Leni Riefenstahl

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Leni Riefenstahl
Leni-Riefenstahl - Profile.jpg
Leni Riefenstahl, 1933
Born Helene Bertha Amalie Riefenstahl
(1902-08-22)22 August 1902
Berlin, German Empire
Died 8 September 2003(2003-09-08) (aged 101)
Pöcking, Germany
Cause of death Cancer
Resting place Munich Waldfriedhof
Occupation Dancer, actress, film director, producer, screenwriter, author
Years active 1925–2002
Known for Triumph des Willens
Olympia
Religion Protestant
Spouse(s) Peter Jacob (1944–46)
Relatives Heinz (brother)
Website Official website

Helene Bertha Amalie "Leni" Riefenstahl (German: [ˈʁiːfənʃtaːl]; 22 August 1902 – 8 September 2003) was a German film director, producer, screenwriter, editor, photographer, actress and dancer.

Born in 1902 into a Protestant family, Riefenstahl grew up alongside her brother Heinz, who was later killed in World War II. A talented swimmer and artist, she also became interested in dancing during her childhood, taking dancing lessons and performing across Europe.

After seeing a promotional poster for the 1924 film Der Berg des Schicksals ("The Mountain of Destiny"), Riefenstahl was inspired to move into acting. Between 1925 and 1929, she starred in five successful motion pictures. In 1932, Riefenstahl decided to try directing with her own film called Das Blaue Licht ("The Blue Light"). In the 1930s, she directed Triumph des Willens ("Triumph of the Will") and Olympia, resulting in worldwide attention and acclaim. Both movies are widely considered two of the most effective, and technically innovative, propaganda films ever made. Her involvement in Triumph des Willens, however, would significantly damage her career and reputation after the war. The exact nature of her relationship with Nazi Party leader Adolf Hitler remains a matter of debate, although a friendship is known to have existed.

After the war, Riefenstahl was arrested, but classified as being a "fellow traveler" only and was not associated with war crimes. Throughout her life, she denied having known about the Holocaust, and won nearly 50 libel cases. Besides directing, Riefenstahl released an autobiography and wrote several books on the Nuba people.

Riefenstahl died of cancer on 8 September 2003 at the age of 101 and was buried at Munich Waldfriedhof. She was praised for her body of work following her death and remains one of the most acclaimed female movie directors.

Early life[edit]

Birth and family[edit]

Riefenstahl as a young girl with her brother Heinz, 1912

Helene Bertha Amalie Riefenstahl was born on 22 August 1902 into a prosperous Protestant family.[1] Her father, Alfred, owned a successful heating and ventilation company and wanted his daughter to follow him into the business world.[2] Since Riefenstahl was the only child for several years, Alfred wanted her to carry on the family name and secure the family fortune.[2] However, her mother, Bertha, who had been a part-time seamstress before her marriage, had faith in Riefenstahl and believed that her daughter's future was in show business.[3][2] Riefenstahl had a younger brother, Heinz, who was killed at the age of 36 on the Eastern Front in Nazi Germany's war against the Soviet Union.[4]

Childhood interests[edit]

Riefenstahl fell in love with the arts in her childhood.[5] At the age of four, she began to paint and write poetry.[5] She was also athletic, and at the age of twelve joined a gymnastic and swim club.[2] Her mother was confident her daughter would grow up to be successful in the field of art and therefore gave her full support, unlike Riefenstahl's father, who was not interested in his daughter's artistic inclinations.[2] In 1918, when she was 16, Riefenstahl attended a presentation of Snow White which interested her deeply; it led her to want to be a dancer.[6] Her father instead wanted to provide his daughter with an education that could lead to a more dignified profession. His wife, however, continued to support her daughter's passion.[2] Without her father's knowledge, she enrolled Riefenstahl in dance and ballet classes at the Grimm-Reiter Dance School in Berlin, where she quickly became a star pupil.[2]

Dancing career[edit]

Riefenstahl gained a reputation on Berlin's dance circuit.[6] She attended dancing academies and became well known for her self-styled interpretive dancing skills, traveling across Europe with Max Reinhardt in a show funded by Jewish producer Harry Sokal.[7][8] Riefenstahl often made almost 700 Reichmarks for each performance and was so captivated with dancing that she gave filmmaking no thought.[8] She began to suffer foot injuries that led to knee surgery, threatening her dancing career.[2] It was while going to a doctor's appointment that she first saw a poster for the 1924 film Der Berg des Schicksals ("The Mountain of Destiny").[9] She became inspired to go into movie making, and began visiting the cinema to see films and also attended film shows.[2]

