National Institutes of Technology
|Location||31 places in India|
|Nickname||NIT or NITs|
The National Institutes of Technology (NITs) are a group of federally-funded public engineering institutes in India. They are governed by the National Institutes of Technology Act, 2007, which declared them as institutions of national importance alongside Indian Institutes of Technology. These institutes of national importance receive special recognition from the Government of India. The NIT Council is the supreme governing body of India's National Institutes of Technology (NIT) system and all 31 NITs are funded by the Government of India. These institutes are among the top ranked engineering colleges in India and have one of the lowest acceptance rates for engineering institutes, of around 2 to 3 percent, second only to the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) in India.All NITs are autonomous which enables them to set up their own curriculum. The language of instruction is English at all these institutes.
NITs offer degree courses at bachelors, masters, and doctorate levels in various branches of engineering, architecture, management and science. Admission to the under-graduate courses such as Bachelor of Technology (B.Tech.) and Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch) programs in NITs are through the highly competitive Joint Entrance Examination (Main). Admission to postgraduate courses are through the Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering for Master of Technology (M.Tech.) and Master of Science (M.Sc.) programs, Common Admission Test for Master of Business Administration (MBA) program and NIMCET for Master of Computer Applications (MCA) program.
Since 2015, the Joint Seat Allocation Authority and Centralized Counselling for M.Tech/M.Arch and M.Plan conduct the admission process for undergraduate and postgraduate programs respectively in all NITs. As of 2017, the total number of seats for undergraduate programs is 18,013 and for post graduate programs is 8,158 in all 31 NITs.
- 1 History
- 2 Institute and financing
- 3 Governance
- 4 Education
- 5 Student life
- 6 Alumni
- 7 See also
- 8 References
During the second five-year plan (1956–60) in India, a number of industrial projects were contemplated. To ensure enough supply of trained personnel to meet the demand for these projects, a decision was taken to start the Regional Engineering Colleges (RECs), at the rate of one per each major state, which can churn out graduates with good engineering merit. Thus, seventeen RECs were established from 1959 onwards in each of the major states. Each college was a joint and cooperative enterprise of the central government and the concerned state government. The Government opened 8 RECs in 1960 two in each region, as follows:
|Region||Regional Engineering Colleges (REC)|
|Eastern Region||Durgapur and Jamshedpur|
|Western Region||Nagpur, Surat and Bhopal|
|Southern Region||Warangal and Surathkal|
|Northern Region||Srinagar and Allahabad|
Later on 5 more were added by 1965. The early 14 Institutes were Srinagar, Warangal, Calicut, Durgapur, Kurukshetra, Jamshedpur, Jaipur, Nagpur, Rourkela, Surathkal, Surat, Trichy, Bhopal, and Allahabad. It established one in Silchar in 1967 and added two others located at Hamirpur in 1986, and Jalandhar in 1987.
These were large-sized institutions judged by the standards then prevailing in the country. The considerations that weighed in this decision were :
A large-sized college would be more efficient than the equivalent small colleges, The proposed colleges have to meet the additional requirements of the country as a whole and for that purpose should have to function on an all-India basis. Therefore, the smaller they are in number and the larger in size, the better, and For the same reason their location is important from an all-India point of view.
The RECs were jointly operated by the central government and the concerned state government. Non-recurring expenditures and expenditures for post-graduate courses during the REC period were borne by the central government while recurring expenditure on undergraduate courses was shared equally by central and state governments.
The success of technology-based industry led to high demand for technical and scientific education. Due to the enormous costs and infrastructure involved in creating globally respected Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT), in 2002 MHRD Minister Murli Manohar Joshi decided to upgrade RECs to "National Institutes of Technology" (NITs) instead of creating IITs. The central government controls NITs and provides all funding. In 2002, all RECs became NITs.
The upgrade was designed along the lines of the prestigious Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) after it was concluded that RECs had potential as proven by the success of their alumni and their contributions in the field of technical education. Subsequently, funding and autonomy for NITs increased, and they award degrees which have raised their graduates' perceived value. These changes implemented recommendations of the "High Powered Review Committee" (HPRC).The HPRC, chaired by R.A. Mashelkar, submitted its report entitled "Strategic Road Map for Academic Excellence of Future RECs" in 1998.
In 2002, MHRD issued NIT status to three more colleges, located at Patna (Bihar Engineering College—a 110-year-old college), Raipur (Government Engineering College), and Agartala (Tripura Engineering College).Based on the request of state governments and feasibility, future NITs are either converted from existing institutes or can be freshly created. The 21st (and the first brand-new) NIT is planned for Imphal in the north-eastern state of Manipur at an initial cost of Rs. 500 crores. In 2010, the government announced setting up ten new NITs in the remaining states/territories. This would lead to every state in India having its own NIT.
