgency in Yemen (June 14, 2004 – February 6, 2015) – The Houthis, a Shia militant group, waged a war against the Yemeni government.[44] Yemen had accused Iran of directing and financing the insurgency.[45] Thousands of rebels and civilians were killed during the conflict.[46][47] The insurgency came an end in 2015 when Houthi forces captured Sana'a and exiled the government to the port city of Aden.[48]
  • Mexican Drug War (December 11, 2006 –) – Following a rise in criminal violence as a result of drug trafficking in the country, Mexican President Felipe Calderón declared a war on drugs in December 2006.[49] Since the start of the war, the death toll from drug violence had sharply increased.[50] Arrests of key cartel leaders, particularly in the Tijuana and Gulf cartels, led to increasing violence as cartels fought for control of trafficking routes into the United States.[51][52][53]
  • War in Somalia (January 31, 2009 –) – Following years of lawlessness in the country, the new Transitional Federal Government attempted to restore order in Somalia. However, Al-Shabaab, an Islamist militant group that gained prominence in the country during the period, had been waging an insurgency against the new government. In 2011, the federal government captured Mogadishu, the capital,[54] and subsequently retook several towns across the country.[55] Since then, the government has attempted to clean out the remaining Al-Shabaab strongholds with help from AMISOM soldiers.[56]
  • Colombian Armed Conflict (1964 –) – Fighting between the Colombian government, left-wing guerrillas, and various paramilitary factions had been ongoing since 1964. However, since then end of the Cold War, the violence has sharply decreased as rebel groups gradually became more weakened with only two major groups remaining, FARC and ELN.[57] The violence has killed over 222,000 people, mostly civilians since the conflict began.[58] Since 2012, both groups have been in peace talks with the government, with FARC and the government signing a ceasefire in 2016.[59]
  • Northern Mali conflict (January 16, 2012 – February 20, 2015) – In January 2012, a rebellion by Tuaregs in Northern Mali began. After Malian president Amadou Toumani Touré was ousted in a coup d'état, Tuaregs captured Northern Mali,[60] and declared it to be the independent state of Azawad.[61] However, shortly afterward, various Islamists groups took over Northern Mali from the Tuaregs and imposed sharia law on the region.[62]

Arab Spring[edit]

  • Libyan Civil War (February 15 – October 13, 2011) – Inspired by the revolutions in their neighbours, Libyans began to protest against Muammar Gaddafi's 42-year rule.[63] However, unlike in Tunisia and Egypt, Gaddafi refused to step down and sent in the military to brutally quell protests.[64] As a result, many army units had defected to the opposition and protests soon turned into an armed rebellion.[65] With international help from NATO and neighbors in the region, the rebels were able to make rapid advances into Gaddafi's strongholds, capturing Tripoli, the capital,[66] and eventually Sirte, Gaddafi's hometown and last outpost, where he was killed.[67] The war resulted in the death of at least fifty thousand people.[68]
  • Syrian Civil War (since March 15, 2011) – Protests erupted in Syria against President Bashar al-Assad's rule and called for democratic reforms.[69] The uprising later intensified after police and the army were sent in to crack down on protesters,[70] laying siege to various opposition strongholds in the country.[71] The uprising later morphed into war after army officers defected to the opposition, forming the Free Syrian Army (FSA).[72] Over the course of the war, moderate rebel groups, including the FSA, began to splinter and lose influence in the conflict,[73] allowing for Islamic extremist groups like Al-Nusra Front and ISIL to take control of vast amounts of territory. By 2014, ISIL was the main force fighting Assad.[74]

Political events[edit]

Coups[edit]

The most prominent coups d'états committed against the ruling governments during the decade include:

Terrorist attacks[edit]

The most prominent terrorist attacks committed against civilian populations during the decade include:

Nuclear weapons[edit]

U.S. President Barack Obama and Russian President Dmitri Medvedev signing the New START treaty in Prague.

Cyber security and hacking[edit]

Cyber security incidents, such as hacking, leaks or theft of sensitive information, gained increased attention of governments, corporations and individuals.

