|A component of iOS, watchOS, tvOS, and macOS|
|Type||Intelligent personal assistant|
Siri (pronounced //) is an intelligent personal assistant, part of Apple Inc.'s iOS, watchOS, macOS, and tvOS operating systems. The assistant uses voice queries and a natural language user interface to answer questions, make recommendations, and perform actions by delegating requests to a set of Internet services. The software adapts to users' individual language usages, searches, and preferences, with continuing use. Returned results are individualized.
Siri is a spin-off from a project originally developed by the SRI International Artificial Intelligence Center. Its speech recognition engine is provided by Nuance Communications, and Siri uses advanced machine learning technologies to function. Its original American, British, and Australian voice actors recorded their respective voices around 2005, unaware of the recordings' eventual usage in Siri. The voice assistant was released as an app for iOS in February 2010, and it was acquired by Apple two months later. Siri was then integrated into iPhone 4S at its release in October 2011. At that time, the separate app was also removed from the iOS App Store. Siri has become an integral part of Apple's products, having been adapted into other hardware devices over the years, including newer iPhone models, as well as iPad, iPod Touch, Mac, AirPods, Apple TV and the upcoming HomePod.
Siri supports a wide range of user commands, including performing phone actions, checking basic information, scheduling events and reminders, handling device settings, searching the Internet, navigating areas, finding information on entertainment, and is able to engage with iOS-integrated apps. With the release of iOS 10 in 2016, Apple opened up limited third-party access to Siri, including third-party messaging apps, as well as payments, ride-sharing, and Internet calling apps. With the release of iOS 11, Apple has updated Siri's voices for more clear, human voices, supports follow-up questions and language translation, and additional third-party actions.
Siri's original release on iPhone 4S in 2011 received mixed reviews. It received praise for its voice recognition and contextual knowledge of user information, including calendar appointments, but was criticized for requiring stiff user commands and having a lack of flexibility. It was also criticized for lacking information on certain nearby places, and for its inability to understand certain English accents. In 2016 and 2017, a number of media reports have indicated that Siri is lacking in innovation, particularly against new competing voice assistants from other technology companies. The reports concerned Siri's limited set of features, "bad" voice recognition, and undeveloped service integrations as causing trouble for Apple in the field of artificial intelligence and cloud-based services; the basis for the complaints reportedly due to stifled development, as caused by Apple's prioritization of user privacy and executive power struggles within the company.
Siri is a spin-out from the SRI International Artificial Intelligence Center, and is an offshoot of the DARPA-funded CALO project. It was co-founded by Dag Kittlaus, Adam Cheyer, and Tom Gruber.
Siri's speech recognition engine is provided by Nuance Communications, a speech technology company. This was not officially acknowledged by Apple nor Nuance for years, until Nuance CEO Paul Ricci confirmed the information at a 2011 technology conference. The speech recognition system makes use of sophisticated machine learning techniques, including convolutional neural networks and long short-term memory.
The original American voice of Siri was provided by Susan Bennett in July 2005, unaware that it would eventually be used for the voice assistant. A report from The Verge in September 2013 about voice actors, their work, and machine learning developments, made hints that Allison Dufty was the voice behind Siri, though this was disproven when Dufty wrote on her website that she was "absolutely, positively NOT the voice of Siri". Citing growing pressure, Bennett revealed her role as Siri in October, and her claim was proven by Ed Primeau, an American audio forensics expert. Apple has never confirmed the information.
The original British male voice was provided by Jon Briggs, a former technology journalist. Having discovered that he was the voice of Siri by watching television, he first spoke only about his role in November 2011, also acknowledging his voice work was done "five or six years ago" without knowing the recordings' final usage form.
As part of an interview between all three voice actors and The Guardian, Briggs stated that "The original system was recorded for a US company called Scansoft, who were then bought by Nuance. Apple simply licensed it."
With iOS 11, Apple auditioned "hundreds of candidates" to find a new female voice, then recorded hours of speech, including different personalities and expressions, and built a new text-to-speech voice based on deep learning technology.