With the technology based industry's continuing growth, the government decided to upgrade twenty National Institutes of Technology to full-fledged technical universities. Parliament passed enabling legislation, the National Institutes of Technology Act in 2007 and took effect on 15 August of that year. The target is to fulfill the need for quality manpower in the field of engineering, science, and technology and to provide consistent governance, fee structure, and rules across the NITs. The law designates each NIT an Institute of National Importance (INI).
Institute and financing
Average NIT funding increased to ₹ 100 crores by year 2011. On average, each NIT also receives ₹ 20-25 crore under World Bank funded Technical Education Quality Improvement Program (TEQIP I and TEQIP II).
The President of India is the ex officio visitor of all the NITs. The NIT Council works directly under him and it includes the minister-in-charge of technical education in Central Government, the Chairmen and the Directors of all the NITs, the Chairman of University Grants Commission (India), the Director General of CSIR, the Directors of other selected central institutions of repute, members of Parliament, Joint Council Secretary of Ministry of Human Resource and Development, nominees of the Central Government, AICTE, and the Visitor.
Below the NIT Council is each NIT's Board of Governors. The Board of Governors of each NIT consists of the following members:
- Chairman - an eminent technologist / engineer / educationist to be nominated by the Govt. of India.
- Member Secretary - Director of the NIT.
- Nominee of the Ministry of HRD, Govt. of India.
- Nominee of the Department of the Higher / Technical Education of the respective state government.
- Head of another technical institution in the region or an eminent technologist to be nominated by Central Govt.
- Director, IIT (in the region) or his nominee.
- Nominee of the UGC not below the rank of a Deputy Secretary.
- Nominee of the AICTE not below the rank of an Advisor.
- An alumnus of the institute from amongst alumni in education / industry to be nominated by Board of Governors.
- Two representatives representing large, medium and small scale industries to be nominated by Central Government.
- One Professor and one Assistant Professor of the institute by rotation.
The Director serves under the Board of Governors, and is the school's chief academic and executive officer. Academic policies are decided by its Senate, which is composed of some professors and other representatives. The Senate controls and approves the curriculum, courses, examinations, and results. Senate committees examine specific academic matters. The teaching, training, and research activities of various departments of the institute are periodically reviewed to maintain educational standards. The Director is the ex officio Chairman of the Senate. The Deputy Director is subordinate to the Director. Together they manage the Deans, Heads of Departments, Registrar, President of the Students' Council, and Chairman of the Hall Management Committee. Deans and Heads of Departments in NITs are administrative postings rather than career paths. Faculty members serve as Deans and Heads of Departments for limited periods, typically 2 to 3 years, then returning to regular faculty duties. The Registrar is the chief administrative officer and overviews day-to-day operations. Below the Head of Department (HOD), are the various faculty members (professors, assistant professors, and lecturers). The Warden serves under the Chairman of the Hall Management Committee.<
Courses are divided into semesters with evaluation on the basis of credits, which allows for proportional weighting based on the course's importance. For each semester, grades range from 3 to 10. Semester evaluations are independent. The weighted average of the semesters is used to compute the cumulative grade point average (CGPA).
NITs are implementing dual degree programs, integrated postgraduate studies that complete in 5 years rather than the 6-year conventional track of a Bachelor's followed by a Master's degree. These programs encourage academic research and begin with mathematics and computing.
Stringent faculty recruitment and industry collaboration also contribute to NIT success. Faculty other than lecturers must have a Ph.D. and relevant teaching and industry experience. Existing faculty who do not meet these criteria enroll under a Quality Improvement Programme (QIP) at IITs and IISc.
NITs provide on-campus housing to students, research scholars, and faculty members. Students live in hostels, also known as halls, throughout their college life. Most have single accommodation but many live in double or triple rooms during their initial years. Every
hostel has a recreation room equipped with cable television, magazines, newspapers, and indoor games and in-room Internet connectivity. Every hall has its own cafeteria managed by the college or by a local private organization. NITs also have a common cafeteria for students and a separate cafeteria for professors. During vacations, hostel dining is generally closed and the common cafeterias serve students who stay on campus.
All the NITs have an athletic ground and facilities for field, indoor and aquatic events.
NIT campuses across India arrange official welcome parties and interaction sessions to acquaint newcomers with senior students and professors. Faculties and researchers from IITs, ISM and IISc organize occasional technical seminars and research labs.
NITs have a Central Library equipped with technical books, literature, fiction, scientific journals, and other electronic material. Most have digitized their libraries. Some provide an intranet library facility. Every departmental library has high-speed connectivity. Electronic libraries allow students access to online journals and other periodicals through the AICTE-INDEST consortium, an initiative by the Ministry of Human Resource Development. Students also have access to IEEE documents and journals. While some have video conferencing facilities, others are upgrading under the World Bank funded TEQIP scheme.
