List of longest tunnels in the world

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This list of longest tunnels in the world ranks tunnels that are at least 13 km (43,000 ft) long. Only continuous tunnels are included; pipelines (also buried) are excluded. The longest have been constructed for water distribution, followed by tunnels for railways. Both uses are highly sensitive to gradients.

World's longest tunnels (in use)[edit]

Name Location Length Type Year Comment
Delaware Aqueduct United States New York state, United States 137,000 m (85.1 mi) Water supply 1945 4.1 m wide. New York City's main water supply tunnel, drilled through solid rock.
Päijänne Water Tunnel Finland Southern Finland, Finland 120,000 m (74.6 mi) Water supply 1982 16 m2 cross section
Dahuofang Water Tunnel China Liaoning Province, China 85,320 m (53.0 mi) Water supply 2009 8 m in diameter[1] (50m2 cross section)
Orange–Fish River Tunnel South Africa South Africa 82,800 m (51.4 mi) Water supply 1972 Longest continuous enclosed aqueduct in the southern hemisphere (22.5 m2 cross section)
Bolmen Water Tunnel Sweden Kronoberg/Scania, Sweden 82,000 m (51.0 mi) Water supply 1987 8 m2
Tunel Emisor Oriente Mexico Mexico City, Mexico 62,500 m (38.8 mi) Waterwaste 2006-2012 Water management in Greater Mexico City. Longest waterwaste tunnel.
Guangzhou Metro Line 3 China Guangzhou, China 60,400 m (37.5 mi)Excl. branch Metro 2005-2010 Guangzhou Metro. Longest metro/rapid transit tunnel;
longest railway tunnel
Gotthard Base Tunnel Switzerland Central Swiss Alps, Switzerland 57,104 m (35.5 mi) and 57,017 m (35.4 mi) Railway Twin Tube 2016 The longest and deepest (2,300 m (7,500 ft)) railway tunnel excluding urban metro lines with intermediate stations. Considering its geodetic distance of 55.782 km (34.661 mi) between the two portals, it is even the world's longest transit tunnel.
Total 151.84 km (94.35 mi) of broken out tunnels through solid rocks, two main tubes (East 57,104 m (35.5 mi), West 57,017 m (35.4 mi)), 8.8–9.5 m (29–31 ft) diameter, (71m2 cross section)[2][3]
Beijing Subway Line 10 China Beijing, China 57,100 m (35.5 mi) Metro 2008-2012 Beijing Subway
Seikan Tunnel Japan Tsugaru Strait, Japan 53,850 m (33.5 mi) Railway Single Tube 1988 74 m2; Longest railway tunnel until Gotthard Base Tunnel was opened.
Želivka Water Tunnel[4] Czech Republic Central Bohemian Region, Czech Republic 51,075 m (31.7 mi) Water supply 1972 5 m2
Channel Tunnel United Kingdom France English Channel, United Kingdom/France 50,450 m (31.3 mi) Railway Twin Tube 1994 Longest underwater section, longest international tunnel (2×45 m2 + 1×18 m2). Second longest railway tunnel until Gotthard Base Tunnel was opened.
Lake Sevan Tunnel [5] Armenia Armenia
(at the time of construction Soviet Union Soviet Union)
48,314 m (30.0 mi) Water supply 1981 Arpa River and Lake Sevan.