Acting career[edit]

On one of her adventures, Riefenstahl met Luis Trenker, who was an actor from Der Berg des Schicksals.[9] At a meeting arranged by her friend Gunther Rahn, she met Arnold Fanck, the director of Der Berg des Schicksals and a pioneer of the mountain film genre.[9] Fanck was working on a film in Berlin. After Riefenstahl told him how much she admired his work, she also convinced him of her acting skill.[9] She persuaded him to feature her in one of his movies.[9] Riefenstahl later received a package from Fanck containing the script of the 1926 film Der Heilige Berg ("The Holy Mountain").[9] She made a series of films for Fanck, where she learned from him acting and film editing techniques.[9] One of Fanck's films that brought Riefenstahl into the limelight was Die Weisse Hölle vom Piz Palü ("The White Hell of Pitz Palu") of 1929, co-directed by G. W. Pabst.[9] Her fame spread to countries outside Germany.[9][2]

Riefenstahl produced and directed her own work called Das Blaue Licht ("The Blue Light") in 1932, co-written by Carl Mayer and Béla Balázs.[10] This film won the Silver Medal at the Venice Film Festival, but was not universally well-received, for which Riefenstahl blamed the critics, many of whom were Jewish.[11][12] Upon its 1938 re-release, the names of Balázs and Sokal, both Jewish, were removed from the credits; some reports claim this was at Riefenstahl's behest.[11] In the film, Riefenstahl played an innocent peasant girl who is hated by the villagers because they think she is diabolic.[9] She is hated and cast out.[9] She is protected by a glowing mountain grotto.[9] According to her, Riefenstahl received invitations to travel to Hollywood to create films, but she refused them in favour of remaining in Germany with a boyfriend.[13] The film attracted the attention of Hitler, who believed she epitomized the perfect German female.[12] He saw talent in Riefenstahl and arranged a meeting.[12]

Directing career[edit]

Propaganda films[edit]

Riefenstahl stands near Heinrich Himmler while instructing her camera crew at Nuremberg, 1934

Riefenstahl heard Nazi Party (NSDAP) leader Adolf Hitler speak at a rally in 1932 and was mesmerized by his talent as a public speaker.[14] Describing the experience in her memoir, Riefenstahl wrote, "I had an almost apocalyptic vision that I was never able to forget. It seemed as if the Earth's surface were spreading out in front of me, like a hemisphere that suddenly splits apart in the middle, spewing out an enormous jet of water, so powerful that it touched the sky and shook the earth".[14]

After meeting Hitler, Riefenstahl was offered the opportunity to direct Der Sieg des Glaubens ("The Victory of Faith"), an hour-long propaganda film about the fifth Nuremberg Rally in 1933.[14] Riefenstahl agreed to direct the movie. She and Hitler got on well, forming a friendly relationship.[14] The propaganda film was funded entirely by the NSDAP.[14]

Hitler congratulating Riefenstahl with flowers, 1934

Impressed with Riefenstahl's work, Hitler asked her to film Triumph des Willens ("Triumph of the Will"), a new propaganda film about the 1934 party rally in Nuremberg.[15] More than one million Germans participated in the rally.[16] Initially, according to Riefenstahl, she resisted and did not want to create further Nazi Party films, instead wanting to direct a feature film based on Hitler's favourite opera, Eugen d'Albert's Tiefland ("Lowlands").[15] Riefenstahl received private funding for the production of Tiefland, but the filming in Spain was derailed and the project was cancelled.[15] Hitler was able to convince her to film Triumph des Willens on the condition that she would not be required to make further films for the party, according to Riefenstahl.[17] The motion picture was generally recognized as an epic, innovative work of propaganda filmmaking.[17] The film took Riefenstahl's career to a new level and gave her further international recognition.[18]

In interviews for the 1993 documentary The Wonderful, Horrible Life of Leni Riefenstahl, Riefenstahl adamantly denied any deliberate attempt to create Nazi propaganda and said she was disgusted that Triumph des Willens was used in such a way.[13]