Siri was originally released as a stand-alone application for the iOS operating system in February 2010, and at the time, the developers were also intending to release Siri for Android and BlackBerry devices. Two months later, Apple acquired Siri. On October 4, 2011, Apple introduced the iPhone 4S with a beta version of Siri. After the announcement, Apple removed the existing standalone Siri app from App Store. TechCrunch wrote that, despite the Siri app's support for iPhone 4, its removal from App Store might also have had a financial aspect for the company, in providing an incentive for customers to upgrade devices. Third-party developer Steven Troughton-Smith, however, managed to port Siri to iPhone 4, though without being able to communicate with Apple's servers. A few days later, Troughton-Smith, working with an anonymous person nicknamed "Chpwn", managed to fully hack Siri, enabling its full functionalities on iPhone 4 and iPod Touch devices. Additionally, developers were also able to successfully create and distribute legal ports of Siri to any device capable of running iOS 5, though a proxy server was required for Apple server interaction.
Over the years, Apple has expanded the line of officially supported products, including newer iPhone models, as well as iPad support in June 2012, iPod Touch support in September 2012, Apple TV support, and the standalone Siri Remote, in September 2015, Mac and AirPods support in September 2016, and HomePod support in June 2017.
Features and options
Apple offers a wide range of voice commands to interact with Siri, including, but not limited to:
- Phone and Text actions, such as "Call Sarah", "Read my new messages", "Set the timer for 10 minutes", and "Send email to mom"
- Check basic information, including "What's the weather like today?" and "How many dollars are in a Euro?"
- Schedule events and reminders, including "Schedule a meeting" and "Remind me to"
- Handle device settings, such as "Take a picture", "Turn on Wi-Fi", and "Increase the brightness"
- Search the Internet, including "Define...", "Find pictures of...", and "Search Twitter for..."
- Navigation, including "Take me home", "What's traffic like on the way home?", and "Find driving directions to..."
- Entertainment, such as "What basketball games are on today?", "What are some movies playing near me?", and "What's the synopsis of...?"
- Engage with iOS-integrated apps, including "Pause Apple Music" and "Like this song"
Siri also offers numerous pre-programmed responses to amusing questions. Such questions include "What is the meaning of life?", to which Siri may reply "All evidence to date suggests it's chocolate"; "Why am I here?", to which it may reply "I don't know. Frankly, I've wondered that myself"; and "Will you marry me?", to which it may respond with "My End User Licensing Agreement does not cover marriage. My apologies".
Initially limited to female voices, Apple announced in June 2013 that Siri would feature a gender option, adding a male voice counterpart.
In September 2014, Apple added the ability for users to speak "Hey Siri" to enable the assistant without the requirement of physically handling the device.
With the announcement of iOS 10 in June 2016, Apple opened up limited third-party developer access to Siri through a dedicated application programming interface (API). The API restricts usage of Siri to engaging with third-party messaging apps, payment apps, ride-sharing apps, and Internet calling apps.
In iOS 11, Siri is able to handle follow-up questions, supports language translation, and opens up to more third-party actions, including task management. Additionally, users are able to type to Siri, and a new, privacy-minded "on-device learning" technique improves Siri's suggestions by privately analyzing personal usage of different iOS applications.
Siri received mixed reviews during its "beta" release as an integrated part of iPhone 4S in October 2011.
MG Siegler of TechCrunch wrote that Siri was "great", adding that "The amount of times Siri hasn’t been able to understand and execute my request is astonishingly low". Siegler further praised the potential for Siri after losing the "beta" tag, writing "Just imagine what will happen when Apple partners with other services to expand Siri further. And imagine when they have an API that any developer can use. This really could alter the mobile landscape".
Writing for The New York Times, David Pogue also praised Siri, writing that it "thinks for a few seconds, displays a beautifully formatted response and speaks in a calm female voice". Pogue praised Siri's language understanding, stating that "It’s mind-blowing how inexact your utterances can be. Siri understands everything from, “What’s the weather going to be like in Tucson this weekend?” to “Will I need an umbrella tonight?”". Pogue also equally praised Siri's ability to understand context, using the example of "Once, I tried saying, “Make an appointment with Patrick for Thursday at 3.” Siri responded, “Note that you already have an all-day appointment about ‘Boston Trip’ for this Thursday. Shall I schedule this anyway?” Unbelievable".
Jacqui Cheng of Ars Technica wrote that Apple's claims of what Siri could do were "bold", and the early demos "even bolder". Cheng wrote that "Though Siri shows real potential, these kinds of high expectations are bound to be disappointed", adding that "Apple makes clear that the product is still in beta—an appropriate label, in our opinion". While praising its ability to "decipher our casual language" and deliver "very specific and accurate result", sometimes even providing additional information, Cheng noted and criticized its restrictions, particularly when the language moved away from "stiffer commands" into more human interactions. One example included the phrase "Send a text to Jason, Clint, Sam, and Lee saying we're having dinner at Silver Cloud", which Siri interpreted as sending a message to Jason only, containing the text "Clint Sam and Lee saying we're having dinner at Silver Cloud". She also noted a lack of proper editability, as saying "Edit message to say: we're at Silver Cloud and you should come find us", generated "Clint Sam and Lee saying we're having dinner at Silver Cloud to say we're at Silver Cloud and you should come find us".
