Open-mid central rounded vowel

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Open-mid central rounded vowel
ɞ
ɔ̈
IPA number 395
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɞ
Unicode (hex) U+025E
X-SAMPA 3\
Kirshenbaum O"
Braille ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠜ (braille pattern dots-345)
Sound

The open-mid central rounded vowel, or low-mid central rounded vowel, is a vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɞ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is 3\. The symbol is called closed reversed epsilon. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ⟨ɔ̈⟩.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Due to either typographic or design error, IPA charts were published with this vowel transcribed as a closed epsilon, ⟨ʚ⟩, and this graphic variant made its way into Unicode as U+029A ʚ LATIN SMALL LETTER CLOSED OPEN E. The form ⟨ɞ⟩ (U+025E ɞ LATIN SMALL LETTER CLOSED REVERSED OPEN E) is considered correct.

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i • y
ɨ • ʉ
ɯ • u
ɪ • ʏ
ɪ̈ • ʊ̈
ɯ̽ • ʊ
e • ø
ɘ • ɵ
ɤ • o
 • ø̞
ə • ɵ̞
ɤ̞ • 
ɛ • œ
ɜ • ɞ
ʌ • ɔ
æ • 
ɐ • ɞ̞
a • ɶ
ä • ɒ̈
ɑ • ɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans Standard[1] lug [lɞχ] 'air' Also been described as mid [ɞ̝], typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨œ⟩. Many speakers merge /œ/ with /ə/, even in formal speech.[2] See Afrikaans phonology
English Irish[3] but [bɞθ̠] 'but' Corresponds to [ʌ] in other varieties. See English phonology
New Zealand[4] not [nɞʔt] 'not' Possible realization of /ɒ/.[4] See New Zealand English phonology
Icelandic[5][6] öld [ɞl̪t̪] 'age' Also described as front [œ].[7] Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨œ⟩. Often diphthongized to [ɵɞ] when long. See Icelandic phonology
Irish tomhail [tɞːlʲ] 'consume' (imp.) See Irish phonology
Kashubian ptôch [ptɞx] 'bird'
Navajo[8] tsosts’id [tsʰɞstsʼɪt] 'seven' See Navajo phonology
Northern Tiwa Taos dialect [ʔãˌtʃʊt̚ːˈʔuɞnbɑ] 'his-garment-around' Allophone of /ɑ/. See Taos phonology
Norwegian Stavangersk[9] topp [tʰɞpː] 'top' See Norwegian phonology
Poitevin o doune [ɞ dun] 'he gives'
Somali keenaysaa [keːnɞjsɑː] 'she brings' See Somali phonology
West Frisian Southwestern dialects[10] boare [ˈbɞːrə] 'tomcat' Corresponds to [wa] in other dialects.[10] See West Frisian phonology

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wissing (2012), p. 711.
  2. ^ Wissing (2016), section "The rounded and unrounded mid-central vowels".
  3. ^ Wells (1982), p. 422.
  4. ^ a b Bauer et al. (2007), p. 98.
  5. ^ Einarsson (1945:10), cited in Gussmann (2011:73)
  6. ^ "Icelandic Phonetic Transcription.PDF - ptg_ice.pdf" (PDF). Retrieved 23 March 2015. 
  7. ^ Árnason (2011), p. 60.
  8. ^ McDonough, Ladefoged & George (1993). Note that the authors gave a narrow transcription of [ɵ], though at the time the IPA had only this one symbol for a mid central rounded vowel, and it is clear from the discussion and formant charts that this vowel a centralized open-mid vowel.
  9. ^ Vanvik (1979), p. 17.
  10. ^ a b Hoekstra (2003:202), citing Hof (1933:14)

Bibliography[edit]