  • July 25, 2010 – WikiLeaks published more than 90,000 internal U.S. military logs of the War in Afghanistan. The documents revealed how the coalition used special forces to hunt down Taliban leaders and "kill or capture" them without trial, increasingly used drones to attack alleged Taliban positions, covered up evidence of the Taliban acquiring surface-to-air missiles and the deaths of civilians by coalition forces and Taliban suicide bombings.[127][128]
  • October 22, 2010 – Wikileaks disclosed nearly 392,000 U.S. Army field reports of the Iraq War, which documented multiple cases of U.S. authorities failing to report torture, rape and other abuses of detainees and purposely misleading the death toll of the war,[129] soldiers killing hundreds of civilians for coming too close to checkpoints and other war crimes.[130][131] The leaks also showed that Iran was involved in the war by supplying Shiite militias with deadly weapons for use against civilians, Sunni Muslims and U.S. Army soldiers.[132] It is the largest leak in the history of the U.S. military.[133]
  • June 5, 2013 – Edward Snowden leaked files through the Guardian newspaper detailing National Security Agency (NSA) privacy policies, including PRISM, the NSA call database, and Boundless Informant.[134][135][136] These leaks raised serious questions for civilians on whether their privacy should be breached in the name of public safety and whether that had already happened.[137] Leaks also revealed covert actions against German Chancellor Angela Merkel and Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff and have damaged diplomatic relations in Europe and Brazil.[138][139]
  • June 5, 2015 – The Office of Personnel Management of the U.S. government announced that it was hacked, resulting in a massive data breach, stealing information of around 21.5 million people.[140] The attack was suspected to have originated from China but it remains unclear if it was or not.[141]
  • February 4, 2016 – The Bangladesh Bank became a victim of theft after hackers attempted to steal US$951 Million from its account at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York by taking credentials for payment transfers and then moving the money to the Philippines and Sri Lanka.[142] The hackers failed to steal the attempted amount but still got away with $81 million, which was diverted to the Philippines, making it one of the largest bank heists in history.[143][144]
  • March 27, 2016 – Anonymous Philippines has hacked the website of Commission on Elections to force them to place security features on Vote Counting Machine (VCM).[145] Soon, the LulzSec Pilipinas leaked sensitive information of voters all over the Philippines from the COMELEC website, and the incident has been called the "biggest government data breach in history".[146] On April 21, one of the hackers involved in the recent defacement and supposed leak of data from the Commission on Elections' official website has been arrested in Sampaloc, Manila.[147] On April 29, another hacker allegedly responsible for leaking the information of voters from the Comelec website was arrested by the National Bureau of Investigation.[148]
  • April 3, 2016 – 11.5 millions confidential documents were leaked from the Panamanian law firm Mossack Fonseca that detailed financial and attorney–client information of more than 214,488 offshore companies.[149] The leaks revealed information of various world leaders, politicians, billionaires and celebrities being involved in hidden financial dealings within tax havens and companies doing business with terrorist organizations and governments under international sanctions.[150][151]

Prominent political events[edit]

The prominent political events include:

Africa
Demonstrators marching on Avenue Habib Bourguiba in downtown Tunis, Tunisia, January 12, 2011.
Americas
U.S. President Barack Obama and Cuban President Raúl Castro shaking hands in Panama after resuming diplomatic relations between the two countries, April 11, 2015.
Asia
Benigno S. Aquino III taking his oath of office as the 15th President of the Philippines.
Taiwanese President Ma Ying-jeou meeting Chinese President Xi Jinping in Singapore, November 7, 2015.
Europe
Pope Benedict XVI at his final Wednesday General Audience in St. Peter's Square shortly before resigning as pope, February 27, 2013.
Oceania

Gallery of notable world leaders[edit]

Note: Names of country leaders shown below in bold face have remained in power continuously throughout the entirety of the decade, as of July 2016.

