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Shu-turul name inscription.jpg
The name "Shu-turul" (𒋗𒄙𒄒, shu-tur2-ul3) on the macehead inscription, with transcription in standard Sumero-Akkadian cuneiform.
King of the Akkadian Empire
Reignc. 2168  BC – 2154  BC
SuccessorGutian Dynasty
FatherDudu of Akkad

Shu-turul (Shu-durul, 𒋗𒄙𒄒, shu-tur2-ul3)[1][2] was the last king of the Akkadian Empire, ruling for 15 years according to the Sumerian king list.[3] It indicates that he succeeded his father Dudu. A few artifacts, seal impressions etc. attest that he held sway over a greatly reduced Akkadian territory that included Kish, Tutub, and Eshnunna. The Diyala river also bore the name "Shu-durul" at the time.[4]

Sumerian King List[edit]

The king list asserts that Akkad was then conquered, and the hegemony returned to Uruk following his reign.[5] It further lists six names of an Uruk dynasty; however none of these six rulers has been confirmed through archaeology. The actual situation of Akkad's collapse, from all evidence outside the king list, is that it was brought about directly by the Gutians, Zagros tribesmen who established their own rule, though several of the southern city-states such as Uruk, Ur and Lagash also declared independence around this time.


A few inscriptions in his name are known.[6] One reads:

"Šu-Turul the mighty, king of Agade"

— Shu-turul inscription[7]

A votive mace[8][9] is also known with an inscription mentioning Shu-turul and the dedication of a temple to Nergal:

Votive mace of Shu-turul, with illustration of the inscription in his name on the flange (reconstiution). Room 56, display case 11, British Museum[10][9]

𒀀𒈾 𒀭𒊊𒀕𒃲 𒀀𒈾 𒈾𒂍𒋛 𒋗𒄙𒄒 𒈗𒌷 𒀀𒂵𒉈𒆠 𒆷𒁀?𒋳 𒉺𒀠𒂍 𒀀𒈬𒊒
a-na {d}ne3-iri11-gal a-na na-'a3-si szu-tur2-ul3 szar3-ri2 a-ga-de3{ki} la-ba-'a3?-szum szabra e2 a mu-ru

"To Nergal, for the life of Shu-turul king of Akkad, Laba-erishum the palace soothsayer has dedicated this"

— Mace of Shu-turul (British Museum, BM 114703)[11][2]

External links[edit]


  1. ^ "Sumerian Dictionary".
  2. ^ a b Gadd, C. J. (Cyril John) (1921). The early dynasties of Sumer and Akkad. London, Luzac & co. p. Plate III, BM 114703.
  3. ^ Handbook To Life In Ancient Mesopotamia by Stephen Bertman
  4. ^ Donald M. Matthews, The Early Glyptic of Tell Brak: Cylinder Seals of Third Millennium Syria 1997, p. 15.
  5. ^ Who's Who in the Ancient Near East by Gwendolyn Leick
  6. ^ "CDLI-Found Texts".
  7. ^ "CDLI-Archival View".
  8. ^ "BM 114703".
  9. ^ a b c "Shu-turul mace". British Museum.
  10. ^ "BM 114703".
  11. ^ "CDLI-Archival View".
  12. ^ "BM 114703".
  13. ^ Pognon (January 1913). "Journal asiatique : ou recueil de mémoires, d'extraits et de notices relatifs à l'histoire, à la philosophie, aux sciences, à la littérature et aux langues des peuples orientaux... / publié par la Société asiatique". Gallica: 418–430.
Regnal titles
Preceded by
King of Akkad
King of Kish, Uruk, Lagash, and Umma
Overlord of Elam

ca. 2168 – 2154 BCE (Middle)
Succeeded by
(Gutian Dynasty)