Despite allegedly vowing not to make any more films about the Nazi Party, Riefenstahl made the 28-minute Tag der Freiheit: Unsere Wehrmacht ("Day of Freedom: Our Armed Forces") about the German Army in 1935.[19] Like Der Sieg des Glaubens and Triumph des Willens, this was filmed at the annual Nazi Party rally at Nuremberg.[19] Riefenstahl said this film was a sub-set of Der Sieg des Glaubens, added to mollify the German Army which felt it was not represented well in Triumph des Willens.[20]

Hitler invited Riefenstahl to film the 1936 Summer Olympics scheduled to be held in Berlin, a film which Riefenstahl claimed had been commissioned by the International Olympic Committee.[21] She visited Greece to take footage of the route of the inaugural torch relay and the games' original site at Olympia, where she was aided by Greek photographer Nelly's.[21] This material became Olympia, a hugely successful film which has since been widely noted for its technical and aesthetic achievements.[21] She was one of the first filmmakers to use tracking shots in a documentary,[22] placing a camera on rails to follow the athletes' movement. The film is also noted for its slow motion shots.[22] Riefenstahl's work on Olympia has been cited as a major influence in modern sports photography.[21][22] Riefenstahl filmed competitors of all races, including African-American Jesse Owens in what would later become famous footage.[23]

Riefenstahl in conversation with Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels, 1937

Olympia was very successful in Germany after it premiered for Hitler's 49th birthday in 1938. Its international debut led Riefenstahl to embark on an American publicity tour in an attempt to secure commercial release.[24] In February 1937, Riefenstahl enthusiastically told a reporter for the Detroit News, "To me, Hitler is the greatest man who ever lived. He truly is without fault, so simple and at the same time possessed of masculine strength".[25] She arrived in New York City on 4 November 1938, five days before Kristallnacht (the "Night of the Broken Glass").[26] When news of the event reached the United States,[26] Riefenstahl publicly defended Hitler.[26] On 18 November, she was received by Henry Ford in Detroit. Olympia was shown at the Chicago Engineers Club two days later.[26] Avery Brundage, President of the International Olympic Committee, praised the film and held Riefenstahl in the highest regard.[27] She negotiated with Louis B. Mayer, and on 8 December, Walt Disney brought her on a three-hour tour showing her the ongoing production of Fantasia.[26]

After the Goebbels Diaries surfaced in 2008, researchers learned that Riefenstahl had been friendly with Joseph Goebbels and his wife Magda, attending the opera with them and going to the Goebbels' parties.[25] Riefenstahl maintained that Goebbels was upset when she rejected his advances and was jealous of her influence on Hitler, seeing her as an internal threat.[11] She therefore insisted his diary entries could not be trusted.[11] By later accounts, Goebbels thought highly of Riefenstahl's filmmaking but was angered with what he saw as her overspending on the Nazi-provided filmmaking budgets.[11]

World War II[edit]

When Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, Riefenstahl was photographed in Poland wearing a military uniform and a pistol on her belt in the company of German soldiers; she had gone to Poland as a war correspondent.[28][11] On 12 September, she was in the town of Końskie when 30 civilians were executed in retaliation for an alleged attack on German soldiers.[29] According to her memoir, Riefenstahl tried to intervene but a furious German soldier held her at gunpoint and threatened to shoot her on the spot.[11] She claimed she did not realize the victims were Jews.[11] Closeup photographs of a distraught Riefenstahl survive from that day.[11] Nevertheless, by 5 October 1939, Riefenstahl was back in occupied Poland filming Hitler's victory parade in Warsaw.[29] Afterwards, she left Poland and chose not to make any more Nazi-related movies.[30]

Riefenstahl as a war correspondent in Poland, 1939

On 14 June 1940, the day Paris was declared an open city by the French and occupied by German troops, Riefenstahl wrote to Hitler in a telegram, "With indescribable joy, deeply moved and filled with burning gratitude, we share with you, my Führer, your and Germany's greatest victory, the entry of German troops into Paris. You exceed anything human imagination has the power to conceive, achieving deeds without parallel in the history of mankind. How can we ever thank you?"[29] She later explained, "Everyone thought the war was over, and in that spirit I sent the cable to Hitler".[31] Riefenstahl was friends with Hitler for 12 years and reports vary as to whether she ever had an intimate relationship with him.[32] According to Ernst Hanfstaengl, a close friend and confidant of Hitler throughout the later 1920s and early 1930s, Riefenstahl tried to begin a relationship with Hitler early on, but he turned her down.[32] Her relationship with Hitler severely declined in 1944 when her brother died on the Russian Front.[30]