Seoul Subway: Line 5 South Korea Seoul, South Korea 47,600 m (29.6 mi) Metro 1995
Pahang – Selangor Raw Water Transfer Project[6][7] Malaysia Pahang & Selangor, Malaysia 44,600 m (27.7 mi) Water supply 2014 5.2 meters in diameter
#1 Tunnel, Yellow River Diversion to Shanxi North Line China Shanxi, China 43,670 m (27.1 mi) Water supply 2011
#7 Tunnel, Yellow River Diversion to Shanxi South Line China Shanxi, China 43,500 m (27.0 mi) Water supply 2002
Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya Line
(AltufyevoBulvar Dmitriya Donskogo)
Russia Moscow Metro, Russia 41,500 m (25.8 mi) Metro 1983–2002
Metro Madrid: L-12 (Metro Sur) Spain Madrid, Spain 40,900 m (25.4 mi) Metro 1999–2003
Tocho-mae - Shiodome - Hikarigaoka (Toei Oedo Line)[8] Japan Tokyo, Japan 40,700 m (25.3 mi) Metro 1991–2000 Tokyo Metropolitan Bureau of Transportation
Shanghai Subway: Line 7 China Shanghai, China 40,200 m (25.0 mi) Metro 2009-2011
Kárahnjúkar Hydropower Plant Iceland Fljótsdalshreppur, Iceland 39,700 m (24.7 mi) Hydroelectric 2003–2007 7.2-7.6 meters in diameter (45m2 cross section). Part of a wider complex of tunnels that are 72 kilometers in length combined
Quabbin Aqueduct United States Massachusetts, United States 39,600 m (24.6 mi) Water supply 1897–1905
Chengdu Metro Line 2 China Chengdu, China 38,643 m (24.0 mi)Excl. branch Metro 2007-2013 Only include phase 1 and phase 2
Seoul Subway: Line 3 (Apgujeong-Ogeum) South Korea Seoul, South Korea 38,200 m (23.7 mi) Metro 1985-2010
Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line
(NovoyasenevskayaMedvedkovo)
Russia Moscow Metro, Russia 37,800 m (23.5 mi) Metro 1958–1990 Longest railway tunnel 1978–1984 and from November 1987 till March 1988; longest metro/rapid transit tunnel 1990–1995
Shenzhen Subway: Luobao Line China Shenzhen, China 37,497 m (23.3 mi) Metro 2009-2011
Shenzhen Subway: Shekou Line China Shenzhen, China 36,146 m (22.5 mi) Metro 2010-2011
Dawushan Tunnel, Niulan River Diversion to Dianchi China Yunnan, China 36,137 m (22.5 mi) Water supply 2013
Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore): Circle Line Singapore Singapore, Singapore 35,700 m (22.2 mi) Metro 2009-2012 Longest rapid transit line in South East Asia
Busan Metro: Line 2 (Dongwon-Jangsan) South Korea Busan, South Korea 35,500 m (22.1 mi) Metro 1999-2009
Seoul Subway: Line 6 South Korea Seoul, South Korea 35,100 m (21.8 mi) Metro 2001
Seoul Subway: Line 7 (Cheongdam-Bupyeong-gu Office) South Korea Seoul, Incheon, Bucheon and Gwangmyeong in South Korea 35,100 m (21.8 mi) Metro 2000-2012
Lötschberg Base Tunnel Switzerland Bernese Alps, Switzerland 34,577 m (21.5 mi) Railway Single Track 2007 Longest land railway tunnel until Gotthard Base Tunnel was opened; two single track tubes along 12 km, only single track along 22 km
Tyne-Tees Tunnel United Kingdom England, United Kingdom 34,000 m (21.1 mi) Water supply 1983 (and earlier) Northumbrian water supply tunnel.
