Government and intergovernmental reactions to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine

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International reaction to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
  Countries that have condemned the invasion
  Countries that have maintained a neutral stance
  Countries that have blamed the invasion on Ukraine and/or NATO provocation
  Unknown

  Russia
  Ukraine
Votes on the UN General Assembly resolution to condemn Russia for its invasion of Ukraine
  In favour
  Against
  Abstained
  Absent
  Non-UN member

The 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine received widespread international condemnation, leading to new sanctions being imposed on Russia, consequently triggering a Russian financial crisis.[1] Reactions among governments worldwide have generally been negative, with criticism and condemnation made by many leading nations such as the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Germany, and Japan. International organizations such as the United Nations (UN) and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) have also voiced significant criticism of the invasion over not having justifiable precedent. From the early phases of the invasion, the United Nations General Assembly voted to condemn Russia for its invasion of Ukraine.

Ukraine[edit]

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy called for nations to either establish a no-fly zone over Ukraine or provide Ukraine with air support.[2] Zelenskyy also called for "peace", stating that he does not "want Ukraine's history to be a legend about 300 Spartans."[2] Zelenskyy, in an address to the British House of Commons, also invoked the words of Winston Churchill by saying "We will fight at sea; we will fight in the air; we will protect our land. We will fight everywhere ... and we will not surrender."[3]

Ukrainian officials have published photos and videos of killed and captured Russian soldiers.[4] Some experts have argued that Article 13 of the Third Geneva Convention prohibits videos of captured soldiers.[5]

On 2 April, Zelenskyy warned Ukrainian residents that Russian forces retreating from around Kyiv were "mining the whole territory. They are mining homes, mining equipment, even the bodies of people who were killed", and leaving behind "a lot of trip wires, a lot of other dangers."[6]

Public opinion[edit]

More than 90% of Ukrainians supported the actions of President Zelenskyy,[7] including more than 90% in western and central Ukraine and more than 80% in Russian-speaking regions in eastern and southern Ukraine.[8]

Russia[edit]

On 26 February 2022, Russia's communications regulator, Roskomnadzor, ordered independent media outlets to take down reports that described the Russian invasion of Ukraine as an "assault, invasion, or declaration of war", otherwise fines and blocks would be issued.[9] From 1 March, Russian schools started war-themed social studies classes for teenagers based on the Russian government's position on history; one teaching manual (publicized by independent media outlet MediaZona) for such classes asserted that "genocide" had been occurring in eastern Ukraine for eight years, and that Russia in this case was responding with a "special peacekeeping operation" in Ukraine, which was "not a war".[10]

Russian President Vladimir Putin on 4 March declared that Russia has "absolutely no ill intentions with regard to our neighbors".[11] With Russia being extensively sanctioned by various countries due to the invasion, Putin called for other countries to "think about normalizing relations and cooperating normally", stating that there "is no need to escalate the situation, impose restrictions".[11] Putin on 5 March criticized Ukraine's leaders for resisting the invasion saying, "If they continue to do what they are doing, they are calling into question the future of Ukrainian statehood ... And if this happens, it will be entirely on their conscience."[12] Also that day, the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs urged countries of the European Union and NATO to "stop pumping weapons" to Ukraine, claiming that terrorists may use the weapons against airplanes.[13]

On 7 March, the Russian government adopted a list of countries and regions "taking unfriendly actions against Russia, Russian companies, and citizens" – Albania, Andorra, Australia, Great Britain, including Jersey, Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, Gibraltar, EU member states, Iceland, Canada, Liechtenstein, Micronesia, Monaco, New Zealand, Norway, South Korea, San Marino, North Macedonia, Singapore, US, Taiwan, Ukraine, Montenegro, Switzerland, and Japan.[14]

Putin on 8 March declared that Russian "conscript soldiers are not participating in hostilities" in Ukraine "and will not participate in them". On 9 March, the Russian Ministry of Defense stated that it had "discovered" Russian conscript soldiers participating in the military operation in Ukraine, and that "almost all" of these conscripts had returned to Russia, but some other conscripts had been "captured" in Ukraine.[15]

Russia and the US control 90% of the world's nuclear weapons. Putin warned that "whoever tries to hinder us" in Ukraine would see consequences "you have never seen in your history".[16]

On 9 March, Russia bombed a maternity hospital in Mariupol; Associated Press journalists on the scene took photos and videos of multiple bloodstained, pregnant mothers leaving the blown-out maternity ward.[17] One pregnant woman and her baby died after the bombing.[17] Russian officials provided different, shifting stances on the bombing.[18] Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov initially stated that Russia does "not fire on civilian targets", then later said he lacked "clear information about what happened".[18] Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov criticized "pathetic shouting about so-called atrocities", stating that the hospital had no patients and doctors, according to him it was controlled by Ukrainian extremists.[18] Russia's Defense Ministry denied bombing the hospital, and accused Ukraine of staging the bombing.[18] Russian officials called images of the attack "fake news" and labelled a pregnant woman pictured fleeing the bombed hospital as an actor.[17]

On 16 March, a Russian airstrike hit a theatre in Mariupol containing hundreds of civilians; satellite pictures three days prior showed large words "DETI" ("children" in Russian) displayed as a signal to Russian forces about those inside the theatre.[19] Russia's military denied bombing the theatre.[19] Russia's foreign ministry said that it was a "lie" that Russia bombed the theatre, insisting that "Russia's armed forces don't bomb towns and cities".[20] During the invasion, Russia has used airstrikes against Ukrainian cities including Mariupol, Kyiv and Kharkiv.[21]

On 16 March, Putin gave a speech in which he called Russian opponents of the war "scum and traitors,"[22] saying that a "natural and necessary self-cleansing of society will only strengthen our country."[23]

On 25 March, the leader of the Russian military's General Staff Main Operational Directorate, Sergei Rudskoi, stated that the first stage of Russia's "operation have generally been accomplished", with the "combat potential of the Armed Forces of Ukraine has been considerably reduced", which allows Russia "to focus our core efforts on achieving the main goal, the liberation of Donbas" in eastern Ukraine.[24] A day later, Russian forces bombed Lviv, a city in western Ukraine.[25]

  Countries that have banned Russian aircraft from their airspace. Russia's retaliatory ban on airlines from 36 countries has changed global airline routes.

On 1 April, Russia accused Ukraine of conducting an airstrike on Russian territory; this was the first such accusation since the start of the Russian invasion. Russia stated that the airstrike on a fuel depot in Belgorod upset the process of peace negotiations with Ukraine.[26]

After Russian forces occupied Bucha, Kyiv Oblast for five weeks and then withdrew, they were accused by Bucha officials of extra-judicial killings of Bucha residents. Russia's Ministry of Defense responded on 3 April that "not a single local resident suffered from any violent actions" during the Russian occupation of Bucha.[27] This claim was contradicted by many eyewitness accounts by Bucha residents.[28]

The Russian defense ministry suggested that corpses of dead civilians had been placed on the streets of Bucha after "all Russian units withdrew completely" from the city on 30 March, but satellite photos taken by Maxar Technologies showed that at least 11 body-sized objects on Bucha's Yablonska Street appeared between 9 March and 11 March, remaining there for more than three weeks, in the same positions that 11 civilian corpses were found in a 1 April video.[29] A high-ranking Russian official, Mikhail Ulyanov, stated that Bucha's mayor Anatoliy Fedoruk did not discuss "dead bodies in the streets" in a 31 March video, but Fedoruk on 7 March had already discussed "bodies on the city streets" of Bucha, and on 28 March Fedoruk had accused Russian forces of killings and rapes in Bucha.[30]

RIA Novosti, a media outlet controlled and owned by the Russian government, published an article by Timofey Sergeytsev that declared that "Nazis who took weapons must be killed in numbers as much as possible", while "most of the [Ukrainian] people are guilty, they are passive Nazis, Nazi enablers ... and must be punished". The article also stated that Ukraine "may develop only in dependency to Russia", and that "history has proven Ukraine may not exist as a national state".[31][32][33] On 5 April 2022, Russia's opposition politician Alexei Navalny said the "monstrosity of lies" in the Russian state media "is unimaginable. And, unfortunately, so is its persuasiveness for those who have no access to alternative information."[34] He tweeted that "warmongers" among Russian state media personalities "should be treated as war criminals. From the editors-in-chief to the talk show hosts to the news editors, [they] should be sanctioned now and tried someday."[35]

Public opinion[edit]

Putin giving speech during pro-invasion rally.[36]

One reason many Russians still support Putin and the "special military operation" in Ukraine has to do with the propaganda and disinformation being shown by the Kremlin.[37][38][39][40][41] The Russian censorship apparatus Roskomnadzor ordered the country's media to employ information only from Russian state sources or face fines and blocks.[42] As the Russian government has avoided referring to the Russian invasion of Ukraine as a war or an invasion, stories that describe the event as an "assault", "invasion", or a "declaration of war" were ordered to be deleted.[43] Putin signed into law a bill introducing prison sentences of up to 15 years for those who publish "fake news" about the Russian military and its operations, leading to some media outlets to stop reporting on Ukraine.[44]

Some observers noted what they described as a "generational struggle" among Russians over perception of the war,[45] with younger Russians generally opposed to the war and older Russians more likely to accept the narrative presented by state-controlled media in Russia.[46] Kataryna Wolczuk, an associate fellow of Chatham House's Russia and Eurasia programme, said, "[Older] Russians are inclined to think in line with the official 'narrative' that Russia is defending Russian speakers in Ukraine, so it's about offering protection rather than aggression."[46]

Many respondents do not want to answer pollsters' questions for fear of negative consequences.[47] In March 2022, when a Russian politician Maxim Katz and a group of Russian researchers commissioned a poll on Russians' attitudes toward the war in Ukraine, 29,400 of the 31,000 people they called refused to answer after hearing the theme of the question.[48]

In late February and mid-March 2022 with an interval of one and a half weeks, two polls conducted by a group of independent Russian sociologists[who?] to survey Russians' sentiments about the invasion. The results of the poll were obtained by Radio Liberty.[49][50] Almost three-quarters (71%) of the Russian population supported the invasion of Ukraine.[49][50] Russians over 35 were more likely to express feelings of "pride, respect, and hope". Respondents under the age of 18 were more prone to "resentment and disappointment". Young Russians in the age group of 18 to 24 were more likely to express "indifference" to what is happening in Ukraine. More than half of those over 55 support the war with Ukraine. And two out of five Russians expressed anxiety about the war, and these feelings were most often reported by young Russians.[50] The differences between the first and second polls show an increase in the number of people supporting the "military operation" and the independence of DPR and LPR.[49][50]

When asked how they are affected by the actions of the Russian President, a third of respondents said they strongly believe that Putin is working in their interests, and another 26 percent say that he is working in their interests to some extent. In general, most Russians believe that it would be better if Putin remained president for "as long as possible".[49][50]

Another poll conducted by Levada Center on 17–21 February found that the majority of respondents (52%) felt negatively towards Ukraine. Most (60%) blamed the US and NATO for the escalation of tensions in Eastern Ukraine, while 4% blamed Russia. The polls suggest that net public approval of Putin had surged by about 13 percentage points since December 2021, a rally 'round the flag effect, with almost three-quarters (71%) expressing approval of Putin's leadership by February 2022.[51]

A private survey agency, Russian Field, reported that 58.8% of respondents supported "Russian military action in Ukraine" in polls conducted from 26 to 28 February 2022.[47][51][52] According to the poll, in the group of 18-to-24-year-olds, only 29% supported the invasion of Ukraine.[53]

In conclusion, a majority of about 60% of the Russians supported the war prior to the outbreak of the conflict, according to different measures by different polls.[51][47]

According to a joint survey conducted by the Chicago Council on Global Affairs and the Levada Center on 24-30 March 2022:

When asked in an open-ended question why they think the military operation is taking place, a plurality (43%) say it is to defend civilians, ethnic Russians, or Russian speakers, including those in eastern Ukraine. .... A quarter of Russians (25%), according to the open-response question, think the military operation is a preemptive measure to prevent an attack on Russia, and 21 percent say it is to get rid of nationalists and “denazify” Ukraine. Few Russians (3%) appear to view the operation as an attempt to incorporate Ukraine and/or the Donbas region into Russia.[54]

Other nations[edit]

Africa[edit]