After the Nuremberg rallies trilogy and Olympia, Riefenstahl began work on the movie she had tried and failed to direct once before, namely Tiefland.[33][3] On Hitler's direct order, the German government paid her seven million Reichsmarks in compensation.[3] From 23 September until 13 November 1940, she filmed in Krün near Mittenwald.[33] The extras playing Spanish women and farmers were drawn from gypsies detained in a camp at Salzburg-Maxglan who were forced to work with her.[33] Filming at the Babelsberg Studios near Berlin began 18 months later in April 1942.[33] This time Sinti and Roma people from the Marzahn detention camp near Berlin were compelled to work as extras.[33] Fifty stills from the filming in Krün near Mittenwald were later found and from these, surviving prisoners were able to identify 29 camp inmates who worked for Riefenstahl and were then deported to Auschwitz-Birkenau in the first weeks of March 1943 following Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler's December 1942 decree.[34] Almost to the end of her life, despite overwhelming evidence that the concentration camp occupants had been forced to work on the movie unpaid, Riefenstahl continued to maintain all the film extras survived and that she had met several of them after the war.[35][32] Riefenstahl sued filmmaker Nina Gladitz, who said Riefenstahl personally chose the extras at their holding camp; Gladitz had found one of the Gypsy survivors and matched his memory with stills of the movie for a documentary Gladitz was filming.[36] The German court ruled largely in favour of Gladitz, declaring that Riefenstahl had known the extras were from a concentration camp, but they also agreed that Riefenstahl had not been informed the Gypsies would be sent to Auschwitz after filming was completed.[36]

Riefenstahl instructing her film crew in Poland, 1939

This issue came up again in 2002, when Riefenstahl was one hundred years old and she was taken to court by a Roma group for denying the Nazis had exterminated gypsies.[37] Riefenstahl apologized and said, "I regret that Sinti and Roma [people] had to suffer during the period of National Socialism. It is known today that many of them were murdered in concentration camps".[37]

In October 1944 the production of Tiefland moved to Barrandov Studios in Prague for interior filming.[2] Lavish sets made these shots some of the most costly of the film.[2] The film was not edited and released until almost ten years later.[2]

The last time Riefenstahl saw Hitler was when she married Peter Jacob on 21 March 1944.[31] Riefenstahl and Jacob divorced in 1946.[38] As Germany's military situation became impossible by early 1945, Riefenstahl left Berlin and was hitchhiking with a group of men, trying to reach her mother, when she was taken into custody by American troops.[2] She walked out of a holding camp, beginning a series of escapes and arrests across the chaotic landscape.[2] At last making it back home on a bicycle, she found that American troops had seized her house.[2] She was surprised by how kindly they treated her.[2]

Thwarted film projects[edit]

Most of Riefenstahl's unfinished projects were lost towards the end of the war.[2] The French government confiscated all of her editing equipment, along with the production reels of Tiefland.[2] After years of legal wrangling, these were returned to her, but the French government had reportedly damaged some of the film stock whilst trying to develop and edit it, with a few key scenes being missing (although Riefenstahl was surprised to find the original negatives for Olympia in the same shipment).[2] She edited and dubbed the remaining material and Tiefland premiered on 11 February 1954 in Stuttgart.[2] However, it was denied entry into the Cannes Film Festival.[2] Although Riefenstahl lived for almost another half century, Tiefland was her last feature film.[39]

Riefenstahl filming a difficult scene with the help of two assistants, 1936

Riefenstahl tried many times to make more films during the 1950s and 1960s, but was met with resistance, public protests and sharp criticism.[2] Many of her filmmaking peers in Hollywood had fled Nazi Germany and were unsympathetic to her.[2] Although both film professionals and investors were willing to support her work, most of the projects she attempted were stopped owing to ever-renewed and highly negative publicity about her past work for the Third Reich.[2]