Assassinations, targeted killings and assassination attempts[edit]

Prominent assassinations, targeted killings, and assassination attempts include:

Disasters[edit]

The most prominent disasters include:

Non-natural disasters[edit]

Aviation[edit]

General[edit]

Marine[edit]

Pollution[edit]

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill as seen from space by NASA's Terra satellite, May 24, 2010.

Natural disasters[edit]

An aerial view of Sendai following an earthquake and tsunami, March 12, 2011.
Typhoon Haiyan approaching the Philippines at peak intensity, November 7, 2013.

Epidemics[edit]

Economy[edit]

In the United States, a Gallup poll in 2011 found that more than half of Americans believed the country was still in a recession.[366] Global oil production in 2014 reached an historic peak, reaching 93 million barrels/day.[367]

A sovereign-debt crisis in Europe began in early 2010, and the Greek government admitted that it was having difficulties servicing its large sovereign debt. In the summer and fall of 2011 bond yields for Italy and Spain spiked above 6 percent.[368] By 2015 bond rates had returned to normal ranges across Europe, save for Greece, which accepted another, even more stringent bailout package. The size of the European Financial Stability Facility was increased from €440 billion to €2 trillion.[369]

China became the second largest global economy, surpassing Japan.[370]

In August 2011, the S&P downgraded the United States' credit rating from triple AAA to AA-plus.[371]

India became the fastest growing major economy of the world in 2015, surpassing China.[372]

Japan also saw a rating downgrade due to debt burden.[373]

Society and trends[edit]

Many countries reported declining fertility rates in their 2010 censuses.[374] Young people now spent their entire lives in the context of online interactive technology.[375]

Aging[edit]

The 2010s are the decade in which most baby boomers in developed nations are to retire, putting pressure on pension programs and other safety net programs. The consequences of an aging society were felt hardest in Europe, Russia and Japan, which were the first to experience substantial population decline.[376][377][378] Over 20% of Japan's population is over the age of 65, making it the most elderly nation.[379] As a result, Japan examined alternative solutions for elder care, including robots.[380][381] In the United States, proposals for revising Medicare and Social Security proliferated, including raising the age of retirement or adjusting benefit amounts. Opponents instead wanted to increase benefit levels.[382][383][384][385][386]

In 2010, France debated and raised the retirement age from 60 to 62, despite widespread demonstrations in opposition.[387] A few years later the threshold was lowered back to 60.[388]

Political polarization[edit]

Political polarization increased as conservatives and progressives clashed over the role of government and other social, economic and environmental issues. US polls showed a divided electorate regarding job creation, debt reduction and taxation.[389][390][391][392][393][394] Street movements protesting the increasing numbers of refugees from Islamic nations have developed, such as the English Defence League and Pegida.[395][396]

LGBT rights[edit]

Acceptance of LGBT people slowly increased.[397][398][399] In June 2011 the United Nations passed its first motion in support of LGBT rights.[400][401] Although many nations allowed gays to serve in their militaries, a major milestone came in September 2011 when the US abolished its "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy.[402][403] Marriage for same-sex couples was an ongoing debate in many nations, while over eighteen nations legalized same-sex marriage.[404][405][406][407][408] Ireland, in 2015, became the first nation to legalize same-sex marriage via referendum.[409]

In 2013, Russian President Vladimir Putin signed a law that criminalized expression of homosexuality.[410] Prior to its passage, St. Petersburg drafted its own ban on homosexual expression, and banned pride events as well.[411]

Youth culture[edit]

In 2013, Baauer's "Harlem Shake" was the first Internet meme song to reach the #1 spot on the Billboard Top 100, reflecting a shift in popular culture as Internet memes became mainstream.[412]

The youth of the 2010s were called the "best-behaved generation on record." In May 2014, the US Centers for Disease Control released a report stating that teenage pregnancies and their uses of drugs and alcohol reached record lows.[413] A 2013 survey showed that the rate of teen smoking dropped to 15.7%, the rate of teenagers having underage sex dropped to 34% and the rate of teenagers participating in a physical fight dropped to 25%, much lower than their counterparts 22 years earlier.[414] E-cigarette and other smokeless tobacco product use among teenagers rose.[415]