  •  Algeria – The Algerian Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that it was "following developments in the situation in the Republic of Ukraine". It also called for Algerians in Ukraine to adhere to instructions given by the Algerian embassy.[55]
  •  Angola – The Angolan Government urged the parties involved in the conflict to observe a ceasefire and warned that the conflict, in addition to causing human and material damage, had resulted in "a climate of tension between the two countries, with international proportions". The Angolan Ministry of Foreign Affairs defends that "the parties must strive for the peaceful resolution of the conflict."[56]
  •  Botswana – Botswana was one of the 87 signatories to the UN letter condemning Russia's invasion of Ukraine.[57]
  •  Cabo Verde – The Prime Minister of Cabo Verde José Ulisses Correia e Silva condemned in a Facebook post the invasion of Ukraine and called for the search for solutions through diplomatic channels and dialogue.[58][59]
  •  Egypt – Prime Minister Mostafa Madbouly stated his government is monitoring the crisis, and he expressed his desire for the situation to be resolved soon.[60]
  •  Eritrea - Eritrea was one of five countries to vote against the UN General Assembly resolution condemning Russia.[61]
  •  Ethiopia – The Ethiopian Embassy in Berlin urged Ethiopians in Ukraine to cross the border into Poland.[62]
  •  Gabon – Gabon participated in the Albanian-American led Joint Statement following a vote on a UN Security Council resolution on Russia's aggression toward Ukraine.[63]
  •  Gambia – Gambia cosponsored the Albanian-American led statement at the UN Security Council resolution condemning Russia.[64]
  •  Ghana – Foreign Minister Shirley Ayorkor Botchway condemned the invasion.[65]
  •  Kenya – Kenya participated in the Albanian-American led Joint Statement following a vote on a UN Security Council resolution on Russia's aggression toward Ukraine.[63]
  •  Lesotho – Lesotho participated in the Albanian-American led Joint Statement following a vote on a UN Security Council resolution on Russia's aggression toward Ukraine.[66]
  •  Liberia – The Liberian government stated that the unprovoked attack was unacceptable, and "[urges] Russia to ease hostilities".[67]
  •  Libya – Foreign Minister Najla Mangoush condemned Russia's military intervention in Ukraine as a violation of international law, and called on Moscow "to calm and retreat."[68]
  •  Malawi – President Lazarus Chakwera urged Russia to withdraw.[69]
  •  Mauritius – The Mauritian government has called for a peaceful resolution of the conflict and joined the call to return to peaceful dialogue between the conflicting parties.[70]
  •  Morocco – Morocco reiterated its support for the territorial integrity of all UN states.[71]
  •  Namibia – Namibia called upon the United Nations to peacefully resolve the situation. The Namibian Government also looked to evacuate 100 Namibians in Ukraine, should it become necessary.[72]
  •  Niger – Niger was one of the 87 signatories to the UN letter condemning Russia's invasion of Ukraine.[57]
  •  Nigeria – On 24 February 2022, an initial statement from the Nigerian Ministry of Foreign Affairs acknowledged Russia's invasion of Ukraine, describing the situation as a "surprise". It announced plans to assist in the evacuation of Nigerian citizens from Ukraine. However, it avoided condemning the actions of Russia, and it reaffirmed Russia's claims that the attacks in Ukraine "have been confined to military installations".[73] On 26 February 2022, after Foreign Minister Geoffrey Onyeama met with Ukrainian ambassador to Nigeria, Kirdoda Valerii; Russian ambassador to Nigeria, Alexey Shebarshin; and envoys from the G7 countries, he officially condemned Russia's invasion and urged for Russian troops to be withdrawn from Ukraine.[74]
  •  São Tomé and Príncipe – President of São Tomé and Príncipe, Carlos Vila Nova, said that the country "is not in favor of war" in Ukraine and hopes that the parties can still talk "to resolve disputes".[75]
  •  South AfricaNaledi Pandor, Minister of the Department of International Relations and Cooperation (DIRCO), released a statement blaming neither Russia nor Ukraine, calling for "inclusive talks led by the UNSC" and "enhanced diplomacy".[76] The Head of Public Diplomacy at the DIRCO stated that South Africa had "adopted a non-aligned position", discouraged the imposition of sanctions and called for NATO to respect Russian security concerns.[77][78]
    • The provincial cabinet of the Western Cape Province passed a resolution in support of Ukraine and criticizing the Russian invasion. The resolution called for a full withdrawal of Russian forces whilst also criticizing the ambiguous position of the South African government.[79]
  •  South SudanThe South Sudanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs requested diplomats in European countries to tally the amount of South Sudanese citizens in Ukraine, stating they were "very much concerned about the situation in Ukraine".[80]
  •  Sudan – Sudan coordinated an evacuation of Sudanese citizens in Ukraine with authorities in Poland and Romania.[81]
  •  Tunisia – Tunisia has called on all parties concerned by the recent events in Ukraine to "work on settling the conflict through peaceful means, based on dialogue between states. Tunisia is following with "great concern" the rapid development of events in Ukraine and the aggravation of tension in the region."[82] Tunisia called on its nationals in Ukraine to not leave the country without prior coordination.[83]
  •  Zambia – In response to questions from a MP, Vice president Mutale Nalumango stated that Zambia could not make a unilateral decision regarding the conflict, and that they would "not make a position as an individual country but as a grouping to various bodies that the country belongs to".[84] The country also made plans to evacuate all known Zambians present in the country.[85] At the emergency special session the Zambia's representative announced the country would support the draft resolution condemning the invasion.[86]
  •  Zimbabwe – Zimbabwe started to evacuate 256 nationals from Ukraine, advising nationals to leave Ukraine if safe to do so.[87]

Asia[edit]