Metro Madrid: L-7 Spain Madrid, Spain 32,919 m (20.5 mi) Metro 1974–2007
New Guanjiao Tunnel China Qinghai, China 32,645 m (20.3 mi) Railway Twin Tube 2014[9] Longest tunnel on the upgraded dual-track Xining–Golmud section of Qinghai–Tibet Railway, longest railway tunnel in China, 3323.58–3380.97 meters above sea level
Meijo Line - Meikō Line[10][11] Japan Nagoya Municipal Subway, Japan 32,400 m (20.1 mi) Metro 1965–2004
Guangzhou Subway: Line 2 China Guangzhou, China 32,000 m (19.9 mi) Metro 2010
Rathaus Spandau-Rudow (U7) Germany Berlin U-Bahn, Germany 31,800 m (19.8 mi) Metro 1924–1984
Seoul Metropolitan Subway: Bundang Line (Seoul Forest-Jukjeon) South Korea Seoul, Seongnam and Yongin in South Korea 31,400 m (19.5 mi) Metro 1994–2012
Daegu Metro: Line 2 South Korea Daegu and Gyeongsan in South Korea 31,400 m (19.5 mi) Metro 2005–2012
Beijing Subway: Line 1 China Beijing, China 31,040 m (19.3 mi) Metro 1971–1987
Beijing Subway: Line 4 China Beijing, China 30,950 m (19.2 mi) Metro 2009–2010
Côte-Vertu - Montmorency (Line 2 Orange) Canada Montreal Metro, Canada 30,798 m (19.1 mi) Metro 1966–2007
Shanghai Subway: Line 2 China Shanghai, China 30,187 m (18.8 mi) Metro 2000
Parnas - Kupchino (line 2) Russia Saint Petersburg Metro, Russia 30,100 m (18.7 mi) Metro 1961–2006
Guangzhou Subway: Line 5 China Guangzhou, China 29,900 m (18.6 mi) Metro 2009
Shanghai Subway: Line 8 China Shanghai, China 29,650 m (18.4 mi) Metro 2007–2009
Prospekt Veteranov - Devyatkino (line 1) Russia Saint Petersburg Metro, Russia 29,600 m (18.4 mi) Metro 1955–1978
Shanghai Subway: Line 10 China Shanghai, China 29,600 m (18.4 mi) Metro 2010
Evinos - Mornos Tunnel[12][13] Greece Aetolia-Acarnania, Greece 29,400 m (18.3 mi) Water Supply 1992–1995
Hultman Aqueduct[14] United States Eastern Massachusetts, United States 28,640 m (17.8 mi) Water Supply 1939 11.5 ft (3.5 m) to 14 ft (4.3 m) diameter (15m2 cross section); offline for rehabilitation
Taipei Metro: Blue Line Taiwan Taipei, Taiwan 28,200 m (17.5 mi) Metro 1999–2015
Guadarrama Tunnel[15] Spain Sierra de Guadarrama, Spain 28,377 m (17.6 mi) Railway Twin Tube 2007
MetroWest Water Supply Tunnel[16] United States Eastern Massachusetts, United States 28,300 m (17.6 mi) Water Supply 1996–2003 14 ft (4.3 m) diameter (15m2 cross section)
Lyublinsko-Dmitrovskaya Line
(ZyablikovoMaryina Roshcha)
Russia Moscow Metro, Russia 28,200 m (17.5 mi) Metro 1995–2011
Seoul Subway: Line 9 (Gimpo Airport-Sports Complex) South Korea Seoul, South Korea 28,100 m (17.5 mi) Metro 2009-2015
Taihang Tunnel[17] China Taihang Mountains, China 27,848 m (17.3 mi) Railway Single Tube 2007 On Shijiazhuang-Taiyuan high-speed railway
Morden - East Finchley (Northern line) United Kingdom London Underground, England, United Kingdom 27,800 m (17.3 mi) Metro 1890–1940 Longest railway tunnel in UK
Shenyang Subway: Line 1 China Shenyang, China 27,800 m (17.3 mi) Metro 2010
Seoul Metropolitan Subway: Incheon Line 1 (Bakchon-International Business District) South Korea Incheon, South Korea 27,000 m (16.8 mi) Metro 1999–2009