Other social trends[edit]

New urbanism and urban revival influenced urban planning in the United States and other developed countries.[416] However, growth of American suburbs still outpaces urban growth.[417]

Environmentalism gained, though action on curbing fossil fuels has been limited.[418]

China was increasingly called a superpower in the early 2010s, including at the 2011 meeting between Hu Jintao and Barack Obama. China overtook the US as the world's largest trading nation, filing the most patents, expanding its military, landing its lunar rover Yutu on the moon, ending the nearly four-decade malaise of moon exploration and creating China's Oriental Movie Metropolis as a major film and cultural center. China was projected to have the world's largest economy by 2018 with an estimated GDP per capita equal to the US by the late 2050s.[419]

In America, migration declined to its lowest level since tracking began in 1948.[420]

AIDS, a pandemic responsible for killing over 30 million people since its discovery in the early 1980s, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, became a treatable condition, though only one case had been cured.[421] With good treatment patients can generally expect normal lives and lifespans. However, as of 2011 only some 5 million of the 12 million afflicted have access to such treatment.[421]

Science and technology[edit]

List of years in science (table)
Image from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter showing photographic evidence of possible liquid water on Mars.
NASA announced that its Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter captured photographic evidence of possible liquid water on Mars on 5 August 2011.
Image of the CERN Large Hadron Collider featuring the main pipe and tracks for transports.
The first collisions of CERN's Large Hadron Collider took place on 31 March 2010.

Science[edit]

Significant Scientific Researches[edit]

These are the 10 most significant scientific researchs by year based on the annual award Breakthrough of the Year made by the AAAS journal, Science.

  • 2010: The first quantum machine[422]
    • Synthetic biology
    • Neandertal genome
    • HIV prophylaxis
    • Exome Sequencing/Rare disease genes
    • Molecular dynamics simulations
    • Quantum simulator
    • Next-generation genomics
    • RNA reprogramming
    • The return of the rat
  • 2011: HIV treatment as prevention (HPTN 052)[423]
    • Hayabusa satellite
    • Ancient interbreeding
    • Photosystem II
    • Pristine gas
    • Microbiome
    • Malaria vaccine
    • Exoplanets
    • Designer Zeolites
    • Senescent cells
  • 2012: Discovery of the Higgs boson[424]
    • Denisovan genome
    • Genome engineering
    • Neutrino mixing angle
    • ENCODE research project
    • Curiosity landing
    • X-ray laser advances
    • Controlling bionics
    • Majorana fermions
    • Eggs from stem cells
  • 2013: Cancer immunotherapy[425]
    • Genetic microsurgery for the masses
    • CLARITY makes it perfectly clear
    • Human Cloning at last
    • Dishing up mini-organs
    • Cosmic particle accelerators identified
    • Newcomer juices up the race to harness sunlight
    • To sleep, perchance to clean
    • Your microbes, your health
    • In vaccine design, looks do matter
  • 2014: Rosetta comet mission[426]
    • The birth of birds
    • Using young blood to fight old age
    • Robots that cooperate
    • Chips that mimic the brain
    • The world’s oldest cave art
    • Cells that might cure diabetes
    • Manipulating memories
    • Rise of the CubeSat
    • Giving life a bigger genetic alphabet
  • 2015: CRISPR genome-editing method [427]

Nobel Prize Winners of Decade[edit]