  •  Abkhazia[a]President Aslan Bzhaniya stated that Russia's invasion of Ukraine was "absolutely justified."[88]
  •  Afghanistan – The Taliban on 25 February 2022 issued a statement in which it expressed its concern about the crisis in Ukraine, and called for "resolving the crisis through dialogue and peaceful means".[89]
  •  Armenia − The Armenian MFA spokesman on 23 February expressed "hope that the existing problems between the two friendly states w[ould] be resolved through diplomatic dialogue", and declared its readiness to accept refugees.[90][91]
  •  Azerbaijan − President Ilham Aliyev has offered to organize talks between Ukraine and Russia.[92] Azerbaijan also sent humanitarian aid to Ukraine.[93]
  •  Bangladesh – Foreign Minister AK Abdul Momen has reiterated Bangladesh's calls for the ongoing military conflict between Russia and Ukraine to be peacefully resolved in line with the Charter of the United Nations.[94] Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina has asked all the concerned persons to observe the Russia-Ukraine war situation.[95] Russia is building one of the biggest megaprojects in Bangladesh which is Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant. Russia is giving all the funding and logistics for this project but experts suspect that the war could disrupt the flow of the work. Even though 77% of the construction work is already done, it is still believed that the war situation could prolong the rest of the construction. The Soviet Union, of which Russia and Ukraine were both part, helped Bangladesh gain independence from Pakistan in the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War, by helping the Indian offensive.[96] The neutral stance which the country took during the invasion of Ukraine was believed by observers to be related to concerns that Bangladesh itself did not want to be threatened by larger neighbours.[97]
  •  Bhutan – Foreign Minister Tandi Dorji said that the foreign ministry is "studying and assessing the impacts the war will have on Bhutan"; adding that there are no Bhutanese in Ukraine.[98]
  •  Brunei – Brunei condemned the invasion, calling for the situation to be resolved without resorting to the threat or use of force.[99]
  •  Cambodia − Prime Minister Hun Sen has weighed in on the Russia-Ukraine issue, echoing his long-held belief that it is only through peaceful negotiation, and not another war, that any disagreements between belligerent parties can be resolved.[100]
  •  ChinaChinese leader and General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party Xi Jinping spoke to Russian President Vladimir Putin on 25 February, calling for Russia and Ukraine to resolve the issue through negotiation.[101][102] Putin told Xi that "Russia is willing to conduct high-level negotiations with Ukraine."[103] China's UN Ambassador Zhang Jun said that "We believe that all countries should solve international disputes by peaceful means in line with the purposes and principles of the UN Charter."[104][105] In a statement released on 25 February, China said that Ukraine's territory and sovereignty should be respected and urged talks between Ukraine and Russia as soon as possible.[106] Shortly after, PRC Foreign Minister and State Councilor Wang Yi stated that China has a clear position respecting the territorial integrity and sovereignty of all countries, including Ukraine.[106][107] Various state media in Beijing quoted Scholz's description of the day of invasion as "a terrible day for Ukraine and a dark day for Europe."[108][109][110] China has criticized sanctions against Russia, and said it understands Russia's 'security concerns' regarding NATO's eastward expansion.[111] China's Vice Foreign Minister Le Yucheng claimed that if NATO "enlargement goes further, it would be approaching the 'outskirts of Moscow' where a missile could hit the Kremlin within seven or eight minutes."[112]
  •  Georgia
    • President Salome Zourabichvili stated that her nation was "shocked" by Russian aggression in Ukraine. She affirmed her "solidarity with the Ukrainian people" and called for a halt in military operations.[113]
    • Prime Minister Irakli Garibashvili said that Georgia's government does not intend to join any sanctions effort against Russia.[114]
    • On 24 February, Chairman of the Parliament of Georgia, Shalva Papuashvili expressed his solidarity with Ukraine and called on international community to take steps to "stop Russia escalating into a full-scale conflict and ensure the protection of international norms."[115]
    • Vice Prime Minister/Minister of Foreign Affairs of Georgia, David Zalkaliani stated that "Military aggression launched by Russia against Ukraine is totally intolerable". He called on international partners to give a strict response to the violation of the international law by Russia and ensure the de-escalation of the situation.[116]
    • The Ministry of Foreign affairs of Georgia expressed extreme concern about the developments in Ukraine. According to statement, Russia's military actions undermine Ukraine's territorial integrity and sovereignty as well as the UN Charter and fundamental principles of the international law.[117]
  •  India – Prime Minister Narendra Modi appealed for an immediate cessation of violence in Ukraine in a phone call to Putin on 24 February. He also spoke with Zelenskyy on the 26th without ascribing responsibility for the violence.[118] The Indian government has refrained from taking a stand on the issue or criticizing Russia.[119] India is also working on setting up a mechanism to trade with Russia using rupees to avoid the effects of sanctions on trade between the two countries.[120] India has bought 3 million barrels of oil from Russia, resisting Western pressure to avoid such purchases.[121][122] India is the only member of the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue not to ban Russian exports. The Ukrainian ambassador to India, Igor Polikha, told reporters in India that he is "deeply dissatisfied" with India's position.[123] India has also abstained from the United Nations Security Council resolution condemning the Russian invasion.[124] Many Western capitals have criticised India over its refusal to condemn Russian invasion.[125] Prime Minister of United Kingdom, Boris Johnson,[126] and Prime Minister of Japan, Fumio Kishida,[127] had contacted Prime Minister Modi and unsuccessfully tried to persuade him to condemn Russia for invading Ukraine. Later, a 10-member British delegation cancelled its visit to India after the Indian high commission raised objection. The aim of the visit was to discuss the current situation in Ukraine and the cancellation of the visit highlighted the growing rift between India and UK.[126] UK has also expressed concerns regarding India's rupee-ruble trade arrangements with Moscow.[126] Majority of the Indians also support their government decision to abstain from criticising Russia. At the same time foreign minister S Jaishankar indicated that India would pursue an independent foreign policy and also consider favourable options in the current market scenario to meet energy needs. He however mentioned that imports from Russia were just a fraction of India's overall import share and also among the lowest considering all EU countries had been buying more from Russia than earlier.[128]
  •  Indonesia – The spokesperson for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Teuku Faizasyah, expressed Indonesia's concern for the escalation of the conflict. Indonesia urged Russia to respect the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine.[129] Official press release by the Ministry said that the attack of Ukraine by Russia is "unacceptable".[130] The Indonesian President, Joko Widodo, also tweeted "Stop war. War brings suffering to mankind and endangers the world."[b][131][132] The People's Representative Council also issued a condemnation statement.[133]
  •  Iran – Although the I.R. Iranian Minister of Foreign Affairs rooted the war on NATO provocation, they do not see resorting to war as a solution. They believed that establishing a ceasefire and focusing on a political and democratic solution is a necessity.[134] The Iranian President, Ebrahim Raisi, phoned Putin and supported guaranteeing the stopping of NATO's expansion.[135][136] Iran's Foreign Minister Hossein Amirabdollahian tweeted, "The #Ukraine crisis is rooted in NATO's provocations. We don't believe that resorting to war is a solution. Imperative to establish ceasefire & to find a political and democratic resolution." Mohammad Javad Larijani, the secretary of the High Council for Human Rights in Iran, told IRNA that the Islamic Republic has not backed military operation against Ukraine, but at the same time Tehran "has not closed eyes on the plots hatched by the US and its allies."[137] Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei said that "in Ukraine, we are in favour of stopping the war", and that the Ukraine crisis was showing that West could not be trusted, its support for "administrations and politicians that have been installed by them" being a "mirage". He also implied that the Ukrainian government did not have the full support of the people.[138] He said US policies are to blame for Russia's invasion of Ukraine and He accused Washington of meddling in the "internal affairs of the country, setting up demonstrations against the governments, creating velvet revolutions, creating colour coup d'etats"[139]
  •  Israel
    • Israeli Prime Minister Naftali Bennett stated that "our hearts are with the civilians of eastern Ukraine who were caught up in this situation." He called for a halt to the violence and pledged to provide humanitarian aid to Ukraine. Prime Minister Bennett has also offered to mediate and broker a ceasefire between Russia and Ukraine.[140][141] Foreign Affairs Minister and Alternate Prime Minister Yair Lapid stated that the "Russian attack on Ukraine is a grave violation of the international order. Israel condemns the attack, and is ready and prepared to provide humanitarian assistance to the citizens of Ukraine. Israel is a country that has experienced wars, and war is not the way to resolve conflicts."[142][143][144]
    • On 27 February 2022, Israeli Interior Minister Ayelet Shaked decided to automatically extend a two-month visa extension for all Ukrainian tourists in Israel, so they can receive temporary asylum from the war in Ukraine.[145] On 8 March 2022, Minister Shaked announced the official policy of hosting Israel's Ukrainian refugees, of those who are not eligible to make aliyah. All 16,000 Ukrainians who stayed in Israel before the invasion and were not citizens will receive an automatic three-month extension of their residence visa in Israel. If the war in Ukraine continues beyond these three months, they will be able to stay in Israel automatically and will even receive work permits and the right to Israeli medical insurance. An Israeli pension for non-Israeli Ukrainian adults who will not be able to work in the future will also be considered. It was also decided to immediately cancel the economic guarantee of the Israeli citizens who invited Ukrainians to stay temporarily in their homes, and an additional quota of 5,000 Ukrainian refugees was opened. Any Ukrainian citizen wishing to come to Israel will be able to submit an online application on the Foreign Ministry website and as long as the accommodation quota is not filled, in the absence of any other impediment, they will be able to come to Israel temporarily. At the same time, Israeli citizens will be able to apply to invite Ukrainian citizens, up to one nuclear family per applicant, and these will receive as much priority as possible. This will also make it possible to better accommodate those who come to Israel. In total, Israel plans to host 25,000 refugees for the entire war period.[146] On 13 March, Minister Shaked issued a statement in response to widespread criticism in Israel and in order to maintain the visa waiver agreement with Ukraine, in which she decided on an additional benefit in that anyone who has a relative in Israel and not eligible for citizenship himself will be exempted from the quota of 25,000 refugees but still would receive legal refugee status in Israel.
  •  Japan – Prime Minister Fumio Kishida condemned Russia's invasion of Ukraine and announced that it will be cooperating with the United States on further sanctions against Russia.[147] On 25 February, Japan implemented new sanctions, including an export ban on semiconductors and other high-tech products as well as freezing the assets of three Russian banks, but later stated that it could not confiscate the frozen Russian foreign reserves parked with the Bank of Japan.[148] It has also considered extending sanctions to Belarus, because of its support to the invasion. On 26 February, Japan agreed to increase deterrence efforts with the U.S., with Japanese Foreign Minister Yoshimasa Hayashi stating that the "impact of this will not stop in Europe." Japan–Russia relations had previously been characterized by Japanese attempts to avoid antagonizing Russia, particularly as that the Kuril Islands dispute is Russia's only territorial dispute in Asia. However, Japan is increasingly concerned about the geopolitical implications of Ukrainian territorial annexation on China and Taiwan.[149][150]
  •  Jordan − Minister of Foreign Affairs of Jordan released a statement urging the international community and the related parties to spare no effort to promote restraint and de-escalation. The statement also called for a peaceful settlement of the conflict through dialogue to restore security and stability in the region during this "critical" moment.[151]
  •  Kazakhstan – Kazakhstan, a neighbor and ally of Russia, has reportedly denied a request for its troops to join Russian forces in their invasion of Ukraine. The former Soviet republic also said it is not recognizing the Russia-created breakaway republics, the Luhansk People's Republic and the Donetsk People's Republic, NBC News reported Friday, citing officials.[152] The Kazakh defense ministry insisted the matter had not even come up. According to a statement issued on its Telegram channel on 27 Feb, the ministry said: "Information on the alleged deployment of Kazakh military to Ukraine doesn't have grounds. A request to send Kazakh military to Ukraine or any other country hasn't been received and, correspondingly, hasn't been considered."[153] Kazakhstan has avoided criticising Russia's move to invade a fellow ex-Soviet republic but at the same time has not sided with Russia in recognising the independence of Moscow-backed separatist statelets in eastern Ukraine.[154]
  •  North KoreaNorth Korea's Ministry of Foreign Affairs published a commentary on 26 February titled "The United States must not undermine the foundation of international peace and stability" North Korea on Saturday ascribed the armed conflict in Ukraine to the United States' "high-handedness and arbitrariness," accusing Washington of having pursued "military supremacy" in disregard of Russia's security concerns. In a post on the North's foreign ministry website, Ri Ji-song, a researcher at the Society for International Politics Study, made the remarks—the North's first public mention of the conflict following Russia's invasion of Ukraine earlier that week. "The root cause of the Ukrainian crisis also lies in the high-handedness and arbitrariness of the U.S. which has held on solely to the unilateral sanction and pressure while pursuing only global hegemony and military supremacy in disregard of the legitimate demand of Russia for its security," Ri wrote. The Yonhap News Agency quoted a North Korean studies professor at Ewha University in Seoul as analyzing the information posted on the website of North Korea's foreign ministry as a "cautious" official response from Pyongyang because it was released in the name of an individual.[155]
  •  South Korea – President Moon Jae-in said that South Korea would join international sanctions against Russia in the crisis and expressed regret over Russia's invasion of Ukraine. He said: "The use of armed forces causing human casualties cannot be justified under any circumstances".[156] The Ministry of Foreign Affairs confirmed that: "The Korean government strongly condemns Russia's armed invasion against Ukraine as a violation of the principles of the UN Charter" and "the Korean government will support and join the international community's efforts, including economic sanctions, to curb armed invasion".[157] On 1 March, South Korea announced it would stop all transactions with 7 main Russian banks and their affiliates, and restrict the purchase of Russian treasury bonds.[158][159] In April 2022, South Korea turned down Ukraine's request for ground-based systems targeting aircraft and ballistic missiles, citing its "principled stance" of not providing lethal hardware. At the time, Ukraine had already been provided with approximately 25,000 anti-air and 60,000 anti-tank systems by the U.S. and its allies.[160]
  •  Kuwait – Kuwait participated in the United States led Joint Statement following a vote on a UN Security Council resolution on Russia's aggression toward Ukraine.[66]
  •  Kyrgyzstan – The Foreign Ministry of Kyrgyzstan has called on Russia and Ukraine to resolve the conflict at the negotiating table. "We're following the development of the situation in Ukraine with dismay and concern. Proceeding from our historically friendly relations with the peoples of Russia and Ukraine, we hope that the parties will achieve peace promptly, including by means of creating new formats and mechanisms of the conflict settlement at the negotiating table to prevent further casualties and damage," the Kyrgyz Foreign Ministry said on Friday.[161]
  •  Laos − Lao PDR government calls on all parties concerned to exercise utmost restraint and pursue efforts in deescalating the tension that may undermine international peace and security. Also, Lao PDR supports ongoing efforts to find a peaceful settlement to the situation through diplomatic means.[162]
  •  Lebanon – The Lebanese Foreign Ministry on 24 February condemned Russia's military invasion of Ukraine and called on Moscow to "immediately halt military operations."[163] Russia's embassy in Lebanon expressed surprise at this condemnation, releasing a statement that "The statement... surprised us [the Russian embassy] by violating the policy of dissociation and by taking one side against another in these events, noting that Russia spared no effort in contributing to the advancement and stability of the Lebanese Republic".[164]
  •  Malaysia – Prime Minister Ismail Sabri, via a statement released by the Prime Minister's Office, had stated that it is concerned over the "escalation of conflict in Ukraine". It also calls for dialogue and promoting "peace and security".[165] Independent news portal Malaysiakini noted that the statement released by the Prime Minister lacked forceful language and did not mention Russia nor characterised the conflict as an "invasion", prompting a response by the Press Secretary of the Prime Minister, who accused the news portal of diverting from "the gist of the press statement".[166] On 27 February, the Malaysian Foreign Ministry denied a report by the South China Morning Post that it had "bungled" the evacuation of Malaysian nationals from Ukraine by forcing them to travel to Poland with their private vehicles in order to escape the Russian invasion after reports that the chartered bus scheduled to pick them up failed to arrive. This is followed by allegations that the Malaysian government had dismissed the possibility of a Russian invasion as a "Western narrative".[167][168] At the emergency session, Malaysia's representative announced the country's delegation would vote in favor of the draft resolution condemning the invasion.[86]
  •  Maldives – Maldivian Deputy of Foreign Affairs, Abdulla Humaid, outlined plans to evacuate Maldivians in Ukraine.[169]
  •  MongoliaBattsetseg Batmunkh, Mongolia's foreign minister, spoke to the press regarding the situation in Ukraine. She described Mongolia as having a peace-oriented, open, independent, and multilateral foreign policy, and that the government as observing the events with concern. She noted that "if the situation continued to escalate it may contribute negatively to world peace and stability", and called upon the parties to quickly negotiate a cease fire using all diplomatic efforts and good faith.[170]
  •  Myanmar – The spokesperson for Myanmar's State Administration Council, Zaw Min Tun, supported Russia's decision, stating that "Russia was acting to protect its sovereignty" and praised Russia's role in "balancing global power".[171][172] The Minister of International Cooperation of the exiled National Unity Government of Myanmar, Dr. Sasa, said "The unprovoked, unjustified attacks on Ukraine by Russia are inexcusable and unacceptable."[173]
  •    Nepal – Nepal opposed the Russian invasion of Ukraine. Principles of sovereignty and territorial integrity must be fully respected: Foreign Ministry.[174]
  •  Pakistan – Pakistan's Prime Minister, Imran Khan, expressed regret regarding the current situation and said that conflict was not in anyone's interest. He had hoped that military conflict between the two countries could have been avoided through diplomacy. Khan also underlined Pakistan's belief that disputes should be resolved through dialogue and diplomacy.[175] After an appeal from 22 diplomatic missions for Pakistan to condemn Russia at the UN General Assembly was released to the public, Khan hit out at Western envoys over their inaction over Kashmir, how supporting NATO in Afghanistan had backfired for Pakistan, and asked why no letter was written to appeal to India, who had also abstained.[176]
  •  Philippines – The Philippines Department of Foreign Affairs released a statement on 25 February that it is urging the international community to reaffirm its commitment to resolve international disputes through peaceful dialogue and "more than words" and cited the UN General Assembly's Manila Declaration on the Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes. Foreign Secretary Teodoro Locsin Jr. has committed to going to the Ukrainian border to personally oversee the repatriation of Filipinos in Ukraine.[177] The Philippines later expressed its intent to vote to condemn Russia invasion of Ukraine in the emergency special session of the United Nations General Assembly.[178]
  •  Qatar – Amir Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani called on all parties with regard to the Russia-Ukraine crisis to exercise restraint and resolve the dispute through constructive dialogue and diplomatic methods. He reiterated the settlement of international disputes by peaceful means and cautioned against actions that would lead to further escalation.[179]
  •  Saudi Arabia – Saudi Arabia's Deputy Foreign Minister Waleed El Khereiji and U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Wendy Sherman on the first day of the invasion discussed building a "strong international response to support Ukrainian sovereignty", the U.S. Department of State website said.[180] Saudi Arabia remains committed to OPEC+ agreement, Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman told French President Emmanuel Macron on 27 February in an endorsement for the bloc's alliance with Russia amid that nation's invasion of Ukraine.[181]
  •  SingaporeSingapore's Ministry of Foreign Affairs said Singapore "strongly condemns any unprovoked invasion of a sovereign country under any pretext," and that "the sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of Ukraine must be respected."[182] "All parties concerned should continue to pursue dialogue, including diplomatic means, towards a peaceful settlement of the dispute, in accordance with international law, and avoid action that will further raise tensions in the region."[183] Local news outlets reported that Singapore may join international sanctions on Russia, and was unlikely to take a direct economic hit from export curbs on Russia.[184] On 28 February 2022, Singapore announced sanctions against Russia by imposing export controls on items "that can be used directly as weapons in Ukraine to inflict harm or to subjugate the Ukrainians" and moved to "block certain Russian banks and financial transactions connected to Russia". The move was a first by a Southeast Asian country and a departure from the Association of Southeast Asian Nations' refusal to condemn the invasion.[185][186]
  •  Sri Lanka – The Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that the Government of Sri Lanka is deeply concerned about the recent escalation of violence in Ukraine and called upon all parties concerned to exercise maximum restraint and work towards the immediate cessation of hostilities, in order to maintain peace, security and stability in the region, while emphasising the need for concerted efforts by all parties concerned to resolve the crisis through diplomacy and sincere dialogue.[187]
  •  Syria – Syrian President Bashar al-Assad praised the Russian invasion as a "correction of history" and accused Western nations of using "dirty methods to support terrorists in Syria and Nazis in Ukraine".[188]
  •  TaiwanPresident Tsai Ing-wen stated, "our government condemns Russia's violation of Ukraine's sovereignty and urges all parties to continue to resolve the disputes through peaceful and rational means."[189] The Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced that Taiwan will join international sanctions against Russia and expressed regret over Russia's decision to "use force and intimidation in bullying others instead of resolving disputes through peaceful diplomatic negotiations."[190] Taiwan moved to block Russian banks from the SWIFT system and sent 27 tonnes of military aid. Later, President Tsai Ing-wen, Vice President William Lai and Premier Su Tseng-chang announced they would each donate one month of salary towards humanitarian aid for Ukraine.[191]
  •  Thailand – Thailand's Ministry of Foreign Affairs expressed "deep concern" and said that it supported "ongoing efforts to find a peaceful settlement to the situation through dialogue."[192]
  •  Timor-Leste – Timor-Leste was one of the 87 signatories to the UN letter condemning Russia's invasion of Ukraine.[57]
  •  United Arab Emirates – The United Arab Emirates abstained from the vote on the U.N. Security Council resolution that would have deplored Moscow's invasion of Ukraine, calling it a "foregone conclusion".[193] A senior Emirati diplomat Anwar Gargash said that the United Arab Emirates "believes that taking sides would only lead to more violence".[194] The United Arab Emirates permanent representative to the UN has called upon all parties in the Ukraine dispute to exercise self-restraint, defuse tension and seek an end to the crisis through dialogue and diplomacy, stating "the UAE.. articulates its firm position on the need to de-escalate and find a peaceful solution to the crisis between the parties concerned."[195]
  •  Uzbekistan – The Press Secretary to the President of Uzbekistan Sherzod Asadov stated in a Facebook post: "The President of Russia informed the head of our state on the reasons and circumstances of the decision to launch a special operation. In his turn, the leader of Uzbekistan expressed hope that the parties will soon find mutually acceptable ways to resolve the situation and prevent its further escalation. I would like to emphasize that Uzbekistan takes a balanced, neutral position on this matter."[196][197] The Embassy of Uzbekistan in Poland is evacuating its citizens from Ukraine through Poland, Foreign Ministry of Uzbekistan said.[198] Upon reports of Uzbek nationals fighting in Ukraine, Ministry of Justice stated that any Uzbek national found to have enlisted in the service of a foreign army or police service could face a prison term of up to five years.[199] On 17 March, Uzbekistan Foreign Minister Abdulaziz Kamilov said that he did not recognize the independence of the LPR and the DPR, supported the territorial integrity of Ukraine and wanted a peaceful solution to the situation. He added that Uzbekistan has provided humanitarian aid to Ukraine at this difficult time and will continue this work. He also noted that the country intends to cooperate on both sides of the conflict.[200]
  •  Vietnam – The spokesperson for the Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Lê Thị Thu Hằng, stated Vietnam "calls on parties concerned in the Ukraine crisis to exercise self-restraint, enhance dialogue efforts and step up diplomatic measures to peacefully settle differences with respect for the United Nations Charter and fundamental principles of international law, thus contributing to ensuring peace, security, and stability in the region and the world."[201]