MRT Blue Line Thailand Bangkok, Thailand 27,000 m (16.8 mi) Metro 2004 Second phase will be open in 2017
Dainichi-Nagahara (Tanimachi Line)[18] Japan Osaka Municipal Subway, Japan 26,900 m (16.7 mi) Metro 1967–1983
LEP Tunnel[19] Switzerland France CERN, Switzerland/France 26,659 m (16.6 mi) Particle accelerator 1989 11.3–15.9 m2 circular ring, now used by Large Hadron Collider
İstanbul Metro (Line M4) Turkey İstanbul, Turkey 26,500 m (16.5 mi) Metro 2012
Hakkōda Tunnel (Tōhoku Shinkansen) Japan Hakkōda Mountains, Japan 26,455 m (16.4 mi) Railway Single Tube 2010 64–74 m2
Şanlıurfa Irrigation Tunnels Turkey Turkey 26,400 m (16.4 mi) Water supply 2005 [20]
Shanghai Subway: Line 9 China Shanghai, China 26,263 m (16.3 mi) Metro 2007–2010
Gilgel Gibe II Power Station headrace tunnel Ethiopia Ethiopia 26,000 m (16.2 mi) Hydroelectric 2005–2009 Tunnel partially collapsed, was repaired in 2010.[21][22]
#5 Tunnel, Yellow River Diversion to Shanxi South Line China Shanxi, China 26,000 m (16.2 mi) Water 2002
Daegu Metro: Line 1 South Korea Daegu, South Korea 25,900 m (16.1 mi) Metro 1997–2002
Iwate-Ichinohe Tunnel Japan Ōu Mountains, Japan 25,810 m (16.0 mi) Railway Single Tube 2002
Sudbury Aqueduct United States Eastern Massachusetts, United States 25,750 m (16.0 mi) Water Supply 1878 Emergency backup use
Suzhou Subway: Line 1 China Suzhou, China 25,739 m (16.0 mi) Metro 2007–2011
Lærdal Tunnel Norway Lærdal - Aurland, Norway 24,510 m (15.2 mi) Road 2000 The longest road tunnel in the world
Yellow Line (Delhi Metro): GTB Nagar - Qutub Minar[23] India Delhi, India 24,000 m (14.9 mi) Metro 2004–2010 Longest tunnel in India
Chengdu Metro Line 1 China Chengdu, China 23,900 m (14.9 mi)Excl. branch Metro 2005-2015 Only include phase 1 and phase 2
Metro Madrid: L-1 Spain Madrid, Spain 23,876 m (14.8 mi) Metro 1919–2007
Lainzer/Wienerwaldtunnel Austria west of Vienna, Austria 23,844 m (14.8 mi) Railway 2012 Breakthrough 2007-09-03
Harbour Area Treatment Scheme (HATS) Stage 1[24] Hong Kong Tseung Kwan O, New Kowloon, Hong Kong Island, Kowloon, Tsuen Wan, Tsing Yi and Stonecutters Island, Hong Kong 23,600 m (14.7 mi) Sewerage 2001
Eucumbene-Snowy Tunnel[25] Australia NSW, Australia 23,500 m (14.6 mi) Water supply 1965 Part of the 145 km tunnel network of the Snowy Mountains Scheme
Metro Madrid: L-6 Spain Madrid, Spain 23,472 m (14.6 mi) Metro 1979–2007
Angrignon - Honoré-Beaugrand (Line 1 Green) Canada Montreal Metro, Canada 23,262 m (14.5 mi) Metro 1966–2007
Warsaw Metro L-1: Kabaty - Młociny Poland Warsaw, Poland 23,100 m (14.4 mi) Metro 1983–2008
Beijing Subway: Line 2 China Beijing, China 23,100 m (14.4 mi) Metro 1969–1987
Xinma Hydroelectric Power Station Water Tunnel China Sichuan, China 22,975 m (14.3 mi) Hydroelectric 2009
Chengdu Metro Line 4 China Chengdu, China 22,400 m (13.9 mi)Excl. branch Metro 2012-2015 Only include phase 1
Iiyama Tunnel[26] Japan Iiyama, Japan 22,225 m (13.8 mi) Railway 2015
Daishimizu Tunnel Japan Mount Tanigawa, Japan 22,221 m (13.8 mi) Railway 1982 Longest railway tunnel until Seikan Tunnel was opened.