Year Physics Chemistry Physiology
or Medicine
Literature Peace Economics
2010 Geim, AndreAndre Geim;
Novoselov, KonstantinKonstantin Novoselov[428]
Heck, Richard F.Richard F. Heck;
Negishi, Ei-ichiEi-ichi Negishi;
Suzuki, AkiraAkira Suzuki[429]
Edwards, Robert G.Robert G. Edwards[430] Vargas Llosa, MarioMario Vargas Llosa[431] Xiaobo, LiuLiu Xiaobo[432][F] Diamond, Peter A.Peter A. Diamond;
Mortensen, Dale T.Dale T. Mortensen;
Pissarides, Christopher A.Christopher A. Pissarides[433]
2011 Perlmutter, SaulSaul Perlmutter;
Riess, Adam G.Adam G. Riess;
Schmidt, BrianBrian Schmidt[434]
Shechtman, DanDan Shechtman[435] Beutler, BruceBruce Beutler;
Hoffmann, Jules A.Jules A. Hoffmann;
Steinman, Ralph M.Ralph M. Steinman[436]
Tranströmer, TomasTomas Tranströmer[437] Sirleaf, Ellen JohnsonEllen Johnson Sirleaf;
Gbowee, LeymahLeymah Gbowee;
Karman, TawakelTawakel Karman[438]
Sargent, Thomas J.Thomas J. Sargent;
Sims, Christopher A.Christopher A. Sims[439]
2012 Haroche, SergeSerge Haroche;
J. Wineland, DavidDavid J. Wineland[440]
Kobilka, Brian K.Brian K. Kobilka;
Lefkowitz, Robert J.Robert J. Lefkowitz[441]
Gurdon, John B.John B. Gurdon;
Yamanaka, Shinya Shinya Yamanaka[442]
Yan, MoMo Yan[443] Union, EuropeanEuropean Union[444] Roth, Alvin E.Alvin E. Roth;
Shapley, Lloyd S.Lloyd S. Shapley[445]
2013 Englert, FrançoisFrançois Englert;
Higgs, Peter W.Peter W. Higgs[446]
Karplus, MartinMartin Karplus;
Levitt, MichaelMichael Levitt;
Warshel, AriehArieh Warshel[447]
Rothman, James E.James E. Rothman;
Schekman, Randy W.Randy W. Schekman;
Südhof, Thomas C.Thomas C. Südhof[448]
Munro, AliceAlice Munro[449] for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, OrganisationOrganisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons[450] Fama, Eugene F.Eugene F. Fama;
Hansen, Lars PeterLars Peter Hansen;
Shiller, Robert J.Robert J. Shiller[451]
2014 Akasaki, IsamuIsamu Akasaki;
Amano, HiroshiHiroshi Amano;
Nakamura, ShujiShuji Nakamura[452]
Betzig, EricEric Betzig;
Hell, StefanStefan Hell;
Moerner, WilliamWilliam Moerner[453]
O'Keefe, JohnJohn O'Keefe;
Moser, May-BrittMay-Britt Moser;
Moser, EdvardEdvard Moser[454]
Modiano, PatrickPatrick Modiano[455] Satyarthi, KailashKailash Satyarthi;
Yousafzai, MalalaMalala Yousafzai[456]
Tirole, JeanJean Tirole[457]
2015 Kajita, TakaakiTakaaki Kajita;
McDonald, Arthur B.Arthur B. McDonald[458]
Lindahl, TomasTomas Lindahl;
Modrich, Paul L.Paul L. Modrich;
Sancar, AzizAziz Sancar[459]
Campbell, William C.William C. Campbell;
Ōmura, SatoshiSatoshi Ōmura;
Youyou, TuTu Youyou[460]
Alexievich, SvetlanaSvetlana Alexievich[461] National Dialogue Quartet, TunisianTunisian National Dialogue Quartet[462] Deaton, AngusAngus Deaton[463]

Technology[edit]

Technological Trends of the Decade[edit]

Technological Marks by Field[edit]