Europe[edit]

Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy (center) meeting with the Presidents of Lithuania, Poland, Latvia, and Estonia (from left to right) in Kyiv, 13 April 2022
  •  Albania – President of Albania Ilir Meta convened a National Security Council on 24 February and issued a statement to "strongly condemn Russia's military attack on Ukraine" as an "unprovoked and unjustifiable escalation" which "constitutes a violation of international law, the UN Charter, the Minsk Agreement, the Budapest Memorandum, and undermines security and peace throughout Europe", while expressing sorrow for lives lost and "full solidarity with the people of Ukraine, and its democratic institutions",[202] with similar statements issued earlier in the day by Prime Minister Edi Rama on Twitter,[203] Minister for Europe and Foreign Affairs Olta Xhaçka,[204] and Ambassador to the UN Ferit Hoxha at the Security Council meeting,[205] later joining the United States in calling for a UN vote on a resolution condemning Russian actions with the intention of forcing Russia to resort to a veto.[206] After a NATO summit, Rama said that Albania would be ready to welcome a few thousand Ukrainian refugees fleeing the war.[207]
  •  Andorra – The government of Andorra condemned the invasion and the Prime Minister Xavier Espot appealed for peace, saying that "war should be no recourse".[208] On 2 March, Andorra joined economic sanctions against Russia. Espot admitted that the impact would not be high, but it was a matter of conviction. Andorra has never previously applied sanctions towards another country.[209]
  •  Austria – Chancellor of Austria Karl Nehammer claimed that "There is war in Europe again", condemned Russia's attack and declared Austria's solidarity with Ukraine.[210]
  •  Belgium – Prime Minister Alexander De Croo said EU needs "Russian sanctions that bite", especially against the "ruling elite".[211] From early April, three Ukrainian families will be placed in two of the Belgian royal family's properties, which are managed by the Royal Trust, while a third property will be used for "collective accommodation of Ukrainian refugees".[212]
  •  Bosnia and Herzegovina
    • Tripartite Presidency Member Željko Komšić said Bosnia would support Ukraine within its capacity.[203]
    • Whereas the Croat and Bosniak members of the tripatartite presidency, Željko Komšić and Šefik Džaferović, issued their own separate statements condemning the Russian invasion, the Serb member Milorad Dodik did not, instead stating that Bosnia and Herzegovina was neutral, having stated the previous day that the events showed it was a good decision for Bosnia and Herzegovina to not enter NATO, and that the country would not support sanctions.[213]
    • Foreign Minister Bisera Turković stated: "Bosnia and Herzegovina remains firmly committed to Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity, and we call for an immediate end to fighting and shelling! OSCE principles, security and international law are under attack today. Hostility and suffering of innocent civilians must end immediately," she said. Minister Turković called on Russia and Belarus to refrain from using force in the interests of peace, regional and global stability.[214]
  •  Bulgaria – Bulgaria condemned the invasion and Prime Minister Kiril Petkov stated: "We see that this aggression was not provoked by the Ukrainian side and such actions in Europe are inadmissible".[215]
    • The Bulgarian Minister of Defence Stefan Yanev was sacked for insisting it was wrong to describe it as a war, saying it was an "operation." He also said there was no need for Bulgaria—a member of both the EU and NATO—to adopt a "pro-Russian, pro-American or pro-European position."[216]
  •  Croatia – Prime Minister Andrej Plenković released a statement on Twitter, saying: "We strongly condemn Russia's aggression and invasion on Ukraine. This unprovoked attack is a gross violation of Ukraine's sovereignty and international law".[217] Plenković also met with the Ukrainian Ambassador to Croatia, noting that Croatia will support the EU sanctions package, and stands ready to provide humanitarian and technical assistance to Ukraine.[218]
  •  Cyprus – President Nicos Anastasiades tweeted his condemnation "in the strongest possible terms" and that "I must say that we witness with great disappointment what is happening in violation of international law and we cannot but condemn as a country similar actions that violate the sovereignty and territorial integrity of an independent country". Meanwhile, Foreign Minister Ioannis Kasoulidis called for a ceasefire and said that "these are military operations within Europe, something we have avoided since the end of WWII".[219]
  • Support demonstration in Prague, 27 February 2022
     Czech Republic
    • President Miloš Zeman called, in an address to the nation on 24 February, the invasion "an unprovoked act of aggression" and that "Russia has committed a crime against peace", calling for harsh sanctions against Russia. He also said that he had been "wrong" in his insistence until a few days prior that Russia would not invade Ukraine.[220]
    • Prime Minister Petr Fiala said his government had withdrawn their agreement for operation of the Russian consulates in Karlovy Vary and Brno, had suspended the operation of the consulates of the Czech Republic in St. Petersburg and Yekaterinburg, and had stopped issuing visas for Russian citizens. He also announced that the republic would insist on adoption of the strictest anti-Russian sanctions and development of the harshest possible position towards Russia.[221]
  •  Denmark – Prime Minister Mette Frederiksen said that it was a "dark day for peace around the world", while stating that her government was ready to accept Ukrainian refugees.[222]
    •  Faroe Islands – Comment from the Prime Minister, Bárður á Steig Nielsen: "It's a sad day and our thoughts are with the Ukrainian people. This is not only an attack on Ukraine, but also on European peace. The Faroe Islands strongly condemn the Russian invasion of Ukraine. The attack is a clear violation of international law, which is meant to maintain justice, security and stability."[223]
    •  Greenland —Greenland's Prime Minister, Múte B. Egede, condemned the invasion, called it meaningless, and announced that Greenland would join international sanctions against Russia.[224]
  •  Estonia – Prime Minister Kaja Kallas called Russia a "threat to the whole of Europe".[225]
  • Finnish President Sauli Niinistö and Prime Minister Sanna Marin at a press conference about the situation of Ukraine, 24 February 2022
     Finland
    • President Sauli Niinistö condemned Russia's attack and President Vladimir Putin, saying "the mask has now come off and only the cold face of war is visible".[226]
    • Prime Minister Sanna Marin said Russia's invasion of Ukraine would change the debate around NATO membership within her country, and wrote on Twitter that "The attack is a grave breach of international law and threatens the life of numerous civilians. Finland expresses its solid support to Ukraine and Ukrainians and we are looking for ways to increase this support".[227] On 25 February 2022, a Russian foreign ministry spokesperson threatened "military and political consequences" if Finland attempts to join NATO.[228]
    • Niinistö and Marin issued a joint declaration on 12 May declaring that Finland should join NATO.[229]
  • Statement by Jean-Yves Le Drian following his interview with Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya, leader of the Belarusian opposition
     France – President of France Emmanuel Macron said that he had spoken with Putin "to stop the fighting and talk to the Ukrainian president"[230] and demanded "an immediate halt to Russian military operations in Ukraine".[231][232]
  •  GermanyAnnalena Baerbock, minister of foreign affairs, said that the world woke up in a different world. She announced massive sanctions against Russia. Chancellor Olaf Scholz called the invasion a "serious mistake" of Putin's.[233] Germany initially ruled out sending weapons to Ukraine and prevented Estonia from sending German-made howitzers to Ukraine.[234] Germany said it was sending 5,000 helmets and a field hospital to Ukraine,[235] to which Kyiv mayor Vitali Klitschko responded, "What will they send next? Pillows?"[234] On 26 February, in what was seen by observers as a reaction to mounting pressure from allies in NATO and EU, Germany reversed its course by allowing the sending of nine German-made howitzers from Estonia and 400 rocket-propelled grenade launchers from the Netherlands, and additionally agreed to send 1,000 anti-tank weapons and 500 Stinger anti-aircraft defense systems to Ukraine.[236] At an emergency parliamentary sitting on 27 February, Scholz spoke of a "new era" that had begun with the Russian invasion. Germany would from now on invest more than the NATO target of two percent of gross domestic product in defence. 100 billion euros would be made available for investments in the army during 2022.[237] According to Bild, German President Frank-Walter Steinmeier planned to travel to Kyiv in April 2022 as a signal of solidarity but was snubbed by Ukrainian officials.[238]
  •  Greece
  •  Hungary
    • President János Áder strongly condemned the Russian invasion, which "Hungary was also forced to endure a similar one in 1956". Áder added that "we [Hungary] have done everything we could to urge the leadership in Moscow to remain level-headed and exercise restraint. Unfortunately we could not succeed because, as it has now become clear, Russia was carrying out a premeditated plan which was followed by the conscious deception of its international partners".[244]
    • Prime Minister Viktor Orbán stated that "together with our EU and NATO allies, we condemn Russia's military attack", adding that sending either troops or military equipment to Ukraine was "out of the question, though we will, of course, provide humanitarian aid".[245]
  •  Iceland – Prime Minister Katrín Jakobsdóttir condemned Russia's invasion of Ukraine as "an unacceptable breach of international law."[246]
  •  Italy – Prime Minister Mario Draghi promised "whatever it takes to restore Ukrainian sovereignty" and that it was "impossible to have meaningful dialogue with Moscow", demanding Russia to unconditionally pull its forces back to the internationally established borders.[247]
  •  Ireland
    • President Michael D. Higgins called the Russian invasion "unacceptable and immoral" and stated: "This violence must stop. Troops must be withdrawn by Russia. The rise of militarism must end. Full humanitarian access must be given to all civilians in need. Every glimmer of hope through diplomacy must be seized."[248]
    • Taoiseach Micheál Martin condemned the "outrageous" actions of Russia in Ukraine and promised "severe sanctions from EU", while saying: "Our thoughts must be with the innocent people of Ukraine at this, their most difficult hour."[249]
    • Tánaiste Leo Varadkar stated that whilst Ireland is militarily neutral, "in this conflict, Ireland is not neutral at all", acknowledging the country's "unwavering and unconditional" support for Ukraine.[250] He compared the invasion of Ukraine to the invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1939, calling Putin "the Hitler of the 21st century".[251]
  •  Kosovo[c] – Prime Minister Albin Kurti condemned the Russian invasion as "the largest military aggression, not only in Europe, since the end of the Second World War", stating "we stand in solidarity with the people of Ukraine and stand together with the EU, NATO, the US, and the UK for state sovereignty, territorial integrity, the country's independence and the right of self-determination for the people of Ukraine", alongside condemnations by the Kosovar parliament. Meanwhile, President Vjosa Osmani said that the people of Kosovo support Ukrainians "as they face an unprovoked war as a result of Russian aggression", stating on Twitter that "we will work with our allies... Russian hegemony will not triumph. Freedom and democracy will win".[203] A joint statement by Kosovo's president, prime minister and senior ministers furthermore condemned attempts to draw parallels to Kosovo's own declaration of independence from Serbia: "Dictator Putin's effort to refer to the Kosovo case and draw parallel are totally unstable, abusive and an attempt to camouflage the lack of any base or reason for the barbarous attack of its forces against a sovereign state."[252]
  •  LatviaPresident of Latvia Egils Levits strongly condemned the Russian invasion of Ukraine, calling to offer "all possible support, including weapons" to Ukraine and impose "the harshest possible sanctions" against Russia.[253] In a later interview he called the invasion "beginning of the end for Putin".[254] On 26 February, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia suspended issuing visas to Russian nationals with the exception of humanitarian visas.[255] Two days later, Saeima approved legal amendments allowing Latvian nationals to voluntarily fight on the Ukrainian side against the Russian invasion.[256] On 4 March, Riga City Council renamed a section of the street with the Russian Embassy to Ukrainian Independence Street.[257] Prime Minister of Latvia Krišjānis Kariņš expressed that the Latvian economy and exports should continue transitioning away from Russia, and the dependence on Russian energy imports should be reduced as soon as possible.[258]
  •  Liechtenstein
    • Liechtenstein condemned the invasion in a statement published on the government's official website.[259]
    • The government of Liechtenstein promised to devote CHF 500,000 from its existing International Humanitarian Cooperation and Development Budget towards humanitarian projects to help those affected by the war.[260]
  •  Lithuania has strongly condemned the invasion and called for military, economic and humanitarian aid for Ukraine.[261] President of Lithuania Gitanas Nauseda declared the state of emergency, ordering the NATO country's armed forces to deploy along its borders in response to "possible disturbances and provocations due to large military forces massed in Russia and Belarus".[262]
  •  Luxembourg
    • Prime Minister Xavier Bettel condemned the invasion in a statement on Twitter.[263]
    • Foreign minister Jean Asselborn, in an interview with local radio, said the "physical elimination" of Putin was potentially the only way out of the war. He later described his remarks as a "slip of the tongue" and an emotional reaction to having just heard of Russia's indiscriminate attacks on Kharkiv.[264]
  •  Malta – Prime Minister Robert Abela said that during the meeting of European leaders Malta had "spoken in favour of peace in Ukraine", adding that doing so "did not compromise Malta's position of neutrality", as Malta's constitution affirms the island as a neutral state adhering to a policy of non-alignment.[265]
  •  Moldova – President Maia Sandu condemned the act of war by Russia against Ukraine, saying, "a blatant breach of international law and of Ukrainian sovereignty and territorial integrity."[266] She added that Moldova was ready to accept tens of thousands of people fleeing Ukraine after the Russian attack and vowed to keep the borders open to help.[267]
  •  Monaco
    • Prince Albert II affirmed his support for Ukraine in a statement "The Principality reaffirms its support of international laws, and to the sovereignty, the integrity and the independence of states." and "Monaco is at the side of the Ukrainian population and human rights."[268]
    • Minister of State Pierre Dartout announced his concerns for the invasion and stated that Monaco was on the side of the Ukrainian people. He moreover urged the Russians to cease their military operation immediately and for dialogue to resume.[269]
