List of tallest buildings
This list of tallest buildings includes skyscrapers with continuously occupiable floors and a height of at least 350 m. Non-building structures, such as towers, are not included in this list (see list of tallest buildings and structures).
Historically, the world's tallest man-made structure was the Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt, which held the position for over 3,800 years until the construction of Lincoln Cathedral in 1311. The Strasbourg Cathedral in France, completed in 1439, was the world's tallest building until 1874.
The first skyscraper was pioneered in Chicago with the 138 ft (42.1 m) Home Insurance Building in 1885. The United States would hold the position of the world's tallest building throughout the 20th century until 1998, when the Petronas Towers were completed. Since then, two other buildings have gained the title: Taipei 101 in 2004 and Burj Khalifa in 2010. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the Middle East, China, and Southeast Asia have experienced booms in skyscraper construction.
Ranking criteria and alternatives
The international non-profit organization Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) was formed in 1969 and announces the title of "The World's Tallest Building" and sets the standards by which buildings are measured. It maintains a list of the 100 tallest completed buildings in the world. The organization currently ranks Burj Khalifa in Dubai as the tallest at 828 m (2,717 ft). However, the CTBUH only recognizes buildings that are complete, and some buildings included within the lists in this article are not considered finished by the CTBUH.
- height to structural or architectural top;
- height to floor of highest occupied floor;
- height to top of roof (removed as category in November 2009); and
- height to top of any part of the building.
Spires are considered integral parts of the architectural design of buildings, changes to which would substantially change the appearance and design of the building, whereas antennas may be added or removed without such consequences. The Petronas Towers, with their spires, are thus ranked higher than the Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower) with its antennas, despite the Petronas Towers' lower roofs and lower highest point.
Until 1996, the world's tallest building was defined by the height to the top of the tallest architectural element, including spires but not antennae. In 1930, this definitional argument led to a rivalry between the Bank of Manhattan Building and the Chrysler Building. The Bank of Manhattan Building (i.e. 40 Wall Street) employed only a short spire and was 282.5 m (927 ft) tall and had a much higher top occupied floor (the second category in the 1996 criteria for tallest building). In contrast, the Chrysler Building employed a very large 38.1 m (125 ft) spire secretly assembled inside the building to claim the title of world's tallest building with a total height of 318.9 m (1,046 ft), although it had a lower top occupied floor and a shorter height when both buildings' spires were excluded.
Upset by Chrysler's victory, Shreve & Lamb, the consulting architects of the Bank of Manhattan Building, wrote a newspaper article claiming that their building was actually the tallest, since it contained the world's highest usable floor, at 255 m (837 ft). They pointed out that the observation deck in the Bank of Manhattan Building was nearly 30 m (98 ft) above the top floor in the Chrysler Building, whose surpassing spire was strictly ornamental and inaccessible.
Tallest buildings in the world
As of 2020[update], this list includes all 74 buildings (completed and architecturally topped out) which reach a height of 350 metres (1,150 ft) or more, as assessed by their highest architectural feature. Of these, 37 are in China. Six of the last seven buildings to have held the record as 'tallest building' are still found in the list, with the exception being the North Tower of the original World Trade Center at 417 metres (1,368 ft) after its destruction in the September 11 attacks of 2001. If the Twin Towers were never destroyed, and One World Trade Center was never built, the WTC towers would rank 34 and 35 on the list today.