In 1954, Jean Cocteau, who greatly admired the film, insisted on Tiefland being shown at the Cannes Film Festival, which he was running that year.[7] In 1960, Riefenstahl unsuccessfully attempted to prevent filmmaker Erwin Leiser from juxtaposing scenes from Triumph des Willens with footage from concentration camps in his film Mein Kampf.[7] Riefenstahl had high hopes for a collaboration with Cocteau called Friedrich und Voltaire ("Friedrich and Voltaire"), wherein Cocteau was to play two roles.[40] They thought the film might symbolize the love-hate relationship between Germany and France.[40] Cocteau's illness and 1963 death put an end to the project.[40] A musical remake of Das Blaue Licht ("The Blue Light") with L. Ron Hubbard, a science fiction writer and founder of Scientology, also fell apart.[41]

In the 1960s, Riefenstahl became interested in Africa from Ernest Hemingway's Green Hills of Africa and from the photographs of George Rodger.[42][30] She visited Kenya for the first time in 1956 and later Sudan, where she photographed Nuba tribes with whom she sporadically lived, learning about their culture so she could photograph them more easily.[42][43] Rodger, who had taken the first photographs of the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, refused to help Riefenstahl approach Africans during her time on the continent.[43] Even though her film project about modern slavery entitled Die Schwarze Fracht ("The Black Cargo") was never completed, Riefenstahl was able to sell the stills from the expedition to magazines in various parts of the world.[42] While scouting shooting locations, she almost died from injuries received in a truck accident.[2] After waking up from a coma in a Nairobi hospital, she finished writing the script, but was soon thoroughly thwarted by uncooperative locals, the Suez Canal crisis and bad weather.[2] In the end, only test shots were made.[2] Even so, Riefenstahl was granted Sudanese citizenship for her services to the country, becoming the first foreigner to receive a Sudanese passport.[44]

Post-war life[edit]

Detention and trials[edit]

Novelist and sports writer Budd Schulberg, assigned by the U.S. Navy to the OSS for intelligence work while attached to John Ford's documentary unit, was ordered to arrest Riefenstahl at her chalet in Kitzbühel, ostensibly to have her identify Nazi war criminals in German film footage captured by the Allied troops shortly after the war.[45] Riefenstahl once again claimed she was not aware of the nature of the internment camps.[46] According to Schulberg, "She gave me the usual song and dance. She said, 'Of course, you know, I'm really so misunderstood. I'm not political'".[46] However, when Riefenstahl later claimed she had been forced to follow Goebbels' orders under threat of being sent to a concentration camp, Schulberg asked her why she should have been afraid if she did not know concentration camps existed.[47]

Riefenstahl continued to maintain she was fascinated by the National Socialists, but politically naive and ignorant about any war crimes.[48] From 1945 to 1948 she was held in sundry camps and prisons run Allied forces in Germany.[48] She was also under house arrest for a period of time.[48] Although Riefenstahl was tried four times by various postwar authorities, she was never convicted through denazification trials either for her alleged role as a propagandist or for the use of concentration camp inmates in her films.[48] She was found to be a fellow traveler only who merely sympathized with the Nazis.[48]

Riefenstahl later said that her biggest regret in life was meeting Hitler, declaring, "It was the biggest catastrophe of my life. Until the day I die people will keep saying, 'Leni is a Nazi', and I'll keep saying, 'But what did she do?'".[48] Despite winning almost 50 libel cases against people accusing her of various things, unanswered questions about her relation to National Socialism in particular and fascism more generally remain.[48]

Bestseller books and final film[edit]

Riefenstahl began a lifelong companionship with her cameraman Horst Kettner, who was 40 years her junior, and assisted her with the photographs; they were together from the time she was 60 and he was 20.[49]

Riefenstahl's books with photographs of the Nuba tribes were published in 1974 and republished in 1976 as Die Nuba (translated to English as "The Last of the Nuba") and Die Nuba von Kau ("The Nuba People of Kau"). Both became international bestsellers.[29] While heralded by many as outstanding colour photographs, they were harshly criticized by Susan Sontag, who claimed in a review that they were further evidence of Riefenstahl's "fascist aesthetics".[50][34] The Art Director's Club of Germany awarded Riefenstahl a gold medal for the best photographic achievement of 1975.[34] She also sold some the pictures to German magazines.[2] She photographed the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich, and rock star Mick Jagger along with his wife Bianca for the Sunday Times.[7] Years later, Riefenstahl photographed Las Vegas entertainers Siegfried & Roy.[51] She befriended Andy Warhol and was a guest of honour at the 1976 Olympic Games in Montreal, Canada.[52]