Eucumbene-Tumut Tunnel[25] Australia NSW, Australia 22,200 m (13.8 mi) Water supply 1959 Part of the 145 km tunnel network of the Snowy Mountains Scheme
Taipei Metro: Orange Line (Fu Jen University - Nanshijiao) Taiwan Taipei, Taiwan 25,100 m (15.6 mi) Metro 1998–2015
Vorotan-Arpa Tunnel[27] Armenia Armenia 21,652 m (13.5 mi) Water supply 2004
UNK proton accelerator Russia Protvino (near Moscow), Russia 21,000 m (13.0 mi) Particle accelerator (incomplete) 1994 (breakthrough) Construction stopped after finishing of main circle tunnel, future is unclear
Guangfo Metro China Foshan, China 20,900 m (13.0 mi) Metro 2010
Luliangshan Tunnel China Shanxi, China 20,785 m (12.9 mi) Railway Twin Tube 2011 2 tubes, left tube is 20785 meters, right tube is 20738 meters
Shanghai Subway: Line 4 China Shanghai, China 20,740 m (12.9 mi) Metro 2005–2007
Barcelona Metro: Line 1 Spain Barcelona, Spain 20,700 m (12.9 mi) Metro 1926–1992
Busan Metro: Line 1 (Hadan-Busan Nat'l Univ. of Education) South Korea Busan, South Korea 20,600 m (12.8 mi) Metro 1985–1994
Xian Subway: Line 2 China Xian, China 20,500 m (12.7 mi) Metro 2011
Daejeon Metro: Line 1 South Korea Daejeon, South Korea 20,470 m (12.7 mi) Metro 2006–2007
Nanjing Subway: Line 2 China Nanjing, China 20,380 m (12.7 mi) Metro 2010
Shanghai Subway: Line 6 China Shanghai, China 20,336 m (12.6 mi) Metro 2007
Ward Tunnel[citation needed] United States California, United States 20,610 m (12.8 mi) Hydroelectric 1920–1925 Part of the Big Creek Hydroelectric Project of the Southern California Edison Company. Excavated through solid granite.
Geumjeong Tunnel[28] South Korea Busan, South Korea 20,323 m (12.6 mi) Railway 2010 Gyeongbu High Speed Railway
Wushaoling Tunnel China Wuwei, China 20,060 m (12.5 mi) Railway Twin Tube 2006–2007 Twin Tube, left tube is 20060 meters, right tube is 20050 meters
The London Connection[29] United Kingdom London, England, United Kingdom 20,000 m (12.4 mi) Electric power transmission tunnel 2005[30] National Grid plc, 3-metre diameter, 400 kilovolt circuit
Taipei Metro: Orange Line (Luzhou - Nanshijiao) Taiwan Taipei, Taiwan 19,600 m (12.2 mi) Metro 1998–2010
Simplon Tunnel Switzerland Italy Lepontine Alps, Switzerland/Italy 19,803 m (12.3 mi) Railway Twin Tube 1906 A parallel tunnel was opened in 1922 (19,824 m long); Longest transit tunnel until Daishimizu Tunnel was opened.
Koltsevaya Line (Circle Line) Russia Moscow Metro, Russia 19,400 m (12.1 mi) Metro 1950–1954
Futang Hydroelectric Power Station Water Tunnel China Wenchuan, Sichuan, China 19,319 m (12.0 mi) Hydroelectric 2009
Seoul Metropolitan Subway: Bundang Line (Suwon Station-Jukjeon Station) South Korea Yongin and Suwon in South Korea 19,300 m (12.0 mi) Metro 2007–2013
Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore): North East Line Singapore Singapore, Singapore 19,200 m (11.9 mi) Metro 2003–2011 World's first fully automated and driverless underground rapid transit line
Suzhou Subway: Line 2 China Suzhou, China 19,146 m (11.9 mi) Metro 2009–2012
Maskoŭskaja Line Belarus Minsk Metro, Belarus 19,100 m (11.9 mi) Metro 1984-2014
Vereina Switzerland Silvretta, Switzerland 19,058 m (11.8 mi) Railway Single Track 1999 Single track with passing loops, metre gauge
Seoul Subway: Line 4 (Ssangmun-Ichon) South Korea Seoul, South Korea 19,000 m (11.8 mi) Metro 1980
Shin Kanmon Tunnel Japan Kanmon Straits, Japan 18,713 m (11.6 mi) Railway 1975
Shiziping Hydroelectric Power Station Water Tunnel China Sichuan, China 18,712 m (11.6 mi) Hydroelectric 2009
Harbour Area Treatment Scheme (HATS) Stage 2[31] Hong Kong Wah Fu, Kennedy Town, Victoria City, North Point and Stonecutters Island, Hong Kong 18,800 m (11.7 mi) Sewerage 2015
Vaglia Italy Bologna - Firenze, Italy 18,711 m (11.6 mi) Railway Single Tube 2009 Bologna–Florence high-speed railway