|bold||Denotes building that is or was once the tallest in the world|
|1||Burj Khalifa||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||828||2,717||163 (+ 1 below ground)||2010|
|2||Merdeka 118||Kuala Lumpur||Malaysia||644||2,113||118 (+5 below ground)||2021||Tallest building in the Southeast Asia region.|
|3||Shanghai Tower||Shanghai||China||632||2,073||128 (+ 5 below ground)||2015||The tallest twisted building.|
|4||Abraj Al-Bait Clock Tower||Mecca||Saudi Arabia||601||1,972||120 (+ 3 below ground)||2012||Tallest building with a clock face.|
|5||Ping An International Finance Centre||Shenzhen||China||599.1||1,966||115 (+ 5 below ground)||2017||Shares the record of the highest observation deck with Shanghai Tower (#2) at 562 m.|
|6||Lotte World Tower||Seoul||South Korea||554.5||1,819||123 (+ 6 below ground)||2017||Tallest building in the OECD|
|7||One World Trade Center||New York City||United States||541.3||1,776||94 (+ 5 below ground)||2014||Tallest building in the Western Hemisphere.|
|8||Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre||Guangzhou||China||530||1,739||111 (+ 5 below ground)||2016|
|Tianjin CTF Finance Centre||Tianjin||97 (+ 4 below ground)||2019|
|10||China Zun||Beijing||527.7||1,731||109 (+ 8 below ground)||2018|
|11||Taipei 101||Taipei||Taiwan||508||1,667||101 (+ 5 below ground)||2004||The world's tallest building from 2004 to 2010.|
|12||Shanghai World Financial Center||Shanghai||China||492||1,614||101 (+ 3 below ground)||2008||Was the tallest building in China until the completion of the adjacent Shanghai Tower.|
|13||International Commerce Centre||Hong Kong||484||1,588||108 (+ 4 below ground)||2010|
|14||Wuhan Greenland Center||Wuhan||475.6||1,560||97||2022|
|15||Central Park Tower||New York City||United States||472.4||1,550||98 (+ 4 below ground)||2020||Tallest residential building in the world. Topped out in September 2019.|
|16||Lakhta Center||Saint Petersburg||Russia||462||1,516||87 (+ 3 below ground)||2019||Tallest building in Europe since 2018.|
|17||Landmark 81||Ho Chi Minh City||Vietnam||461.2||1,513||81 (+ 3 below ground)||2018|
|18||Changsha IFS Tower T1||Changsha||China||452.1||1,483||94 (+ 5 below ground)||2018|
|19||Petronas Tower 1||Kuala Lumpur||Malaysia||451.9||1,483||88 (+ 5 below ground)||1998||Tallest twin towers in the world; world's tallest buildings from 1998 to 2004; first tallest building since 1908 outside of the United States.|
|Petronas Tower 2|
|21||Zifeng Tower||Nanjing||China||450||1,476||66 (+ 5 below ground)||2010|
|Suzhou IFS||Suzhou||95 (+ 5 below ground)||2019|
|23||The Exchange 106||Kuala Lumpur||Malaysia||445.5||1,462||95 (+ 6 below ground)||2019|
|24||Wuhan Center||Wuhan||China||443.1||1,454||88 (+ 4 below ground)||2019|
|25||Willis Tower||Chicago||United States||442.1||1,450||108 (+ 3 below ground)||1974||Formerly known, and still commonly referred to, as the Sears Tower; world's tallest building from 1974 to 1998.|
|26||KK100||Shenzhen||China||441.8||1,449||98 (+ 4 below ground)||2011|
|27||Guangzhou International Finance Center||Guangzhou||438.6||1,439||103 (+ 4 below ground)||2010|
|28||111 West 57th Street||New York City||United States||435.3||1,428||84 (+ 2 below ground)||2021|
|29||One Vanderbilt||427||1,401||62 (+ 4 below ground)||2020|
|30||Dongguan International Trade Center 1||Dongguan||China||426.9||1,401||88||2021|
|31||432 Park Avenue||New York City||United States||425.7||1,397||85 (+ 3 below ground)||2015||Third-tallest residential building in the world.|
|32||Marina 101||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||425||1,394||101 (+ 6 below ground)||2017|
|33||Trump International Hotel and Tower||Chicago||United States||423.2||1,388||98 (+ 2 below ground)||2009|
|34||Jin Mao Tower||Shanghai||China||420.5||1,380||88 (+ 3 below ground)||1999|
|35||Princess Tower||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||413.4||1,356||101 (+ 6 below ground)||2012|
|36||Al Hamra Tower||Kuwait City||Kuwait||412.6||1,354||80 (+ 3 below ground)||2011|