Information and communications[edit]
  • April 3, 2010 – Apple Inc. launched the iPad, its first tablet computer, which offers multi-touch interaction. The iPad became an immediate bestseller and only months after its release became the best selling tech gadget in history.[465]
  • 2010 – Sales for PCs decline in favor of tablet computers and laptop convertibles.[466]
  • February 3, 2011 – The supply of IPv4 internet addresses was exhausted. An early period of transition to IPv6 continued during 2011.[467]
  • March 29, 2011 – More than 2 billion people used the Internet.[468]
  • 2011 – One billion mobile broadband users predicted and 4.6 billion people worldwide were subscribed to mobile phones.[469]
  • 2011 – Americans spent more time using mobile apps than using the World Wide Web.[470]
  • Early 2012 – Samsung overtook Nokia for the first time as the largest mobile phone maker in the world.[471]
  • February 3, 2012 – Tablet and smartphone sales overtook netbooks.[472]
  • 2012 – Samsung overtook Nokia for the first time as the largest mobile phone maker in the world.
  • May 21, 2012 – Google Chrome became the world's most used web browser, replacing Internet Explorer.[473]
  • October 30, 2012 – The Wikimedia Foundation started developing Wikidata, its first new project in six years.[474]
  • April 29, 2013 – In developed countries smartphones sales surpassed feature phones.[475]
  • 2013 – Streaming media and rental kiosk services such as Netflix and Redbox forced video rental chains such as Blockbusters to close.[476]
  • 2014 – Transparent display screens, 3D glass pyramid holograms and curved touchscreen displays entered the market.
Medicine and biotechnology[edit]
  • 2011 – Life extension began to be considered.[477]
  • September 18, 2013 – Google created Calico in order to research ways to combat aging.[478]
  • December 23, 2015 – The Philippines became the first Asian country to approve the sale of the world's first dengue vaccine, the Dengvaxia.[479]
Software and legal issues[edit]
Space[edit]
A near-true colour image of Pluto, taken by NASA's New Horizons probe on July 13, 2015.
Transport[edit]

Notable events[edit]

Popular culture[edit]

Architecture[edit]

The Burj Khalifa became the world's tallest building when completed in 2010.

Postmodernism and green design[517][518] were common architectural themes. "Sustainable design " emphasized natural lighting, green/white roofs, better insulation and other cost-saving features.[519] China and the Middle East led in large-scale development.[520][521][522][523]

In 2010, The United Arab Emirates' Burj Khalifa became the tallest man-made structure ever built, standing at 828 m (2,717 ft).[524]

The United States' One World Trade Center, completed in 2014, is the tallest building in North America at 1,776 feet.[525]

Art[edit]

In 2015 Excessivism emerged. Trends that began since earlier decades are continuing into this decade are: Pop art, Altermodern, Cynical realism, The Kitsch Movement, Post-contemporary, Metamodernism, Pseudorealism, Remodernism, Renewable energy sculpture, Street art, Stuckism, Superflat, Superstroke, Urban art, Videogame art and Virtual art.

Fashion[edit]

Main article: 2010s in fashion

The 2010s have been defined by a revival of interwar, austerity era, 1980s (2010–13), early 1990s and skater fashions.[526] In the early 2010s, many late 2000s fashion trends remained popular, especially the indie pop and grunge look which largely draws upon 1960s Mod clothing combined with elements of 1970s garage rock and contemporary alternative fashion.

Latin American teens and young adults, who began keeping up with general Western fashion more closely in the mid-1990s, proved to be more conservative

Hipster subculture and the "Thrift Shop" look had a considerable impact upon mainstream fashion. Full-printed T-shirts with diverse patterns (cosmic, clouds, historic architecture, and tribal) trended.

In many Western countries, the growing of a full beard became a popular trend among young males in the early-to-mid 2010s, with some suggesting this was due to the influence of the hipster subculture and the Movember campaign.[527][528]

Film[edit]

Movies and television struggled to maintain their position, as online viewing grew rapidly.[529] Piracy was a major concern for the industry.[530][531][532] In 2012 Viacom launched a US$1 billion lawsuit against YouTube for copyright infringement.[533] In early 2012, the United States Congress began debating the SOPA and PIPA bills that were heavily lobbied by the entertainment industry.[534]

3D films gained popularity, led by Avatar in late-2009.[535][536][537] In 2010, Avatar became the first film to gross more than US$2 billion.[538] Other 3D releases were also successful.[539][540] The video game and television industries also released 3D content.