Baoxing Hydroelectric Power Station Water Tunnel China Sichuan, China 18,676 m (11.6 mi) Hydroelectric 2007
Apennine Base Tunnel Italy Tuscan-Emilian Apennines, Italy 18,507 m (11.5 mi) Railway Single Tube 1934
Kurenivsko-Chervonoarmiyska Line Ukraine Kiev Metro, Ukraine 18,480 m (11.5 mi) Metro 1976
Qinling Tunnel I-II China Qin Mountains, China 18,460 m (11.5 mi) Railway Twin Tube 2000 Twin tubes, left tube is 18460 meters, right tube is 18456 meters[32]
Tatev Hydroelectric Power Station Water Tunnel Armenia Armenia
(at the time of construction Soviet Union Soviet Union)
18,400 m (11.4 mi) Hydroelectric 1970
Yamate Tunnel Japan Tokyo, Japan 18,200 m (11.3 mi) Road Twin Tube 2015
Shanghai Subway: Line 17 China Shanghai, China 18,110 m (11.3 mi) Metro 1995
Avtozavodskaya Line Belarus Minsk Metro, Belarus 18,100 m (11.2 mi) Metro 1990-2005
Zhongnanshan China China 18,040 m (11.2 mi) Road Twin Tube 2007 The longest road tunnel in China
Line 2 (Athens Metro)[33] Greece Athens, Greece 17,900 m (11.1 mi) Metro 1991–2013
Line 3 (Athens Metro)[33] Greece Athens, Greece 17,800 m (11.1 mi) Metro 1991–2013 Line 3 is actually 41 km long, but only 17.8 km of it are underground.
Beijing Subway: Line 5 China Beijing, China 17,825 m (11.1 mi) Metro 2007
Jingpingshan China Sichuan China 17,500 m (10.9 mi) Road 2008 The deepest transportation tunnel in China
Shenzhen Subway: Longgang Line China Shenzhen, China 17,333 m (10.8 mi) Metro 2010–2011
Kholodnohirsko–Zavodska Line Ukraine Kharkiv Metro, Ukraine 17,300 m (10.7 mi) Metro 1975
Seoul Metropolitan Subway: Shinbundang Line South Korea Seoul and Seongnam in South Korea 17,300 m (10.7 mi) Metro 2011
Mavi Tünel (Blue Tunnel)[34] Turkey Konya, Turkey 17,034 m (10.6 mi) Water supply 2012 Breakthrough 2007
Gotthard Road Tunnel Switzerland Lepontine Alps, Switzerland 16,918 m (10.5 mi) Road 1980
Guangzhou Metro: Line 43 China Guangzhou, China 16,790 m (10.4 mi) Metro 2005
Barcelona Metro: Line 4 Spain Barcelona, Spain 16,700 m (10.4 mi) Metro 1929–1999
Barcelona Metro: Line 3 Spain Barcelona, Spain 16,600 m (10.3 mi) Metro 1924–2001
Seoul Subway: Line 2 (Jamsil-Sillim) South Korea Seoul, South Korea 16,700 m (10.4 mi) Metro 1980–1984
Barcelona Metro: Line 5 Spain Barcelona, Spain 16,600 m (10.3 mi) Metro 1959–1983
Murrumbidgee-Eucumbene Tunnel[25] Australia NSW, Australia 16,600 m (10.3 mi) Water supply 1961 Part of the 145 km tunnel network of the Snowy Mountains Scheme
Ankara Metro (Kizilay-Çayyolu) Turkey Ankara, Turkey 16,590 m (10.3 mi) Metro 2002–2014
İstanbul Metro (Line M2) Turkey İstanbul, Turkey 16,500 m (10.3 mi) Metro 2000–2009
Beijing Subway: Line 9 China Beijing, China 16,500 m (10.3 mi) Metro 2011–2012
Jinkang Hydroelectric Power Station Water Tunnel China Sichuan, China 16,490 m (10.2 mi) Hydroelectric 2006
Metro Madrid: L-8 Spain Madrid, Spain 16,467 m (10.2 mi) Metro 1998–2007
Guangzhou Metro: Line 1 China Guangzhou, China 16,449 m (10.2 mi) Metro 1997
Metro Madrid: L-3 Spain Madrid, Spain 16,424 m (10.2 mi) Metro 1939–2007
Rokkō Tunnel[35] Japan Mount Rokkō, Japan 16,250 m (10.1 mi) Railway 1972
Solan Tunnel[36] South Korea Taebaek, Gangwon-do, South Korea 16,240 m (10.1 mi) Railway 2012 Taebaek Line, includes a spiral; breakthrough 2006-12-07
Seoul Subway: Line 7 (Suraksan-Konkuk University) South Korea Seoul, South Korea 16,000 m (9.9 mi) Metro 1996
İstanbul Metro (Line M3) Turkey İstanbul, Turkey 15,900 m (9.9 mi) Metro 2013
Henderson Tunnel[37][38] United States Front Range, United States 15,800 m (9.8 mi) Former railway 1976 Narrow gauge railway, replaced by a conveyor belt in 1999. Only one portal (served an underground mine)[39]
Pandaoling Tunnel, Datong River Diversion to Shaanxi Project China China 15,723 m (9.8 mi) Water supply 1994
Budapest Metro: Line 3[40] Hungary Hungary 15,500 m (9.6 mi) Metro 1976-1990 Line 3 is actually 17.39 km long, but only 15.5 km of it is underground.