    • The Monaco Royal Palace said in a statement "The Principality has adopted and implemented, without delay, procedures for freezing funds and economic sanctions identical to those taken by most European States."[270]
  •  Montenegro – President Milo Đukanović condemned the Russian invasion, saying it "violates all fundamental principles of international law, undermines European security, and endangers its stability. We join the calls of EU leaders for Russia to urgently end hostilities, withdraw forces from Ukraine and respect the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Ukraine." Deputy Prime Minister Dritan Abazović also tweeted that Montenegro stands with NATO and EU partners.[213]
  •  Netherlands – Prime Minister Mark Rutte condemned Russia's actions in the "strongest possible terms", saying that "one country and one man are responsible", while calling for "maximum sanctions" against Russia.[271] King Willem-Alexander and Queen Máxima stated that their "hearts go out to the people of Ukraine and everyone affected by the violence."[272] The Dutch royal family announced they would host six to eight families of refugees from Ukraine from mid-April at Het Oude Loo.[273]
  •  North Macedonia
    • President Stevo Pendarovski condemned the Russian invasion as "an attack on the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Ukraine, blatant violation of the basic principles of international law, attack on the democratic order and a threat to the stability of Europe."[274]
    • Prime Minister Dimitar Kovačevski announced his government's readiness to receive refugees from Ukraine if the situation there deteriorates further.[275]
  •  Northern Cyprus[d] – The Ministry of Foreign Affairs strongly recommends all Turkish Cypriots within Ukraine to take all possible safety measures as well as services for those looking to leave Ukraine.[276]
  •  Norway – Prime Minister Jonas Gahr Støre assured that Norway "condemns Russia's military attack on Ukraine in the strongest possible terms".[277]
  • Ukrainian flag on the Polish Embassy in Sarajevo
     Poland – Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki wrote on Twitter that "We must immediately respond to Russia's criminal aggression on Ukraine Europe and the free world has to stop Putin",[278] and its government announced that the country was "ready to accept migrants and has prepared hospitals and a train to transport Ukrainians wounded in the assault".[279] The National Broadcasting Council banned the Russian state-controlled television network RT on 24 February.[280]
  •  Portugal – Prime Minister António Costa "vehemently condemns the military action triggered by Russia today on Ukrainian soil" at a press statement following a meeting with the minister of state and foreign affairs, the minister of defence, and the chief of the general staff.[281]
  •  Romania – President Klaus Iohannis condemned Russia's military aggression against Ukraine via Twitter. He more precisely stated that "Romania, together with the entire international democratic community, strongly rejects this irresponsible behavior that undermines the foundations of international relations and the current order of international law", that "the Russian Federation has once again shown that it is not is interested in the constructive and responsible dialogue offered by the European and Euro-Atlantic community" and that Romanian citizens should leave Ukraine as soon as possible.[282]
  •  San Marino – The San Marino Secretary for Foreign Affairs issued a statement saying that "the military escalation in Ukraine is a great wound for all the people and nations who strongly believe in the values of peace and strongly condemn war" and "the San Marino institutions and government are in deep shock at this time".[283]
  •  Serbia
    • While condemning the invasion of Ukraine, Serbia refuses to back sanctions against Russia.[284] Serbia respects Ukraine's territorial integrity and considers Russia's military action against it to be "wrong", but will not impose sanctions against Moscow, Serbian President Aleksandar Vučić said on 25 February. Vučić said the National Security Council concluded the Republic of Serbia considers "very wrong the violation of territorial integrity of a number of countries including Ukraine."[285][286] Vučić also said that he will condemn Russia's recognition of the independence of separatist regions in eastern Ukraine only if Zelenskyy condemns the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999 on public television.[287]
    • Serbian Foreign Minister Nikola Selaković said that "Russia was Serbia's biggest support in its battle to preserve its territorial integrity and sovereignty and avoid the stigmatisation of the entire Serb people." Serbian Interior Minister Aleksandar Vulin stressed that Serbia would not join NATO: "While Aleksandar Vučić is the head of the state, you should have no dilemma as to what our attitude toward the NATO alliance is."[288] While there was no agreement on sanctions on Russia, Serbia nevertheless expressed regrets over the events, describing both Russia and Ukraine as friendly states and underlining full support for the territorial integrity of Ukraine.[289][290]
    • After the military assault started, some Serbian pro-government newspapers have hailed Russia's invasion of Ukraine, praising that Russia "overran" Ukraine, Moscow's troops "reached Kyiv in a day" and that the Russian attack on Ukraine was a "response to NATO threats".[291] Serbian Parliament Speaker Ivica Dačić said that Serbia will never impose sanctions on its friend Russia, despite the pressure that it faces. Dačić also added that "Russia is our most influential ally for preserving our territorial integrity and sovereignty in Kosovo."[288] The initial weak response by the government was criticised by some commentators in the country and the region.[292][293]
    • The Serbian organization Women in Black organised anti-war demonstrations in Belgrade, and the Serbian Orthodox Church organised the collecting of humanitarian aid.[294][295]
    • On 2 March Serbia voted 'yes' to the UN's resolution condemning the Russian attack on Ukraine.[296]
  •  Slovakia – Prime Minister Eduard Heger stated that "The Russian imperialism has been restored in front of our eyes in its aggressive, militant form" and about Russian president Vladimir Putin added "All victims of this war will be his victims and he will be responsible for them in the eyes of the global public."[297] On 24 February 2022, Bratislava Castle and the seat of President of Slovakia Grassalkovich Palace in Bratislava was light up in blue and yellow in solidarity with Ukraine.[298] Slovakia has also provided Ukraine with an S-300 air defense system.[299]
  •  Slovenia – Prime Minister Janez Janša condemned Russia's "unprecedented military aggression against Ukraine" and demanded that Russia must immediately withdraw its military and fully respect Ukraine's territorial integrity, reaffirming Slovenia's support of Ukraine.[300] Janša is due to visit Ukraine on 25 February 2022 for talks with his Ukrainian counterparts.[301][302][needs update] The national flag of Ukraine was also hung from the Slovenian Parliament in Ljubljana as a symbol of solidarity and brotherhood between the two countries.[303]
  •  South Ossetia[e]
    • The Ministry of Foreign Affairs issued a statement in support of the Invasion of Ukraine. "The Republic of South Ossetia expresses its support for the decision of the Russian Federation to conduct the special military operation to protect the residents of Donbass from current nationalist regime of Kiev."[304]
    • On 26 March 2022, South Ossetian President Anatoly Bibilov began sending troops to Ukraine to assist Russia with the invasion.[305][306]
  •  Sovereign Military Order of Malta– In a press release, the Sovereign Military Order of Malta announced that they were supplying Ukraine refugees with "emergency relief, food and psychosocial support."[307][308]
  •  Spain
    • Prime Minister Pedro Sánchez condemned the "intolerable military actions of the Russian government in Ukrainian soil" via Twitter after holding a meeting of the Spanish National Security Council presided by King Felipe VI.[309]
    • Minister of Foreign Affairs José Manuel Albares called the Russian attack "unjustifiable" and a "blatant violation of international law", while announcing that Spain was coordinating with EU partners and NATO allies.[310] Minister of Defence Margarita Robles asked for "really severe" sanctions against Russia after calling Russian actions "of an extraordinary gravity" but stated that there would be no NATO troops on Ukrainian soil as the country "is not a NATO member".[311]
    • On 27 February, Spanish Defence Minister Margarita Robles announced the shipment of 20 tons of defense military equipment to Ukraine[312] and advanced the request to send the frigate Blas de Lezo in conjunction with a NATO mission.[313]
  •  Sweden – Prime Minister Magdalena Andersson stated that "Sweden condemns in the strongest terms Russia's ongoing invasion of Ukraine. Russia's acts are also an attack on the European security order. It will be met by a united and robust response in solidarity with Ukraine. Russia alone is responsible for human suffering.".[314]
  •   Switzerland – The Swiss foreign ministry issued a statement considering Russia's actions to be an "invasion" and a "gross violation of international law", while Swiss President Ignazio Cassis announced that the country would support EU sanctions in the areas of travel and finance but would still not impose sanctions of its own.[315] However, the Swiss Federal Council would reverse course on 28 February, announcing that Switzerland is imposing identical sanctions on Russian assets as the European Union. Exempt from these sanctions are payments for energy raw materials. According to Cassis, the decision was unprecedented but consistent with Swiss neutrality.[316]
  •  Transnistria[f] – On 26 February, Vadim Krasnoselski, the president of the breakaway state of Transnistria internationally recognized as part of Moldova, in response to what he called rumors and false information according to which Transnistria would attack Ukraine, said that Transnistria is a peaceful state, that it never had plans to attack its neighbors and that those who spread these claims were people without control over the situation or provocateurs with malicious intentions. Krasnoselski also made reference to the large ethnically Ukrainian population in Transnistria and how Ukrainian is taught in Transnistrian schools and is one of the official languages of the republic.[317]
  •  Turkey – Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan and Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs have stated that Russian actions are "unacceptable" and strongly condemned Russia over its "grave violation of international law", while reiterating "support for Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity".[318] Furthermore, a commercial Turkish-owned vessel was hit by a Russian bomb off the coast of Odessa, for which Turkish authorities stated there were no casualties and the ship safely arrived in the territorial waters of Romania, a NATO ally.[319] On 27 February, Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu referred to the invasion as a "war," rhetorically bringing the conflict under the 1936 Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits and permitting Turkey to prohibit Russian warships in the Bosporus and Dardanelles.[320] On 28 February, Erdoğan publicly confirmed that the straits would be closed to prevent an escalation of the war, while also pledging to maintain relations with both Ukraine and Russia.[321]
  • The U.K. House of Lords debated the situation of Ukraine on 25 February 2022.
    Scottish Government debate on Ukraine, 24 February 2022
    Ukrainian flag outside the Senedd building in Wales
     United Kingdom
    • The Queen made a "generous" donation to the Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC) Ukraine Humanitarian Appeal.[322]
    • Prime Minister Boris Johnson stated that he was "appalled by the horrific events in Ukraine" and decried that "President Putin has chosen a path of bloodshed and destruction by launching this unprovoked attack".[323]
    • During a visit to Southend-on-Sea, the Prince of Wales condemned the Russian invasion, stating: "What we saw in the terrible tragedy in Southend was an attack on democracy, on an open society, on freedom itself. We are seeing those same values under attack today in Ukraine in the most unconscionable way. In the stand we take here, we are in solidary with all those who are resisting brutal aggression."[324] His wife, the Duchess of Cornwall, made a "substantial" donation to the Daily Mail's refugee campaign.[322]
    • The royal household of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge issued a statement via Twitter in which the couple said: "In October 2020 we had the privilege to meet President Zelenskyy and the First Lady to learn of their hope and optimism for Ukraine's future. Today we stand with the President and all of Ukraine's people as they bravely fight for that future."[325] The couple also made a private donation and were thanked by President Zelenskyy for their message of support.[322]
    • Secretary of State for Defence Ben Wallace described Russia's actions as "naked aggression against a democratic country".[326]
    •  Gibraltar – "Today's actions by Russia, launching a full-scale invasion of a sovereign, democratic nation without any provocation or reasonable excuse, is nothing short of appalling. None of us expected to witness such unforgivable aggression in Europe in our lifetimes. Gibraltar therefore joins with the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, leaders of other nations and people around the World in condemning this action in the most strident terms", said Chief Minister Fabian Picardo.[327] Picardo called for a ban of the Russian state-controlled television network RT on 25 February; television providers in Gibraltar agreed to suspend broadcasts of RT.[328]
    •  Guernsey – "Guernsey follows the UK's sanctions regime and UK foreign policy, and will continue to do so. Some of the announced measures will apply automatically and this has already been communicated to industry. Some of the other sanctions announced yesterday may require new legislation in the UK and, if so, the States will move in step with the UK to ensure that all new sanctions will apply and be enforced uniformly."[329]
    •  Isle of Man – The Isle of Man government is in close contact with the UK government and will remain so regarding the unfolding situation in Ukraine. "We will take action in line with the UK government."[330] It has since closed its airspace and ports to Russian airplanes and ships, and has extended the UK's sanctions to automatically apply on the Isle of Man. The chief minister Alfred Cannan has condemned the actions of the Russian President.[331]
    •  Jersey – The Deputy (Acting) Chief Minister, Senator Lyndon Farnham, issued the following statement: "We are fully alongside the United Kingdom in its condemnation of this aggressive action, and we will act promptly in line with the UK's response. The UK is ultimately responsible for our foreign relations as a matter of international law, and we implement both U.K. and UN sanctions.[332]
  •   Vatican CityPope Francis has stated that the events in Ukraine have caused, "great pain in his heart". The Pope called for 2 March, Ash Wednesday, to be a day of prayer and fasting for peace. In an unprecedented departure from diplomatic protocol, the Pope went to the Russian embassy on 25 February, to relay his concern over Russia's invasion of Ukraine to Moscow's ambassador.[333]

