Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.
The bishopric of Caloe was a suffragan of the metropolitan see of Ephesus and was thus within the Roman province of Asia. Lequien was therefore mistaken in supposing that the titular see was named after Lake Koloe in Lydia, near which were the tombs of Lydian kings and the temple of Artemis Koloene.
The names of three of its bishops are known because their participation in councils: Aphobius in the Council of Ephesus of 431; Gregorius in the Trullan Council of 692; and Theophanes in the Second Council of Nicaea in 787.
- Sophrone Pétridès, "Caloe" in Catholic Encyclopedia (New York 1908)
- Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. I, coll. 725-726
- Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 444
- Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 856