In her later years, Riefenstahl became known for her longevity and physical stamina, although she often suffered considerable pain from old injuries.[53] At age 72, she began pursuing underwater photography after having subtracted 20 years off her age to gain a certification for scuba diving.[53] In 1978, she published a book of her sub-aquatic photographs called Korallengärten ("Coral Gardens"), followed by the 1990 book Wunder unter Wasser ("Wonder under Water").[54] On 22 August 2002, her 100th birthday, Riefenstahl released a film named Impressionen unter Wasser ("Underwater Impressions), an idealized documentary of life in the oceans and her first film in over 25 years.[29] At age 100, she was still photographing marine life and gained the distinction of being the world's oldest scuba diver.[43] Riefenstahl was a member of Greenpeace for eight years.[55]

Riefenstahl survived a helicopter crash in Sudan in 2000 while trying to learn the fates of her Nuba friends during the Second Sudanese Civil War and was airlifted to a Munich hospital.[56][30]

Death[edit]

Riefenstahl's grave in Munich Cemetery

Riefenstahl celebrated her 101st birthday on 22 August 2003 at a hotel in Feldafing on Lake Starnberg Bavaria, near her home. The guest list of more than 200 people, included prominent German socialites and celebrities.[57][58] However, the day after her birthday celebration, she became ill.[6]

Riefenstahl had been struggling with cancer for some time and her health rapidly deteriorated throughout the last weeks of her life.[59] Kettner said in an interview in 2002, "Ms. Riefenstahl is in great pain and she has become very weak and is taking painkillers".[59] Leni Riefenstahl died in her sleep at around 10:00 pm on 8 September 2003 at her home in Pöcking, Germany.[6][60] She was buried in Munich Cemetery.[53] After her death, there was a varied response in the obituary pages of leading publications, although most recognized her technical breakthroughs in film making.[30]

Views of critics[edit]

Film scholar Mark Cousins notes in his book The Story of Film that, "Next to Orson Welles and Alfred Hitchcock, Leni Riefenstahl was the most technically talented Western film maker of her era".[61]

Reviewer Gary Morris called Riefenstahl, "An artist of unparalleled gifts, a woman in an industry dominated by men, one of the great formalists of the cinema on a par with Eisenstein or Welles".[62]

Riefenstahl on the cover of Time, 1936

Film critic Hal Erickson of the New York Times states that the "Jewish Question" is mainly unmentioned in Triumph des Willens; "filmmaker Leni Riefenstahl prefers to concentrate on cheering crowds, precision marching, military bands, and Hitler's climactic speech, all orchestrated, choreographed and illuminated on a scale that makes Griffith and DeMille look like poverty-row directors".[63]

Charles Moore of The Daily Telegraph wrote, "She was perhaps the most talented female cinema director of the 20th century; her celebration of Nazi Germany in film ensured that she was certainly the most infamous".[30]

Film journalist Sandra Smith from The Independent remarked, "Opinions will be divided between those who see her as a young, talented and ambitious woman caught up in the tide of events which she did not fully understand, and those who believe her to be a cold and opportunist propagandist and a Nazi by association."[64]

Critic Judith Thurman said in The New Yorker that, "Riefenstahl's genius has rarely been questioned, even by critics who despise the service to which she lent it. Riefenstahl was a consummate stylist obsessed with bodies in motion, particularly those of dancers and athletes. Riefenstahl relies heavily for her transitions on portentous cutaways to clouds, mist, statuary, foliage, and rooftops. Her reaction shots have a tedious sameness: shining, ecstatic faces—nearly all young and Aryan, except for Hitler's".[65]

Pauline Kael, also a film reviewer employed for The New Yorker, called Triumph des Willens and Olympia, "the two greatest films ever directed by a woman".[49]

Writer Richard Corliss wrote in Time that he was "impressed by Riefenstahl's standing as a total auteur: producer, writer, director, editor and, in the fiction films, actress. The issues her films and her career raise are as complex and they are important, and her vilifiers tend to reduce the argument to one of a director's complicity in atrocity or her criminal ignorance. Finally, Riefenstahl was a woman, a beautiful woman. When she was seen with Hitler, their photos made the world's front pages. And the image stuck".[49]