North America[edit]

  •  Antigua and Barbuda – Minister of Foreign Affairs Paul Chet Greene condemned the Russian invasion and urged for diplomatic talks to take place.[334]
  •  Bahamas – Bahamas denounced the invasion and Foreign Minister Fred Mitchell stated "The invasion of Ukraine by the Russian Federation and led by its President Vladimir Putin is wrong, unlawful and should end and be reversed."[335]
  •  Barbados – Prime Minister Mia Mottley urged Russia to withdraw and described the invasion as a violation of Ukrainian territorial integrity.[336]
  •  Belize
    • The Government of Belize condemned the 'illegal Russian invasion' and uttered their solidarity for Ukraine.[337]
    • Prince William, the grandson of the Queen of Belize, quoted her 1994 speech to the Belizean National Assembly, and said that people in Belize stand in solidarity with those struggling in Ukraine.[338]
  •  Canada – Prime Minister Justin Trudeau condemned "in the strongest possible terms Russia's egregious attack on Ukraine" and stated that "these unprovoked actions are a clear further violation of Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity. They are also in violation of Russia's obligations under international law and the Charter of the United Nations."[339]
  •  Costa Rica – President Carlos Alvarado released a statement on Twitter, rejecting and condemning the "use of force and the violation of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine", mentioning that peace is the "only way".[340]
  •  Cuba – The Cuban government blamed the United States for the crisis in Ukraine and backed Russia's right to "self-defense", but said the conflict should be resolved diplomatically.[341]
  •  Dominica – Dominica condemned the invasion and called for an end to the 'aggression'.[342]
  •  Dominican Republic – Dominican President Luis Abinader released a statement urging Russia to withdraw from Ukraine and furthermore stated that Russia was violating the political, cultural and territorial identity of Ukrainians.[343]
  •  Grenada – Grenada condemned the invasion.[344]
  •  Guatemala – President Alejandro Giammattei released a statement on Twitter, condemning the Russian invasion.[345]
  •  Haiti – Haiti expressed their concerns on the situation in Ukraine and urged the two countries to find a diplomatic solution. Haiti cosponsored a UN Security Council resolution condemning Russia.[346][64]
  •  Honduras – Honduras condemned the Russian invasion.[347]
  •  Jamaica – Prime Minister Andrew Holness condemned Russia, stating "Jamaica is consistent in its support for the universal respect and adherence to the principles of international law, the respect for the territorial integrity and sovereignty of all nations. We, therefore, cannot support, and, in fact, we condemn the invasion of Ukraine".[348]
  •  Mexico – The Secretary of Foreign Affairs of Mexico Marcelo Ebrard, on behalf of President Andrés Manuel López Obrador, issued a statement on Twitter, rejecting and condemning the Russian invasion. He demanded a cessation of hostilities to achieve a peaceful resolution.[349] On 1 March, however, López Obrador announced that Mexico would not be participating in any economic sanctions against Russia and criticised the overseas censorship of Russian state media.[350]
  •  Nicaragua – President Ortega supports Putin's deployment of troops to Ukraine after recognizing separatist regions.[351]
  •  Panama – Panama lamented the invasion and stated their support for Ukrainian sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity.[352]
  •  Saint Lucia – Saint Lucia uttered their concerns about the invasion and supported the CARICOM statement condemning Russia.[353]
  •  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines – At the UN emergency session, ambassador Inga Rhonda King stated that the country "unequivocally insists that the Russian Federation cease its military operations and immediately withdraw his forces from Ukraine."[354]
  •  Trinidad and Tobago – Foreign Minister Amery Browne condemned the invasion.[355]
  • Joe Biden's statement on the 2022 Russian invasion
     United States
    • President Joe Biden released a statement condemning the Russian invasion as "unprovoked and unjustified" and accused Putin of starting a "premeditated war that will bring a catastrophic loss of life and human suffering".[356] Biden stated the US would not dispatch its own forces to protect Ukraine, however, Biden did authorize sanctions directly targeting Putin and Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov.[357][358]
    • In the 2022 State of the Union Address, Biden announced that all US airspace would be closed to all Russian aircraft.[359] Biden additionally condemned Russian oligarchs who had supported Putin, stating that "We are joining with our European allies to find and seize your yachts, your luxury apartments, your private jets. We are coming for your ill-begotten gains."[360]
    • Vice President Kamala Harris threatened to increase sanctions against Russia at the Munich Security Conference: "Let me be clear, I can say with absolute certainty: If Russia further invades Ukraine, the United States, together with our allies and partners, will impose significant and unprecedented economic costs."[361]
    • House speaker Nancy Pelosi vowed for the House to pass as much funding that is needed to support the Ukrainian government.[362]

South America[edit]