|37||Two International Finance Centre||Hong Kong||China||412||1,352||88 (+ 6 below ground)||2003|
|38||Haeundae LCT The Sharp Landmark Tower||Busan||South Korea||411.6||1,350||101 (+ 5 below ground)||2019|
|39||Guangxi China Resources Tower||Nanning||China||402.7||1,321||86 (+ 3 below ground)||2020|
|40||Guiyang International Financial Center T1||Guiyang||401||1,316||79||2020|
|41||China Resources Headquarters||Shenzhen||392.5||1,288||68 (+ 5 below ground)||2018|
|42||23 Marina||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||392.4||1,287||88 (+ 4 below ground)||2012|
|44||Shum Yip Upperhills Tower 1||Shenzhen||388.1||1,273||80 (+ 3 below ground)||2020|
|45||30 Hudson Yards||New York City||United States||387.1||1,270||73||2019|
|46||Capital Market Authority Tower||Riyadh||Saudi Arabia||385||1,263||72||2021|
|48||Shun Hing Square||Shenzhen||China||384||1,260||69 (+ 3 below ground)||1996|
|49||Eton Place Dalian Tower 1||Dalian||383.2||1,257||80 (+ 4 below ground)||2016|
|50||Logan Century Center 1||Nanning||381.3||1,251||82 (+ 4 below ground)||2018|
|51||Burj Mohammed bin Rashid||Abu Dhabi||United Arab Emirates||381.2||1,251||88 (+ 5 below ground)||2014|
|52||Empire State Building||New York City||United States||381||1,250||102 (+ 1 below ground)||1931||World's tallest building from 1931 to 1972; tallest man-made structure in the world from 1931 to 1967; first building in the world to contain over 100 floors|
|53||Elite Residence||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||380.5||1,248||87 (+ 4 below ground)||2012|
|54||Riverview Plaza||Wuhan||China||376||1,234||73 (+ 3 below ground)||2021|
|56||Central Plaza||Hong Kong||373.9||1,227||78 (+ 3 below ground)||1992|
|57||Federation Tower (East Tower)||Moscow||Russia||373.7||1,226||93 (+ 4 below ground)||2016|
|58||Dalian International Trade Center||Dalian||China||370.2||1,215||86 (+ 7 below ground)||2019|
|59||Address Boulevard||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||370||1,214||73 (+ 3 below ground)||2017|
|60||Haitian Center Tower 2||Qingdao||China||368.9||1,210||73||2021|
|61||Golden Eagle Tiandi Tower A||Nanjing||368.1||1,208||77 (+ 4 below ground)||2019|
|62||Bank of China Tower||Hong Kong||367||1,205||72 (+ 4 below ground)||1990|
|63||Bank of America Tower||New York City||United States||365.8||1,200||55 (+ 3 below ground)||2009|
|64||St. Regis Chicago||Chicago||United States||362.9||1,191||92 (+ 5 below ground)||2020|
|65||Almas Tower||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||360||1,181||68 (+ 5 below ground)||2008|
|66||Hanking Center||Shenzhen||China||358.9||1,177||65 (+ 5 below ground)||2018|
|67||Greenland Group Suzhou Center||Suzhou||358||1,175||77 (+ 3 below ground)||2022|
|68||Gevora Hotel||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||356.3||1,169||75 (+ 2 below ground)||2017|
|69||JW Marriott Marquis Dubai Tower 1||355.4||1,166||82 (+ 2 below ground)||2012|
|JW Marriott Marquis Dubai Tower 2||2013|
|71||Emirates Office Tower||354.6||1,163||54||2000|
|72||Raffles City Chongqing T3N||Chongqing||China||354.5||1,163||79 (+ 3 below ground)||2019|
|Raffles City Chongqing T4N||74 (+ 3 below ground)|
|74||OKO Tower – South Tower||Moscow||Russia||354.2||1,162||90 (+ 2 below ground)||2015|
|75||The Marina Torch||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||352||1,155||86 (+ 4 below ground)||2011|
|76||Forum 66 Tower 1||Shenyang||China||350.6||1,150||68 (+ 4 below ground)||2015|
|77||The Pinnacle||Guangzhou||350.3||1,149||60 (+ 6 below ground)||2012|
|78||Xi'an Glory International Financial Center||Xi'an||350||1,148||75||2021|
Height to pinnacle (highest point)
This measurement disregards distinctions between architectural and non-architectural extensions, and simply measures to the highest point. This measurement is useful for air traffic obstacle determinations, and is also a wholly objective measure. However, this measurement includes extensions that are easily added, removed, and modified from a building and are independent of the overall structure.