Animated films in the 2010s remained predominately computer-generated. Older styles lost favor,[541][542] although (2D) Anime remained popular.[543] Traditionally animated television shows for children remained popular.[544] In 2010, Toy Story 3 became the first animated film to gross more than US$1 billion worldwide.[545]

In 2010, Kathryn Bigelow became the first woman to receive the Academy Award for Best Director for the 2009 movie The Hurt Locker.[546]

Superhero and science fiction films became box office leaders.[547] In 2016, Star Wars: The Force Awakens (2015) became the third highest-grossing film of all time.[548][549]

Academy Award for Best Picture winners

Palme d'Or winners at the Cannes Film Festival

César Award for Best Film winners

Best films of the Sight & Sound annual poll

Music[edit]

Main article: 2010s in music

EDM, synthpop, indie, and trap see mainstream success throughout the early to mid 2010s. R&B and hip-hop grew again around 2013.[575][576] Digital music sales in 2012 topped CD sales.[577]

The use of Auto-Tune and talk box declined in the decade. Dance and pop music surged into the 2010s,[578][579][580] with EDM achieving mass commercial success.[581] In the early 2010s, dubstep and drumstep, originating in the United Kingdom, rose in popularity globally.[582][583][584] Drumstep is continuing to grow in popularity along with drum and bass. It mirrors the electronic-leaning musical trends elsewhere, while hardstyle is becoming increasingly popular in Australia and North America, with music festivals such as Defqon 1, IQON and The sound of Q-dance.[585][586][587][588]

Streaming services such as Pandora Radio and Spotify became the preferred music delivery systems.[589]

Record of the Year Grammy Winners

Sports[edit]

Television[edit]

Cable providers saw a decline in subscriber numbers as cord cutters switched to lower cost online streaming services such as Hulu, Netflix and Amazon.com's Prime service.[605][606] These non-cable, internet-based media streaming services even began producing their own programming.[607]

TV sets, such as the Samsung SmartTV, started offering online streaming via television.

The American soap opera format lost popularity in favor of reality television and daytime talk shows.[608][609] Long-lived but canceled shows All My Children and One Life to Live return in 2013 as online content.[610] Prime-time television serials and Spanish-language telenovelas remain popular globally.[611]

Primetime Emmy Award for Best Drama

Theatre[edit]

In 2013 for the first time, the four nominees for the Best Musical Tony Award were all based on movies.

Tony Award for Best Musical

Video gaming[edit]

PlayStation 4 was released in the November 2013 and so far it has been the best-selling gaming console of the decade. (40 million units sold worldwide as of May 2016)[625]
The Nintendo 3DS is the first gaming device released to feature 3D gaming without the need for stereoscopic glasses.

Cloud gaming, stereoscopic 3D gaming, and ongoing improvements in graphics were some of the biggest trends. Video game sales declined in the early-2010s, most likely due to the effects of the Great Recession.[626] Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3, released in late-2011, made over US$775 million in one-week, matching the highest-grossing films.[627] According to the Entertainment Software Association, the average age of a person who plays video games is 30.[628]

The decade began dominated primarily by seventh generation consoles, such as Xbox 360, the PlayStation 3 and Wii.[629] Games such as the Sims franchise and many of Blizzard's popular titles remained popular on PCs and expanded to other devices.[630][631] The OnLive console was released in 2010 becoming the first massively produced cloud gaming-based gaming device.[632] 2012 introduced the first console regarded to be in the eighth generation, the Wii U, followed in late 2013, Xbox One and PlayStation 4. They faced stiff competition from tablet and smartphones.[633][634]

The Nintendo 3DS, released in early 2011 introduced a glasses-free interface for 3D.[635] The 2D PlayStation Vita was released in 2012. The Wii introduced the sensor bar with compatible sensitive controllers, followed by the PlayStation Move and Kinect. This expanded the video game market to the elderly and those interested in physical therapy.[636][637][638][639]

Game of the Year

See also[edit]

Timeline[edit]

The following articles contain brief timelines of each year:

References[edit]

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