Siri was criticized by pro-choice abortion organizations, including the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) and NARAL Pro-Choice America, after users found that Siri could not provide information about the location of birth control or abortion providers nearby, sometimes directing users to pro-life crisis pregnancy centers instead. Natalie Kerris, a spokeswoman for Apple, told The New York Times that "Our customers want to use Siri to find out all types of information, and while it can find a lot, it doesn’t always find what you want", adding "These are not intentional omissions meant to offend anyone. It simply means that as we bring Siri from beta to a final product, we find places where we can do better, and we will in the coming weeks". In January 2016, Fast Company reported that, in then-recent months, Siri had begun to confuse the word "abortion" with "adoption", citing "health experts" who stated that the situation had "gotten worse". However, at the time of Fast Company's report, the situation had changed slightly, with Siri offering "a more comprehensive list of Planned Parenthood facilities", although "Adoption clinics continue to pop up, but near the bottom of the list."
In March 2012, Frank M. Fazio filed a class action lawsuit against Apple on behalf of the people who bought iPhone 4S and felt misled about the capabilities of Siri, alleging its failing to function as depicted in Apple's Siri commercials. Fazio filed the lawsuit in California and claimed that the iPhone 4S was merely a "more expensive iPhone 4" if Siri fails to function as advertised. On July 22, 2013, U.S. District Judge Claudia Wilken in San Francisco dismissed the suit but said the plaintiffs could amend at a later time. The reason given for dismissal was that plaintiffs did not sufficiently document enough misrepresentations by Apple for the trial to proceed.
Perceived lack of innovation
In June 2016, The Verge's Sean O'Kane wrote about the then-upcoming major iOS 10 updates, with a headline stating "Siri's big upgrades won't matter if it can't understand its users". O'Kane wrote that "What Apple didn’t talk about was solving Siri’s biggest, most basic flaws: it’s still not very good at voice recognition, and when it gets it right, the results are often clunky. And these problems look even worse when you consider that Apple now has full-fledged competitors in this space: Amazon’s Alexa, Microsoft’s Cortana, and Google’s Assistant." Also writing for The Verge, Walt Mossberg had previously questioned Apple's efforts in cloud-based services, writing:
[...] perhaps the biggest disappointment among Apple's cloud-based services is the one it needs most today, right now: Siri. Before Apple bought it, Siri was on the road to being a robust digital assistant that could do many things, and integrate with many services — even though it was being built by a startup with limited funds and people. After Apple bought Siri, the giant company seemed to treat it as a backwater, restricting it to doing only a few, slowly increasing number of tasks, like telling you the weather, sports scores, movie and restaurant listings, and controlling the device's functions. Its unhappy founders have left Apple to build a new AI service called Viv. And, on too many occasions, Siri either gets things wrong, doesn't know the answer, or can't verbalize it. Instead, it shows you a web search result, even when you're not in a position to read it.
In October 2016, Bloomberg reported that Apple had plans to unify the teams behind its various cloud-based services, including a single campus and reorganized cloud computing resources aimed at improving the processing of Siri's queries, though another report from The Verge in June 2017 once again called Siri's voice recognition "bad".
In June 2017, The Wall Street Journal published an extensive report on the lack of innovation with Siri following competitors' advancement in the field of voice assistants. Noting that Apple workers' anxiety levels "went up a notch" on the announcement of Amazon's Alexa, the Journal wrote that "Today, Apple is playing catch-up in a product category it invented, increasing worries about whether the technology giant has lost some of its innovation edge". The report cites the primary causes as being Apple's prioritization of user privacy, including randomly-tagged six-month Siri searches, whereas Google and Amazon keep data until actively discarded by the user, and executive power struggles with some employees leaving. Apple declined to comment on the report, while Eddy Cue said that "Apple often uses generic data rather than user data to train its systems and has the ability to improve Siri’s performance for individual users with information kept on their iPhones".
