An open gap junction, composed of six identical connexin proteins. Each of these six units is a single polypeptide which passes the membrane four times (referred to as four-pass transmembrane proteins).
Connexins, or gap junction proteins, are a family of structurally related transmembrane proteins that assemble to form vertebrate gap junctions (an entirely different family of proteins, the innexins, form gap junctions in invertebrates). Each gap junction is composed of two hemichannels, or connexons, which are themselves each constructed out of six connexin molecules. Gap junctions are essential for many physiological processes, such as the coordinated depolarization of cardiac muscle, proper embryonic development, and the conducted response in microvasculature. For this reason, mutations in connexin-encoding genes can lead to functional and developmental abnormalities.
Connexins are four-pass transmembrane proteins with both C and N cytoplasmic termini, a cytoplasmic loop (CL) and two extra-cellular loops, (EL-1) and (EL-2). Connexins are assembled in groups of six to form hemichannels, or connexons, and two hemichannels then combine to form a gap junction. The connexin gene family is diverse, with twenty-one identified members in the sequenced human genome, and twenty in the mouse (nineteen of which are orthologous pairs). They usually weigh between 26 and 60 kDa, and have an average length of 380 amino acids. The various connexins have been observed to combine into both homomeric and heteromeric gap junctions, each of which may exhibit different functional properties including pore conductance, size selectivity, charge selectivity, voltage gating, and chemical gating.
The term Connexin is abbreviated as Cx or CX. In recent literature, connexins are commonly named according to their molecular weights, e.g. Cx26 is the connexin protein of 26 kDa. However, this can lead to confusion when connexins from different species are compared, e.g. human Cx36 is homologous to zebrafish Cx35. A competing nomenclature is the GJ (gap junction) system, where connexins are sorted by their α (GJA) and β (GJB) forms, with additional connexins grouped into the C, D and E groupings, followed by an identifying number, e.g. GJA1/Gja1 corresponds to CX43/Cx43. Following a vote at the Gap Junction Conference (2007) in Elsinore the community agreed to use the GJ nomenclature system for the genes that encode connexins, but wished to retain the connexin nomenclature for the encoded proteins using the weight of the human protein for the numbering of orthologous proteins.
Biosynthesis and Internalization
A remarkable aspect of connexins is that they have a relatively short half life of only a few hours. The result is the presence of a dynamic cycle by which connexins are synthesized and replaced. It has been suggested that this short life span allows for more finely regulated physiological processes to take place, such as in the myometrium.
From the Nucleus to the Membrane
As they are being translated by ribosomes, connexins are inserted into the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (Bennett and Zukin, 2004). It is in the ER that connexins are properly folded, yielding two extracellular loops, EL-1 and EL-2. It is also in the ER that the oligomerization of connexin molecules into hemichannels begins, a process which may continue in the UR-Golgi intermediate compartment as well. The arrangements of these hemichannels can be homotypic, heterotypic, and combined heterotypic/heteromeric.
After exiting the ER and passing through the ERGIC, the folded connexins will usually enter the cis-Golgi network. However, some connexins, such as Cx26 may be transported independent of the Golgi.
Gap Junction Assembly
After being inserted into the plasma membrane of the cell, the hemichannels freely diffuse within the lipid bilayer. Through the aid of specific proteins, mainly cadherins, the hemichannels are able to dock with hemichannels of adjacent cells forming gap junctions. Recent studies have shown the existence of communication between adherens junctions and gap junctions, suggesting a higher level of coordination than previously thought.
Connexin gap junctions are found only in vertebrates, while a functionally analogous (but genetically unrelated) group of proteins, the innexins, are responsible for gap junctions in invertebrate species. Innexin orthologs have also been identified in Chordates, but they are no longer capable of forming gap junctions. Instead, the channels formed by these proteins (called pannexins) act as very large transmembrane pores that connect the intra- and extracellular compartments.
Within the CNS, gap junctions provide electrical coupling between progenitor cells, neurons, and glial cells. By using specific connexin KO mice, studies revealed that cell coupling is essential for visual signaling. In the retina, ambient light levels influence cell coupling provided by gap junction channels, adapting the visual function for various lighting conditions. Cell coupling is governed by several mechanisms, including connexin expression.
List of human connexins
|Connexin||Gene||Location and Function|
|Cx43||GJA1||Expressed at the surface of vasculature with atherosclerotic plaque, and up-regulated during atherosclerosis in mice. May have pathological effects. Also expressed between granulosa cells, which is required for proliferation. Normally expressed in astrocytes, also detected in most of the human astrocytomas and in the astroglial component of glioneuronal tumors. It is also the main cardiac connexin, found mainly in ventricular myocardium. Associated with oculodentodigital dysplasia.|
|Cx37||GJA4||Induced in vascular smooth muscle during coronary arteriogenesis. Cx37 mutations are not lethal. Forms gap junctions between oocytes and granulosa cells, and are required for oocyte survival.|
|Cx40||GJA5||Expressed selectively in atrial myocytes. Responsible for mediating the coordinated electrical activation of atria.|
|Pseudogene in humans|
|Cx50||GJA8||Gap Junctions between A-typ Horizontal cells in Mouse and Rabbit Retina|
|Cx62||GJA10||Human Cx62 complies Cx57 (Mouse). Location in axon-bearing B-typ Horizontal Cell in Rabbit Retina|
|Cx32||GJB1||Major component of the peripheral myelin. Mutations in the human gene cause X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, a hereditary neuropathy. In human normal brain CX32 expressed in neurons and oligodendrocytes.|
|Cx26||GJB2||Mutated in Vohwinkel syndrome as well as Keratitis-Icthyosis-Deafness (KID) Syndrome.|
|Cx31||GJB3||Can be associated with Erythrokeratodermia variabilis.|
|Cx30.3||GJB4||Fonseca et al. confirmed Cx30.3 expression in thymocytes. Can be associated with Erythrokeratodermia variabilis.|
|Cx30||GJB6||Mutated in Clouston syndrome (hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia)|
|Cx45||GJC1/GJA7||Human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. Atrio-ventricular node.|
|Cx47||GJC2/GJA12||Expressed in oligodentrocyte gap junctions|
|Cx30.2||GJC3||Expressed in structures of the inner ear. Thought to have a role in ion transport for signal transduction in hair cells.|
|Cx36||GJD2/GJA9||Pancreatic beta cell function, mediating the release of insulin. Neurons throughout the Central Nervous System where they synchronize neural activity.|
|Cx29||GJE1||Not known to form gap junctions; present in innermost layer of myelin in Schwann cells|
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