Some NITs individually conduct elections to elect student body a general secretary and vice president. These representatives are generally responsible for communicating with the college management and media, organising festivals, and also for various development programmes in their college. Some NITs (such as NIT, Rourkela, SVNIT, Surat and VNIT, Nagpur) have recently adopted online voting process. The committee which monitors the flow of funds has a student body representative. This committee also includes the chairman of board, an MHRD representative, and NIT professors. But due to some disturbance in voting process, there have been no elections since 2008 in SVNIT, Surat.
The Disciplinary Committee (DISCO) consists of the Director, the student affairs officer, and professors. and reports to MHRD. DISCO regulates student activities and combats student harassment and illegitimate student politics. After a series of harassment incidents, all NITs took strict measures especially to protect first year students.
Education (ISTE), and annual college festivities.
Students at NITs run hobby clubs such as Linux User Groups (LUGs), music clubs, debate clubs, literary clubs, and web design teams. Students also publish campus magazines which showcase student creativity and journalism. The first Linux User group in India, Bharat Linux User Group, was formed in early 1997 at NIT Surat (SVNIT). Students conduct regular quizzes and cultural programs. They also present research papers and participate in national level technical festivals at IITs, ISM, IISc and NITs. Most NITs promote entrepreneurship by creating on-campus incubation centers under the STEP program.
Organization for Inter-NIT Student Activities (O-INSA) coordinates cultural, technical, sports and other groups.
NITs compete annually in an Inter-NIT sports meeting, which rotates among schools. Winners get cash prizes and trophies. Boys and girls compete separately. During February and March, NITs conduct annual sports contests in their respective locations. However, since 2007-2008, Inter NIT meetings have not been held during the academic calendar, to facilitate participation of more NITs and to avoid students missing class.
This is a list of some of the notable alumni of the National Institutes of Technology in India.
|Natarajan Chandrasekaran||NIT, Trichy||Chairman, Tata Sons|
|Rajesh Gopinathan||NIT, Trichy||CEO, Tata Consultancy Services|
|T. V. Narendran||NIT, Trichy||MD, Tata Steel|
|C. P. Gurnani||NIT, Rourkela||CEO, Mahindra Satyam|
|K. V. Kamath||NIT, Surathkal||Chief of the New Development Bank at BRICS, Former CEO of ICICI Bank, Padma Bhushan Awardee|
|Srini Raju||NIT, Kurukshetra||Chairman, Peepul Capital, iLabs VCF, Former CEO of Cognizant Technology Solutions & Satyam Enterprise Solutions|
|K. R. Sridhar||NIT, Trichy||Founder and CEO of Bloom Energy|
|Shyam Srinivasan||NIT, Trichy||CEO and Managing Director The Federal Bank Ltd.|
|Nelabhotla Venkateswarlu||NIT, Allahabad||CEO, Emami Limited|
|Dinesh Keskar||NIT, Nagpur||Senior VP, Boeing Aircraft Trading and Head Boeing India.|
|Dr.Thomas Abraham||NIT, Jaipur||Chairman of the Global Organization of People of Indian Origin, coined the term PIO|
|Dawood Danesh Jafari||NIT, Srinagar||Minister of Finance & Economic Affairs, Iran|
|Ajit Jogi||NIT, Bhopal||First chief minister of Chhattisgarh also a former lecturer at NIT Raipur.|
|Deep Joshi||NIT, Allahabad||Recipient of Magsaysay award & Padma Shri, Social activist, founder of PRADAN(NGO)|
|Hemant Karkare||NIT, Nagpur||Maharashtra Anti-Terrorism Squad (ATS) chief, killed during the November 2008 Mumbai Terrorist Attacks.|
|Nitish Kumar||NIT, Patna||Chief minister of Bihar|
|Lakshmi Narayana||NIT, Warangal||Former Joint Director for India's Central Bureau of Investigation|
|Suresh Pachouri||NIT, Bhopal||Member of Parliament|
|Prabhakaran Paleri||NIT, Calicut||Former director general, Indian Coast Guard|
|Ram Vinay Shahi||NIT, Jamshedpur||Longest-serving power secretary of India|
|Abhishek Singh||NIT, Raipur||Member of Parliament from Rajnandgaon Region|
Academia/technology and research
|Siva S. Banda||NIT, Warangal||Director of the Control Science Center of Excellence and Senior Scientist in Control Theory for the Air Vehicles|
|Samir Barua||NIT, Nagpur||Director, Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad|
|Dr. Lalit Goel||NIT, Warangal||Professor and Head of Electrical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University|
|Baldev Raj||NIT, Raipur||Recipient of Padma Shri, former director of the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, currently the Chairman of BOGs at National Institute of Technology Puducherry.|
|Srinidhi Varadarajan||NIT, Warangal||Creator of SystemX and currently working at Virginia Tech.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to National Institutes of Technology.|