- Alisa (virtual assistant)
- Amazon Alexa
- BlackBerry Assistant
- Microsoft Cortana
- Bixby (virtual assistant)
- Google Assistant
- Knowledge Graph
- Knowledge Navigator
- Microsoft Voice Command
- One Voice Technologies
- Samsung S Voice
- Samsung Viv
- Windows Speech Recognition
- Wolfram Alpha
- Mickle, Tripp (June 7, 2017). "'I'm Not Sure I Understand'—How Apple's Siri Lost Her Mojo". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company. Retrieved June 10, 2017. (subscription required)
- Bosker, Biance (January 24, 2013). "SIRI RISING: The Inside Story Of Siri's Origins — And Why She Could Overshadow The iPhone". HuffPost. AOL. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Bostic, Kevin (May 30, 2013). "Nuance confirms its voice technology is behind Apple's Siri". AppleInsider. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Siegler, MG (October 5, 2011). "Siri, Do You Use Nuance Technology? Siri: I'm Sorry, I Can't Answer That". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Kay, Roger (March 24, 2014). "Behind Apple's Siri Lies Nuance's Speech Recognition". Forbes. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Levy, Steven (August 24, 2016). "An exclusive inside look at how artificial intelligence and machine learning work at Apple". Backchannel. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Hodgkins, Kelly (October 5, 2011). "Apple's Knowledge Navigator, Siri and the iPhone 4S". Engadget. AOL. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Rosen, Adam (October 4, 2011). "Apple Knowledge Navigator Video from 1987 Predicts Siri, iPad and More". Cult of Mac. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Ravitz, Jessica (October 15, 2013). "'I'm the original voice of Siri'". CNN. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Anderson, Lessley (September 17, 2013). "Machine language: how Siri found its voice". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Tafoya, Angela (September 23, 2013). "Siri, Unveiled! Meet The REAL Woman Behind The Voice". Refinery29. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Warman, Matt (November 10, 2011). "The voice behind Siri breaks his silence". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Savov, Vlad (November 10, 2011). "British voice of Siri only found out about it when he heard himself on TV". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Parkinson, Hannah Jane (August 12, 2015). "Hey, Siri! Meet the real people behind Apple's voice-activated assistant". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Kahn, Jordan (August 23, 2017). "Apple engineers share behind-the-scenes evolution of Siri & more on Apple Machine Learning Journal". 9to5Mac. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
- Schonfeld, Erick (February 4, 2010). "Siri's IPhone App Puts A Personal Assistant In Your Pocket". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Wortham, Jenna (April 29, 2010). "Apple Buys a Start-Up for Its Voice Technology". The New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Marsal, Katie (April 28, 2010). "Apple acquires Siri, developer of personal assistant app for iPhone". AppleInsider. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Rao, Leena (April 28, 2010). "Confirmed: Apple Buys Virtual Personal Assistant Startup Siri". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Golson, Jordan (October 4, 2011). "Siri Voice Recognition Arrives On the iPhone 4S". MacRumors. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Velazco, Chris (October 4, 2011). "Apple Reveals Siri Voice Interface: The "Intelligent Assistant" Only For iPhone 4S". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Kumparak, Greg (October 4, 2011). "The Original Siri App Gets Pulled From The App Store, Servers To Be Killed". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Gurman, Mark (October 14, 2011). "Siri voice command system ported from iPhone 4S to iPhone 4 (video)". 9to5Mac. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Gurman, Mark (October 29, 2011). "Siri hacked to fully run on the iPhone 4 and iPod touch, iPhone 4S vs iPhone 4 Siri showdown video (interview)". 9to5Mac. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Perez, Sarah (December 27, 2011). "Spire: A New Legal Siri Port For Any iOS 5 Device". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Ritchie, Rene (March 30, 2016). "How to set up 'Hey Siri' on iPhone or iPad". iMore. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Savov, Vlad (June 11, 2012). "Siri in iOS 6: iPad support, app launcher, new languages, Eyes Free, Rotten Tomatoes, sports scores, and more". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Whitney, Lance (September 12, 2012). "The new iPod Touch: A 4-inch screen, and Siri too". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Sumra, Husain (September 9, 2015). "Apple Announces New Apple TV With Siri, App Store, New User Interface and Remote". MacRumors. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Statt, Nick (September 7, 2016). "Apple to release macOS Sierra on September 20th". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Broussard, Mitchel (September 7, 2016). "Apple Debuts Wireless 'AirPods' With 5 Hours of Music Playback". MacRumors. Retrieved December 5, 2017.