  •  Argentina – On 24 February, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Argentina, rejected the use of force and called on Russia to respect the charter of the United Nations and international law.[363] That same day, President Alberto Fernández lamented the invasion and asked "the Russian Federation to put an end to the military action, respect Ukraine's sovereignty and return to dialogue".[364] On 24 February, Argentina, along with Brazil and three other Latin American states abstained during a vote at the Organization of American States condemning the Russian invasion of Ukraine due to not considering the organization a "pertinent forum".[365] On 2 March, Argentina voted in favor of the United Nations General Assembly Resolution ES-11/1, condemning Russia's invasion of Ukraine and demanding a full withdrawal of Russian forces.[366] Before the UN, Foreign Minister Santiago Cafiero condemned "the invasion of Ukraine as illegitimate and military operations on Ukrainian soil," and said that the world "does not tolerate more deaths or wars".[367] Argentina has also supported Ukraine at the UN Human Rights Council.[368]
  •  Bolivia – At first, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs stated that, as "a pacifist state", the Bolivian government urged Russia and Ukraine to avoid the use of force and seek diplomatic de-escalation "within the framework of International Law and the Charter of the United Nations". However, it did not explicitly condemn the Russian invasion, instead citing a "lack of dialogue and understanding" as having caused further escalation in the conflict.[369] Two days later, on 28 February, before the UN General Assembly, Bolivia rejected the "invasion and unilateral actions" of Russia.[370] Nonetheless, Bolivia has consistently abstained from UN and OAS motions condemning Russia or demanding a cessation of hostilities and voted against expelling Russia from the United Nations Human Rights Council.[371][372][373]
  •  Brazil – President Jair Bolsonaro declined to condemn Russian President Vladimir Putin's invasion of Ukraine, while departing from his government's official stance at the United Nations to say Brazil would remain neutral.[374] Brazil supported a resolution condemning Russia's invasion of Ukraine at a United Nations Security Council meeting on 25 February.[375] Vice-president Hamilton Mourão suggested use of force against Russia in the context of military crisis.[376] However, on 27 February, President Jair Bolsonaro said that he will not condemn the invasion and that Brazil will remain neutral with regards to this conflict.[377]
  •  Chile – President Sebastián Piñera said that "Russia's act of aggression and violation of Ukraine's sovereignty" violated international law,[378] while President -elect Gabriel Boric "condemn[ed] the invasion of Ukraine, the violation of its sovereignty and the illegitimate use of force".[379]
  •  Colombia – President Iván Duque stated that Colombia "categorically rejects the attacks against Ukraine by Russia" and considers the invasion a violation of international law and the United Nations charter.[380]
  •  Ecuador – President Guillermo Lasso said that Ecuador would support the position of the United Nations and the Organization of American States in condemning the invasion. "The aggression is a violent intrusion and a violation of our principles for worldwide peace," he said. He added, however, that Ecuador has no plans to suspend diplomatic relations with Russia.[381]
  •  Guyana – Guyana condemned the invasion and urged Russia to respect Ukrainian sovereignty.[382][383]
  •  Paraguay – Paraguay condemned the invasion.[384]
  •  Peru – Foreign Affairs Minister César Landa [es] said in a statement: "Faced with the violation of [the] sovereignty, territory, and integrity of Ukraine, Peru rejects the use of force and states its opinion through the Foreign Affairs Ministry, invoking respect for international law."[385]
  •  Suriname – Suriname condemned the invasion.[386]
  •  Uruguay – President Luis Lacalle Pou condemned Russia's "actions contrary to international law", and declared that Uruguay "is a country that is always committed to peace", for which he encouraged the return of negotiations for a "civilised resolution" of the conflict.[387] In an official statement from the Ministry of Foreign Relations, the government stated that the principles of the Charter of the United Nations were "notoriously violated" after the Russian military attacks; and announced that four Uruguayan citizens were evacuated from Ukraine to Cyprus, and that it is monitoring the situation, attending to the situation of its "compatriots" in order to provide them with the proper assistance.[388][389]
  •  Venezuela – The country's government blamed NATO and the United States for the crisis in Ukraine, stating that they had violated the Minsk agreements. Nicolás Maduro said before the invasion was launched that Venezuela was with Putin, but also urged a diplomatic dialogue to avoid an increase in the conflict.[390][391]

Oceania[edit]

  •  Australia – Prime Minister Scott Morrison denounced the invasion of Ukraine and imposed export controls and travel bans on Russia, arguing there must be a price for the "unprovoked, unlawful, unwarranted, unjustified attacks and threats and intimidation that has been imposed by Russia on Ukraine" and reaffirmed Australia's "unwavering commitment to Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity". However, Morrison suggested that he did not expect an autocratic leader like Putin to be deterred by any Australian sanctions. In response to Russia's claim of peacekeeping, Australia replied "They're not peacekeepers. They're invaders".[392] On 25 February, Morrison condemned the easing of import restrictions on Russian wheat by China while other countries ratcheted up sanctions as "inexplicable" and "completely unacceptable", and that the measure provided a "lifeline to Russia [...] while they're invading another country".[393] Minister for Communications Paul Fletcher called for a suspension on broadcasts of two Russian state-controlled TV networks, RT and NTV Moscow, on 25 February; two Australian TV services suspended broadcasts of RT, one of which also suspended broadcasts of NTV Moscow.[394][395]
  •  Federated States of Micronesia – The Federated States of Micronesia severed diplomatic relations with Russia on 25 February 2022. "The FSM aligns itself with the international rules-based order and the rule of law. The FSM reaffirms its commitment to our first and foremost ally, the United States of America, as codified through our Compact of Free Association, as Amended. The FSM affirms its stalwart support of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the United Nations, who correctly condemn the Russian invasion of Ukraine. The FSM supports the removal of the Russian Federation in its capacity as president of the United Nations Security Council; Russia remaining there is a façade, as they need to be upholding the international rules-based order instead of undermining it."[396][397]
  •  Fiji – Acting Prime Minister Aiyaz Sayed-Khaiyum condemned Russia's actions in Ukraine, calling for an end to all hostilities and violation of international law and urging Russia to "return to the diplomatic table".[398]
  •  Kiribati – Kiribati cosponsored a UN Security Council resolution condemning Russia.[64]
  •  Marshall Islands – Marshall Islands cosponsored a UN Security Council resolution condemning Russia.[64]
  •  New Zealand – Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern condemned Russia's invasion of Ukraine and called for Russia to immediately withdraw from Ukraine in a bid to avoid a "catastrophic and pointless" loss of life. New Zealand has suspended high-level diplomatic engagements with Russia and introduced travel bans and export controls.[399][400] In early March 2022, the New Zealand Parliament passed legislation imposing sanctions on Russian elites, organisations and assets deemed complicit in the invasion.[401] In late March, the New Zealand Defence Force dispatched nine intelligence analysts to assist British and Belgian intelligence gathering work relating to the war in Ukraine.[402] In mid-April 2022, New Zealand dispatched a C-130 Hercules aircraft and 58 military personnel to assist with logistics and transportation.[403]
    •  Cook Islands – In a statement, the Cook Islands Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Immigration said: "The Cook Islands join with others in condemning Russia's unprovoked invasion of the Ukraine. We call on Russia to end the hostilities and violations of the international rule of law."[404]
  •  Palau – Palau participated in the Albanian-American led Joint Statement following a vote on a UN Security Council resolution on Russia's aggression toward Ukraine.[66]
  •  Papua New Guinea – Papua New Guinea cosponsored a UN Security Council resolution condemning Russia.[64]
  •  Samoa - During the UN General Assembly emergency special session on Ukraine, Samoa's permanent representative to the United Nations, Fatumanava-o-Upolu III Pa'olelei Luteru, condemned the Russian invasion describing it as "unprovoked" and stated that "Samoa is greatly concerned by the invasion of Ukraine by the Russian Federation. Such action is a clear violation of the territorial integrity and sovereignty of Ukraine and inconsistent with the principles laid out in Article 2 of the UN Charter". He also called for Russia and Ukraine to engage in peace negotiations.[405]

Expulsion of diplomats[edit]

More than a dozen countries expelled Russian diplomats following the invasion, citing espionage activities incompatible with diplomatic status,[406] and then also Russian killing of civilians in the Bucha massacre.[407][408] Additionally, the European Union declared 19 Russian diplomats personae non-gratae.[409]

Country Diplomats expelled Date announced Notes
 Austria 4[410] 7 April
 Belgium 21[411] 29 March
 Bulgaria 10[412] 18 March
 Croatia 24[413] 11 April 18 diplomats and six members of the administrative staff at the Russian Embassy: 24 employees in total.
 Czech Republic 1[414] 30 March
 Denmark 15[408] 5 April
 Estonia 3[415] + 14 18 March On 5 April 2022, Estonia closed two consulates and expelled additional 14 diplomats/staff.[416]
 Finland 2[417] 8 April In addition, one Russian embassy employee has been denied a visa extension.
 France 35[407] + 6 4 April On 11 April 2022, France expelled six more Russian diplomats.[418]
 Germany 40[419] 4 April
 Greece 12[420] 6 April
 Ireland 4[411] 29 March
 Italy 30[421] 5 April
 Japan 8[422] 8 April
 Latvia 3[415] + 13 18 March On 5 April 2022, Latvia closed two consulates and expelled additional 13 diplomats/staff.[423]
 Lithuania 4[415] + 1 18 March On 4 April 2022, Lithuania also expelled the Russian ambassador and closed one consulate.[424]
 Luxembourg 1[425] 6 April
 Montenegro 1[426] + 4 4 March On 7 April 2022, Montenegro expelled four more Russian diplomats.[427]
 Netherlands 17[411] 29 March
 North Macedonia 5[428] + 6 28 March On 15 April 2022, North Macedonia expelled six more Russian diplomats.[429]
 Norway 3[420] 6 April
 Poland 45[430] 23 March
 Portugal 10[408] 5 April
 Romania 10[431] 5 April
 Slovakia 3[432] + 35 14 March On 30 March 2022, Slovakia expelled 35 more Russian diplomats.[433]
 Slovenia 33[408] 5 April
 Spain 25 (about)[434] 5 April
 Sweden 3[408] 5 April
 United States 12[435] 28 February Expelled diplomats are from the UN delegation.

Sanctions[edit]

  Russia

Countries that have introduced sanctions on Russia in 2014:[needs update]
  Countries that have introduced sanctions
  European Union countries that have collectively introduced sanctions

Intergovernmental and international organizations[edit]

  •  United Nations – Secretary-General António Guterres stated that the Russian invasion was "the saddest moment in my tenure" and called on Putin to withdraw his troops "in the name of humanity".[436] On 25 February, the Security Council failed to adopt a draft resolution which would have "deplored, in the strongest terms, the Russian Federation's aggression" on Ukraine. Of the 15 member states on the Security Council, 11 were in support, whilst 3 abstained from voting. The draft resolution failed due to Russia's veto.[437][438] Due to the deadlock, the Security Council passed a resolution to convene the General Assembly for the eleventh emergency special session.[439] On 2 March, the General Assembly voted to deplore "in the strongest possible terms" Russia's aggression against Ukraine by a vote of 141 to 5, with 35 abstentions.[440] The resolution also called for the Russian Federation to "immediately cease its use of force against Ukraine" and "immediately, completely and unconditionally withdraw all of its military forces."[440] Only Russia, Belarus, Syria, North Korea and Eritrea voted against the resolution.[441] On 4 March, the UN Human Rights Council adopted a resolution by a vote of 32 to 2, with 13 abstentions, calling for the withdrawal of Russian troops and Russian-backed armed groups from Ukraine and humanitarian access to people in need. The resolution also establishes a commission to investigate alleged rights violations committed during Russia's military attack on Ukraine.[442] On 23 March, the UN Security Council failed to back a Russian humanitarian resolution calling for the protection of civilians and their safe passage. It was criticised by French and American representatives for not mentioning Russia's role in the ongoing crisis.[443] On 24 March, the UN General Assembly voted 140 to 5 in favor of a resolution approving aid access and civilian protection in Ukraine, and which again criticized Russia's invasion of Ukraine.[444] On 7 April, the UN General Assembly voted 93–24, with 58 abstentions, to suspend Russia from the UN Human Rights Council.[445]
  •  African UnionChairman of the African Union Commission Moussa Faki and Chair of the African Union and Senegalese president Macky Sall called on Russia and "any other regional or international actor to imperatively respect international law, territorial integrity and national sovereignty of Ukraine" and urged both parties to the conflict to establish an immediate ceasefire and start political negotiations without delay.[446]
  • Arctic Council – On 3 March, all member states of the Arctic Council besides Russia (Canada, the Kingdom of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and the United States) released a joint statement condemning the Russian invasion of Ukraine, describing it as a flagrant violation of the organization's "core principles of sovereignty and territorial integrity". They also noted "the grave impediments to international cooperation, including in the Arctic, that Russia's actions have caused". The seven members announced they will no longer attend meetings of the Council in Russia, which currently holds the organization's rotating chairmanship.[447]
  •  Association of Southeast Asian Nations – Foreign ministers of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) expressed grave concern over Russia-Ukraine tensions and urged maximum restraint and dialogue.[448]
  • Baltic Assembly – The Baltic Assembly published a statement in which it "firmly condemns the Russian invasion of Ukraine".[449]
  •  Caribbean Community – A statement issued on behalf of the Caribbean Community condemned the invasion of Ukraine and demanded an "immediate and complete withdrawal" of Russia's military from Ukraine.[450][451]
  •  Council of Europe – The Committee of Ministers passed a resolution that "condemned in the strongest terms the armed attack on Ukraine" and called for Russia to "immediately and unconditionally cease its military operations"[452] On 25 February, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe suspended Russia from its rights of representation in the Committee of Ministers and in the Parliamentary Assembly.[453][454] In the following days, the European Court of Human Rights granted interim measures indicating to Russia that it should refrain from military attacks against civilians and civilian objects and should ensure access to safe evacuation routes, healthcare, food and other essential supplies, rapid and unconstrained passage of humanitarian aid, and movement of humanitarian workers.[455] Russia accused NATO and EU members of having undermined the Council of Europe, and announced its intention to withdraw from the organisation.[456][457] On 15 March, Russia notified the council of its decision to withdraw and to denounce the European Convention on Human Rights by the end of 2022.[458][459] The following day, the Committee of Ministers decided to expel Russia from the Council of Europe with immediate effect.[460]
  •  European UnionPresident of the European Commission Ursula von der Leyen tweeted; "We will not let President Putin tear down Europe's security architecture" and Foreign Policy Chief Josep Borrell called on Putin to stop the "senseless aggression". President of the European Parliament, Roberta Metsola called for "immediate, quick, solid and swift action" and convened an extraordinary session of Parliament for 1 March.[461][462][463]
  • Economic Community of West African States – ECOWAS released a statement that condemned the invasion and called for both parties to stop the fighting. Instead, ECOWAS urged for both parties to use dialogue to solve differences for sake of the interest of peace in the region.[464]
  • International Criminal Court – Neither Ukraine or Russia are states parties to the Rome Statute, however the Ukrainian government has voluntarily accepted the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court since 2015 for any possible war crimes committed on Ukrainian territory since 20 February 2014.[465] The Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, Karim Ahmad Khan, issued a statement on 25 February reminding all parties involved that the Office of the Prosecutor (OTP) has jurisdiction to investigate any act of genocide, war crimes, or crimes against humanity and that "any person who commits such crimes, including by ordering, inciting, or contributing in another manner to the commission of these crimes, may be liable to prosecution before the Court."[466] Khan issued a follow-up statement on 28 February that the OTP had a reasonable basis to begin an investigation under article 15(3) of the Rome Statute pending approval from the Pre-Trial Chamber of the court.[467] The approval requirement was bypassed after 39 states parties[g] referred the situation in Ukraine to the OTP and the formal investigation commenced on 2 March.[468]
  • International Energy Agency – On February 25, the IEA's thirty-one member countries “expressed great concern over the destruction and loss of life” and said they would closely monitor impacts on energy markets.[469] In response to the threat the Russian invasion posed to global oil markets, on March 1 the IEA Governing Board authorized the release of 61.7 million barrels of oil from member countries’ strategic petroleum reserves. IEA Executive Director Fatih Birol said, “The situation in energy markets is very serious and demands our full attention. Global energy security is under threat, putting the world economy at risk during a fragile stage of recovery.”[470][471] On April 1, the Governing Board announced a second release of emergency oil stocks, making another 120 million barrels available for oil markets.[472]
  •  NATO – Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg condemned the attack and called it a "grave breach of international law". A separate statement announced the intention to deploy defensive forces and condemned Belarus for enabling the attack.[461] On 8 March, Stoltenberg warned that "if there is any attack against any NATO country, NATO territory, that will trigger Article 5" of the North Atlantic Treaty.[473] On 13 March, Joe Biden's national security adviser Jake Sullivan warned of a full-fledged NATO response if Russia hits any part of NATO territory.[474]
  •  Nordic Council – President Erkki Tuomioja condemned the invasion as "completely unjust" and stated that it was "contrary to both international law and the order of European security."[475]
  •  Organization of American States – The OAS issued a statement condemning the attack as an affront to mankind and an attack on civilised international relations.[476] On 21 April OAS voted to suspend of Russian permanent observer status in the organization. 25 nations voted in favour, 8 abstained and none voted against the motion.
  • Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development – The OECD Council formally terminated accession negotiations with Russia and ordered the closure of OECD offices in Moscow.[477]
  •  Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe – OSCE Chairman Zbigniew Rau and Secretary General Helga Schmid issued a joint statement on 24 February 2022 condemning the invasion.[478] All international members of the multi-national OSCE Special Monitoring Mission to Ukraine, which had been deployed in the country since 21 March 2014, were evacuated beginning 24 February.[479] A Ukrainian member of the OSCE mission, Maryna Fenina, was killed on 1 March during the shelling of Kharkiv.[480]
  • Pacific Islands Forum – In a statement, the Pacific Islands Forum condemned the invasion, saying "observed from afar the violation of Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity, as well as Russia's blatant disregard for international law."[481]

