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Gap junction protein, delta 3, 31.9kDa
Symbols GJD3 ; CX31.9; Cx30.2; GJA11; GJC1
External IDs OMIM607425 MGI2384150 HomoloGene17530 IUPHAR: Cx31.9 GeneCards: GJD3 Gene
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 125111 353155
Ensembl ENSG00000183153 ENSMUSG00000047197
UniProt Q8N144 Q91YD1
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_152219 NM_178596
RefSeq (protein) NP_689343 NP_848711
Location (UCSC) Chr 17:
38.52 – 38.52 Mb
Chr 11:
98.98 – 98.98 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Gap junction delta-2 (GJD2), also known as connexin-36 (Cx36) or gap junction alpha-9 (GJA9), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GJD2 gene.[1]


This gene is a member of the large family of connexins that are required for the formation of gap junctions. Six connexin monomers form a hemichannel, or connexon, on the cell surface. This connexon can interact with a connexon from a neighboring cell, thus forming a channel linking the cytoplasm of the 2 cells.[1]


Further reading[edit]

  • White TW, Srinivas M, Ripps H, et al. (2002). "Virtual cloning, functional expression, and gating analysis of human connexin31.9.". Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. 283 (3): C960–70. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00163.2002. PMID 12176752. 
  • Gemel J, Lin X, Collins R, et al. (2008). "Cx30.2 can form heteromeric gap junction channels with other cardiac connexins.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 369 (2): 388–94. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.02.040. PMID 18291099. 
  • Belluardo N, White TW, Srinivas M, et al. (2001). "Identification and functional expression of HCx31.9, a novel gap junction gene.". Cell Commun. Adhes. 8 (4-6): 173–8. doi:10.3109/15419060109080719. PMID 12064584. 
  • Bukauskas FF, Kreuzberg MM, Rackauskas M, et al. (2006). "Properties of mouse connexin 30.2 and human connexin 31.9 hemichannels: implications for atrioventricular conduction in the heart.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103 (25): 9726–31. doi:10.1073/pnas.0603372103. PMID 16772377. 
  • Söhl G, Nielsen PA, Eiberger J, Willecke K (2003). "Expression profiles of the novel human connexin genes hCx30.2, hCx40.1, and hCx62 differ from their putative mouse orthologues.". Cell Commun. Adhes. 10 (1): 27–36. doi:10.1080/15419060302063. PMID 12881038. 
  • Kreuzberg MM, Liebermann M, Segschneider S, et al. (2009). "Human connexin31.9, unlike its orthologous protein connexin30.2 in the mouse, is not detectable in the human cardiac conduction system.". J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol. 46 (4): 553–9. doi:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2008.12.007. PMID 19168070. 
  • Unsworth HC, Aasen T, McElwaine S, Kelsell DP (2007). "Tissue-specific effects of wild-type and mutant connexin 31: a role in neurite outgrowth.". Hum. Mol. Genet. 16 (2): 165–72. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddl452. PMID 17142249. 
  • Nielsen PA, Beahm DL, Giepmans BN, et al. (2002). "Molecular cloning, functional expression, and tissue distribution of a novel human gap junction-forming protein, connexin-31.9. Interaction with zona occludens protein-1.". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (41): 38272–83. doi:10.1074/jbc.M205348200. PMID 12154091. 

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.