This measurement only recently came into use, when the Petronas Towers passed the Sears Tower (now named Willis Tower) in height. The former was considered taller because its spires were considered architectural, while the latter's antennae were not. This led to the split of definitions, with the Sears Tower claiming the lead in this and the height-to-roof (now highest occupied floor) categories, and with the Petronas claiming the lead in the architectural height category.
If the World Trade Center towers were still standing, the North (1,368 feet (417 m)) and South Towers (1,362 feet (415.1 m)) would fall between numbers 35 and 36 on the current list (it can be assumed the rebuilt One World Trade Center would have never been built).
|†||Denotes building with pinnacle height higher than architectural|
|1||Burj Khalifa†||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||829.8 m||2,722 ft||163||2010|
|2||Shanghai Tower||Shanghai||China||632 m||2,073 ft||128||2015|
|3||Abraj Al-Bait Towers||Mecca||Saudi Arabia||601 m||1,971 ft||120||2012|
|4||Ping An Finance Center||Shenzhen||China||599 m||1,965 ft||115||2016|
|5||Lotte World Tower†||Seoul||South Korea||555.7 m||1,823 ft||123||2016|
|6||One World Trade Center†||New York City||United States||546.2 m||1,792 ft||104||2014|
|7||Tianjin CTF Finance Centre†||Tianjin||China||530.4 m||1,740 ft||98||2019|
|8||Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre||Guangzhou||China||530 m||1,739 ft||111||2016|
|9||China Zun||Beijing||China||528 m||1,732 ft||108||2018|
|10||Willis Tower†||Chicago||United States||527 m||1,729 ft||108||1974|
|11||Taipei 101||Taipei||Taiwan||508 m||1,667 ft||101||2004|
|12||Shanghai World Financial Center†||Shanghai||China||494.3 m||1,622 ft||101||2008|
|13||International Commerce Centre||Hong Kong||China||484 m||1,588 ft||118||2010|
|14||Wuhan Greenland Center||Wuhan||China||475.6 m||1,560 ft||97||2021|
|15||Central Park Tower||New York City||United States||472.4 m||1,550 ft||98||2020|
|16||Landmark 81†||Ho Chi Minh City||Vietnam||469.5 m||1,540 ft||81||2018|
|17||Lakhta Center||St. Petersburg||Russia||462 m||1,516 ft||86||2019|
|18||John Hancock Center†||Chicago||United States||457.2 m||1,500 ft||100||1969|
|19||Changsha IFS Tower T1||Changsha||China||452 m||1,483 ft||94||2018|
|20||Petronas Tower 1||Kuala Lumpur||Malaysia||451.9 m||1,483 ft||88||1998|
|20||Petronas Tower 2||Kuala Lumpur||Malaysia||451.9 m||1,483 ft||88||1998|
|22||Zifeng Tower||Nanjing||China||450 m||1,476 ft||89||2010|
|22||Suzhou IFS||Suzhou||China||450 m||1,476 ft||98||2019|
|24||The Exchange 106||Kuala Lumpur||Malaysia||445.1 m||1,460 ft||95||2019|
|25||Empire State Building†||New York City||United States||443.2 m||1,454 ft||102||1931|
|26||Kingkey 100||Shenzhen||China||441.8 m||1,449 ft||100||2011|
|27||Guangzhou International Finance Center||Guangzhou||China||438.6 m||1,445 ft||103||2009|
|28||Wuhan Center||Wuhan||China||438 m||1,437 ft||88||2019|
|29||111 West 57th Street||New York City||United States||435.3 m||1,428 ft||82||2020|
|30||Dongguan International Trade Center 1||Dongguan||China||426.9 m||1,401 ft||88||2020|
|31||One Vanderbilt||New York City||United States||427 m||1,401 ft||58||2020|
|32||432 Park Avenue||New York City||United States||425.5 m||1,396 ft||85||2015|
|33||Marina 101||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||425 m||1,394 ft||101||2017|
|34||Trump International Hotel and Tower||Chicago||United States||423.2 m||1,388 ft||96||2009|
|35||Jin Mao Tower||Shanghai||China||421 m||1,381 ft||88||1998|
|36||Princess Tower†||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||414 m||1,358 ft||101||2012|
|37||Al Hamra Tower||Kuwait City||Kuwait||412.6 m||1,354 ft||80||2010|
|38||Two International Finance Centre||Hong Kong||China||412 m||1,352 ft||88||2003|
|39||Haeundae LCT The Sharp Landmark Tower||Busan||South Korea||411.6 m||1,350 ft||101||2019|
|40||Guangxi China Resources Tower||Nanning||China||402.7 m||1,321 ft||85||2019|
|41||Guiyang Financial Center Tower 1Cite error: The opening
||Guiyang||China||401 m||1,316 ft||79||2021|
Height to occupied floor
This height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.