NATO[edit]

US F-35s arrive in Ämari Air Base in Estonia on 27 February.[482]

Following the 24 February 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, eight NATO member states – Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia – triggered security consultations under Article 4.[483] The Estonian government issued a statement by Prime Minister Kaja Kallas saying: "Russia's widespread aggression is a threat to the entire world and to all NATO countries, and NATO consultations on strengthening the security of the Allies must be initiated to implement additional measures for ensuring the defence of NATO Allies. The most effective response to Russia's aggression is unity."[484] On 24 February, Stoltenberg announced new plans that "will enable us to deploy capabilities and forces, including the NATO Response Force, to where they are needed".[485] Following the invasion, NATO announced plans to increase military deployments[486] in the Baltics, Poland, and Romania.[487][488]

After the 25 February UN Security Council meeting, Stoltenberg announced that parts of the NATO Response Force would be deployed, for the first time ever, to NATO members along the eastern border. He stated that forces would include elements of the Very High Readiness Joint Task Force (VJTF), led by France.[489] The US announced on 24 February that it would be deploying 7,000 troops to join the 5,000 already in Europe.[489] NATO forces included the USS Harry S. Truman's Carrier Strike Group 8, which entered the Mediterranean Sea the previous week as part of a planned exercise. The carrier strike group was placed under NATO command, the first time this had occurred since the Cold War.[490]

As Russia began to build forces on Ukraine's border in the leadup to their invasion, Finland and Sweden, both neutral states, increased their cooperation with NATO.[491] Both countries attended the emergency NATO summit as members of NATO's Partnership for Peace, and both condemned the invasion and have provided assistance to Ukraine. On 25 February, the Russian Foreign Ministry spokesperson Maria Zakharova threatened Finland and Sweden with "military and political consequences" if they attempted to join NATO.[492] Both Finnish and Swedish public opinion shifted in favour of joining NATO after the invasion.[493] A public petition asking the Parliament of Finland to hold a referendum to join NATO reached the required 50,000 signatures, prompting a parliamentary discussion on 1 March.[494]

Western leaders met in Brussels for a round of emergency summits of NATO, the European Council and the G7 to discuss the war in Ukraine, 23 March 2022

On 8 March, NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg warned that "any attack against any NATO country [or] NATO territory ... will trigger Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty.[495] On 11 March, Biden proclaimed that while the United States would, as part of NATO, "defend every single inch of NATO territory with [its] full might", NATO would not "fight a war against Russia in Ukraine", as such "direct conflict between NATO and Russia is World War III, something we must strive to prevent".[496]

On 13 March, Jake Sullivan, the United States National Security Advisor to President Biden, warned of a full-fledged NATO response if Russia were to hit any part of NATO territory.[497] Sullivan added on 22 March, during Biden's trip to Europe to discuss updating NATO's posture towards Russia, that Biden would emphasize three key issues: new sanctions against Russia and tightening existing sanctions, longer-term adjustments to NATO force posture and contingencies in the case of nuclear weapons use, and 'joint action' on enhancing energy security in Europe, which is highly reliant on Russian gas.[498] Zelenskyy repeatedly urged NATO to impose a no-fly zone over Ukraine, which was rejected by the organization as it would involve shooting down Russian aircraft, an act that would significantly escalate the war to involve NATO.[499][500]

On 16 March, a meeting of NATO defense ministers agreed to continue supplying Ukraine with military, financial and humanitarian aid, though Stoltenberg ruled out the deployment of forces in Ukraine or a no-fly-zone, saying NATO has "a responsibility" to not escalate the war beyond Ukraine.[501]

Upon his arrival for the 2022 Brussels extraordinary summit on 24 March, Biden increased the amount of new aid offered to Ukraine by one billion dollars and announced added guarantees for NATO obligations to protect all NATO-allied nations which border Ukraine.[502] On 28 March, Biden, at the end of his NATO trip to Europe, reaffirmed his condemnation of Putin, stating that he would "'make no apologies'" for previously stating that "'Putin cannot remain in power'".[503] On 29 March, Kallas sided with Biden's condemnation and called for the further isolation of Putin from international politics.[504] As part of the NATO Enhanced Forward Presence, NATO countries agreed to establish four multinational battalion-sized battlegroups in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia, on top of four existing battlegroups in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland.[505]

On 6 and 7 April, foreign ministers from NATO member states as well as Ukraine, the European Union, Finland, Sweden, Japan, New Zealand and Australia convened to discuss further sanctions on Russia and additional arms deliveries to Ukraine.[506]

European Union[edit]

International reaction to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
  Countries that have condemned the invasion
  Countries that have maintained a neutral stance
  Countries that have blamed the invasion on Ukraine or NATO provocation
  Unknown

  Russia
  Ukraine

On 27 February 2022, European Commission president Ursula von der Leyen announced that the European Union would ban Russian state-owned media outlets RT and Sputnik in response to disinformation and their coverage of the conflict in Ukraine.[507] She also said that the EU would finance the purchase and delivery of military equipment to Ukraine and proposed a ban on Russian aircraft using EU airspace.[508] The following day, the Council of the European Union adopted two assistance measures to strengthen Ukraine's military capabilities.[509][510] The measures, for a total value of €500 million, financed the provision of military equipment to the Ukrainian armed forces including – for the first time in EU history – weapons and other lethal equipment.[511]

On 28 February, the EU imposed a ban on transactions with the Russian Central Bank and a ban on the overflight of EU airspace and on access to EU airports by Russian carriers.[512] On 2 March, a SWIFT ban for certain Russian banks was adopted, ensuring that they were disconnected from the international financial system, and the broadcasting activities in the EU of the outlets Sputnik and RT were suspended.[513] On 10 March, additional measures targeting the Belarusian financial sector were agreed upon,[514] and the EU imposed restrictive measures, including an asset freeze and a travel ban on 160 prominent businesspeople ("oligarchs") and members of the Russian Federation Council.[515] At the onset of the war, similar measures had already been applied on members of Russia's Security Council and Duma, and on other individuals.[516]

On 15 March, the EU decided to impose a fourth package of economic and individual sanctions, including trade restrictions for iron, steel, and luxury goods.[517] The European Commission claimed that restricting steel imports could lead to a loss of €3.3 billion in revenue for Russia,[518] and von der Leyen explained that the EU was working to suspend Russia's membership rights in multilateral institutions such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank.[519] On 23 March, the Council decided to double the funding supporting the Ukrainian armed forces, bringing the total amount from €500 million to €1 billion.[520] On 1 April, President of the European Parliament Roberta Metsola visited Kyiv to "show the EU's support for Ukraine" and to meet with Ukrainian officials.[521]

On 8 April, the EU passed a fifth round of sanctions, which included an embargo on Russian coal, restrictions on Russian-flagged ships to EU ports, restrictions on Russian and Belarusian road transport in the EU, a ban on four Russian banks, export bans of high-tech goods and expanded sanctions on family members of individuals already sanctioned.[522] The same day, a delegation including European Commission president Ursula von der Leyen, EU foreign policy chief Josep Borrell and prime minister of Slovakia Eduard Heger visited Ukraine.[523] Von der Leyen presented Ukrainian president Volodymyr Zelenskyy with a questionnaire to join the EU; she also visited the city of Bucha to observe the aftermath of the Bucha massacre.[523] Borrell announced that the EU delegation to Ukraine, headed by Matti Maasikas, will return to Kyiv after it was evacuated at the outbreak of war.[524]

Political parties, opposition politicians and other political groups[edit]

International human rights organizations[edit]

Non-governmental organizations, non-political groups and individuals[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Abkhazia's status is disputed. It is internationally recognized in whole as part the country of Georgia. Abkhaiza is recognized as independent by five UN member states as well as four partially or wholly unrecognized states.
  2. ^ Indonesian: "Setop perang. Perang itu menyengsarakan umat manusia, dan membahayakan dunia."
  3. ^ The political status of Kosovo is disputed. Having unilaterally declared independence from Serbia in 2008, it is formally recognised as an independent state by 97 UN member states (with another 15 recognising it at some point but then withdrawing recognition), while Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.
  4. ^ Northern Cyprus is a disputed state recognized by only one UN member, Turkey. It is internationally considered to be part of the Republic of Cyprus.
  5. ^ South Ossetia's status is disputed. It is internationally recognized in whole as part the country of Georgia. South Ossetia is recognized as independent by five UN member states as well as four partially or wholly unrecognized states.
  6. ^ Transnistria's status is disputed. It considers itself to be an independent state, but this is not recognised by any country. The Moldovan government and the international community consider Transnistria a part of Moldova's territory.
  7. ^ 38 states parties (Albania, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, New Zealand, Norway, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom) jointly referred the matter to the OTP on 2 March; Lithuania submitted an earlier, separate referral on 28 February.

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