- Gartenberg, Chaim (June 5, 2017). "Apple announces HomePod speaker to take on Sonos". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Purewal, Sarah Jacobsson; Cipriani, Jason (February 16, 2017). "The complete list of Siri commands". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- "What's the Meaning of Life? Ask the iPhone 4S". Fox News. Fox Entertainment Group. October 17, 2011. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Haslam, Karen (May 22, 2017). "Funny things to ask Siri". Macworld. International Data Group. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Murphy, Samantha (June 10, 2013). "Siri Gets a Male Voice". Mashable. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Cipriani, Jason (September 18, 2014). "What you need to know about 'Hey, Siri' in iOS 8". CNET. CBS Interactive. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Broussard, Mitchel (September 11, 2015). "Apple's 'Hey Siri' Feature in iOS 9 Uses Individualized Voice Recognition". MacRumors. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Tofel, Kevin (September 11, 2015). "Apple adds individual voice recognition to "Hey Siri" in iOS 9". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Sumra, Husain (June 13, 2016). "Apple Opens Siri to Third-Party Developers With iOS 10". MacRumors. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Olivarez-Giles, Nathan (June 13, 2016). "Apple iOS 10 Opens Up Siri and Messages, Updates Music, Photos and More". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company. Retrieved June 10, 2017. (subscription required)
- Matney, Lucas (June 5, 2017). "Siri gets language translation and a more human voice". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Gartenberg, Chaim (June 5, 2017). "Siri on iOS 11 gets improved speech and can suggest actions based on how you use it". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- O'Kane, Sean (June 5, 2017). "The 9 best iOS 11 features Apple didn't talk about onstage". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Welch, Chris (June 5, 2017). "Apple announces iOS 11 with new features and better iPad productivity". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Siegler, MG (October 11, 2011). "The iPhone 4S: Faster, More Capable, And You Can Talk To It". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Pogue, David (October 11, 2011). "New iPhone Conceals Sheer Magic". The New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Cheng, Jacqui (October 18, 2011). "iPhone 4S: A Siri-ously slick, speedy smartphone". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Barnett, Emma (November 7, 2011). "Google's Eric Schmidt: Apple's Siri could pose 'threat'". The Daily Telegraph. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Rushe, Dominic (December 1, 2011). "Siri's abortion bias embarrasses Apple as it rues 'unintentional omissions'". The Guardian. Guardian Media Group. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Newman, Jared (December 1, 2011). "Siri Is Pro-Life, Apple Blames a Glitch". Time. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Sutter, John D. (December 1, 2011). "Siri can't direct you to an abortion clinic". CNN. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Wortham, Jenna (November 30, 2011). "Apple Says Siri's Abortion Answers Are a Glitch". Bits. The New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Farr, Christina (January 28, 2016). "Apple Maps Stops Sending People Searching For "Abortion" To Adoption Centers". Fast Company. Mansueto Ventures. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Campbell, Mikey (January 29, 2016). "Apple correcting Siri "abortion" search issue uncovered in 2011". AppleInsider. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Chu, Henry (February 4, 2012). "Scottish burr beyond Siri's recognition". The Age. Fairfax Media. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Effron, Lauren (October 28, 2011). "iPhone 4S's Siri Is Lost in Translation With Heavy Accents". ABC News. ABC. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Kelly, Meghan (March 13, 2012). "Siri ads "false and misleading," according to class action lawsuit". VentureBeat. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Palazzolo, Joe (March 12, 2012). "So Sirious: iPhone User Sues Apple over Voice-Activated Assistant". The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company. Retrieved June 10, 2017. (subscription required)
- Kearn, Rebekah (July 26, 2013). "Disgruntled iPhone 4S Buyers Told to Try Again". Courthouse News Service. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- O'Kane, Sean (June 14, 2016). "Siri's big upgrades won't matter if it can't understand its users". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Mossberg, Walt (May 25, 2016). "Mossberg: Can Apple win the next tech war?". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Gurman, Mark (October 6, 2016). "Apple Said to Plan Improved Cloud Services by Unifying Teams". Bloomberg Technology. Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- O'Kane, Sean (June 7, 2017). "Apple still hasn't fixed Siri's biggest problem". The Verge. Vox Media. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- Hardwick, Tim (June 8, 2017). "Apple's Concern With User Privacy Reportedly Stifling Siri Development". MacRumors. Retrieved June 10, 2017.
- For a detailed article on the history of the organizations and technologies preceding the development of Siri, and their influence upon that application, see Bianca Bosker, 2013, "Siri Rising: The Inside Story Of Siri's Origins (And Why She Could Overshadow The iPhone)", in The Huffington Post (online), January 22, 2013 (updated January 24, 2013), accessed November 2, 2014.