|1||Burj Khalifa||Dubai||United Arab Emirates||584.5 m (1,918 ft)||163||2010|
|2||Shanghai Tower||Shanghai||China||583.4 m (1,914 ft)||128||2015|
|3||Ping An Finance Center||Shenzhen||China||562.2 m (1,844 ft)||115||2016|
|4||China Zun||Beijing||China||515 m (1,690 ft)||108||2018|
|5||Lotte World Tower||Seoul||South Korea||497.6 m (1,633 ft)||123||2016|
|6||Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre||Guangzhou||China||495.5 m (1,626 ft)||111||2016|
|7||Abraj Al-Bait Towers||Mecca||Saudi Arabia||494.4 m (1,622 ft)||120||2012|
|8||Shanghai World Financial Center||Shanghai||China||474 m (1,555 ft)||101||2008|
|9||International Commerce Centre||Hong Kong||China||468.8 m (1,538 ft)||118||2010|
|10||Central Park Tower||New York City||United States||442 m (1,450 ft)||98||2020|
|11||Tianjin CTF Finance Centre||Tianjin||China||439.4 m (1,442 ft)||98||2018|
|12||Taipei 101||Taipei||Taiwan||438 m (1,437 ft)||101||2004|
|13||Changsha IFS Tower T1||Changsha||China||437.1 m (1,434 ft)||94||2017|
|14||KK100||Shenzhen||China||427.1 m (1,401 ft)||100||2011|
|15||Guangzhou International Finance Center||Guangzhou||China||415.1 m (1,362 ft)||103||2010|
|16||Willis Tower||Chicago||United States||412.7 m (1,354 ft)||108||1974|
|17||Suzhou IFS||Suzhou||China||406.4 m (1,333 ft)||98||2017|
|18||Haeundae LCT The Sharp Landmark Tower||Busan||South Korea||406 m (1,332 ft)||101||2019|
Buildings under construction
This is a list of buildings taller than 350 m that are currently under construction. On-hold buildings whose construction was interrupted after it had reached a significantly advanced state are also listed.
List by continent
The following list shows the tallest completed buildings located in each continent listed by greatest to least height (click on name of continent for continent-specific list):
|Asia||Burj Khalifa||828 m (2,717 ft)||163||2010||United Arab Emirates||Dubai|
|North America||One World Trade Center||541.3 m (1,776 ft)||94||2014||United States||New York City|
|Europe||Lakhta Center||462 m (1,516 ft)||86||2018||Russia||St. Petersburg|
|Australia||Q1||323 m (1,060 ft)||78||2005||Australia||Gold Coast|
|South America||Gran Torre Santiago||300 m (980 ft)||64||2012||Chile||Santiago|
|Africa||The Leonardo||227 m (745 ft)||55||2019||South Africa||Johannesburg|
|Antarctica||Long Duration Balloon (LDB) Payload Preparation Buildings||15 m (49 ft)||1||2005||Antarctica||McMurdo Station|
- History of the world's tallest buildings
- List of tallest buildings by height to roof
- List of tallest twin buildings and structures
- List of tallest buildings in India
- List of buildings with 100 floors or more
- List of architects of supertall buildings
- List of cities with the most skyscrapers
- List of future tallest buildings
- List of tallest buildings in Asia
- List of tallest buildings in Southeast Asia
- List of tallest buildings and structures in South Asia
- List of tallest buildings and structures
- List of largest buildings
- List of tallest freestanding structures
- List of tallest hotels
- List of tallest residential buildings
- List of tallest structures
- List of tallest structures by country
- List of skyscrapers by floor area
- Skyscraper Index
- Vanity height
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