Film biographies[edit]

In 1993, Riefenstahl was the subject of the award-winning German documentary film The Wonderful, Horrible Life of Leni Riefenstahl, directed by Ray Müller.[66] Riefenstahl appeared in the film and answered several questions and detailed the production of her films.[66][67] The biofilm was nominated for seven Emmy Awards, winning in one category.[66] Motivated by her old age, Riefenstahl, who for some time had been working on her memoirs, decided to commission this documentary to tell her life story about the struggles she had gone through in her personal life, her film-making career and what people thought of her.[67] In the documentary, she insisted that her films were never meant to advance the political program of National Socialism, that she looked at the world with the pure, disinterested eye of an artist and cared only about the noble task of giving vivid cinematic form to contemporary events.[68] She was also the subject of Müller's 2000 documentary film Leni Riefenstahl: Her Dream of Africa, about her return to Sudan to visit the Nuba people.[56]

In April 2007, The Guardian reported that British screenwriter Rupert Walters was writing a movie based on Riefenstahl's life which would star actress Jodie Foster.[29] The project did not receive Riefenstahl's approval, since Riefenstahl asked for a veto on any scenes to which she did not agree.[29] Riefenstahl also wanted Sharon Stone to play her rather than Foster, which ultimately resulted in the cancellation of the project.[29][69]

Director Paul Verhoeven corresponded with Riefenstahl about a separate film biography which was never realized.[7] In 2011, the director Steven Soderbergh revealed that he had also been working on a biopic of Riefenstahl for about six months.[70] He ultimately abandoned the project over concerns of its commercial prospects and instead pursued the pandemic thriller Contagion.[70]

In popular culture[edit]

Riefenstahl's filming merits are discussed between characters in the 2008 Quentin Tarantino film Inglourious Basterds.[71] Tarantino explained the significant presence of Third Reich film-making in his film, "Riefenstahl and Goebbels despised each other; he was in charge of every single person in the German film industry with the sole exception of her".[71]

Riefenstahl was portrayed by Zdena Studenková in Leni, a 2014 Czechoslovakian drama play about her fictional participation in the The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson.[72]

Riefenstahl will be portrayed by Dutch actress Carice van Houten in Race, an upcoming sports drama film directed by Stephen Hopkins about Owens.[73]

Riefenstahl was referred to in the series finale of the television show Weeds when Nancy questions Andy for naming his daughter after a Nazi to which he replied "she was a pioneer in film-making, I don't believe in holding grudges."[74]

Works[edit]

Films acted[edit]

Films directed/produced[edit]

Books[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Johnson 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac University of Washington 2008.
  3. ^ a b c Trimborn 2007.
  4. ^ Rother 2003, p. 112.
  5. ^ a b Salkeld 2011, p. 2.
  6. ^ a b c d Davis 2003.
  7. ^ a b c d e Falcon 2003.
  8. ^ a b Infield 1976, pp. 14–16.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Langford 2012, p. 20.
  10. ^ Langford 2012, p. 77.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i James 2007.
  12. ^ a b c Hinton 2000, p. 19.
  13. ^ a b Müller 1999.
  14. ^ a b c d e Downing 2012, p. 23.
  15. ^ a b c Hinton 2000, p. 20.
  16. ^ The History Place 2001.
  17. ^ a b Hinton 2000, pp. 21–22.
  18. ^ Hinton 2000, p. 21.
  19. ^ a b Rother 2003, p. 238.
  20. ^ Aitken 2013, p. 760.
  21. ^ a b c d Tomlinson 2012, pp. 74–76.
  22. ^ a b c Andrew 1999, pp. 183–184.
  23. ^ Edmondson 2007, p. 72.
  24. ^ F-R Publishing Corporation 2007.
  25. ^ a b Rollyson 2007.
  26. ^ a b c d e Graham 1993.
  27. ^ Bernstein 2013, p. 111.
  28. ^ Robert 2013.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h Harris 2007.
  30. ^ a b c d e f Moore 2003.
  31. ^ a b Riding 2003.
  32. ^ a b c Mathews.
  33. ^ a b c d e Kenrick 2006, p. 197.
  34. ^ a b c Holocaust Teacher Research Center.
  35. ^ Trimborn 2008, pp. 206–208.
  36. ^ a b Taylor 2007.
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