Furka Base Switzerland Urner Alps, Switzerland 15,442 m (9.6 mi) Railway Single Track 1982 Single track with passing loops, metre gauge
Seoul Subway: Line 3 (Gupabal-Geumho) South Korea Seoul, South Korea 15,400 m (9.6 mi) Metro 1985
Tianjin Subway: Line 1 China Tianjin, China 15,378 m (9.6 mi) Metro 1976–2006
Haruna Japan Gunma Prefecture, Japan 15,350 m (9.5 mi) Railway 1982
Severomuysky Tunnel Russia Severomuysky Range, Russia 15,343 m (9.5 mi) Railway Single Track 2003
Deer Island Outfall Tunnel[41] United States Deer Island, Boston, Massachusetts, United States 15,290 m (9.5 mi) Waterwaste 2000 24 ft (7.3 m) diameter (42m2 cross section); discharges treated effluent into Atlantic Ocean
Firenzuola Italy Bologna - Firenze, Italy 15,285 m (9.5 mi) Railway Single Tube 2009 Bologna–Florence high-speed railway
Inguri Hydroelectric Power Station Water Tunnel Georgia (country) Georgia
(at the time of construction Soviet Union Soviet Union)
15,279 m (9.5 mi) Hydroelectric 1978
Shanghai Subway: Line 2 China Shanghai, China 15,274 m (9.5 mi) Metro 2000 Between Zhanjianggaoke station and Lingkong Station
Jinquidi Tunnel, Niulan River Diversion to Dianchi China Yunnan, China 15,257 m (9.5 mi) Water supply 2013
Beijing Subway: Line 8 China Beijing, China 15,200 m (9.4 mi) Metro 2008–2011
Baotan Hydroelectric Power Station Water Tunnel China Guangxi, China 15,200 m (9.4 mi) Hydroelectric 2010
Gorigamine Tunnel[35] Japan Takasaki - Nagano, Japan 15,175 m (9.4 mi) Railway 1997
Xuecheng Hydroelectric Power Station Water Tunnel[42] China Sichuan, China 15,174 m (9.4 mi) Hydroelectric 2007
Monte Santomarco Italy Paola - Cosenza, Italy 15,040 m (9.3 mi) Railway Single Track 1987
Gotthard Rail Tunnel Switzerland Lepontine Alps, Switzerland 15,003 m (9.3 mi) Railway Single Tube 1882 Longest transit tunnel until Simplon Tunnel was opened.
Gwangju Metro: Line 1 (Hakdong·Jeungsimsa-GwangjuSongjeong) South Korea Gwangju, South Korea 15,000 m (9.3 mi) Metro 2004
Nakayama Tunnel Japan Gunma Prefecture, Japan 14,857 m (9.2 mi) Railway 1982 Jōetsu Shinkansen
Dangara Irrigation Tunnel[43] Tajikistan Nurek
(at the time of construction Soviet Union Soviet Union)
14,800 m (9.2 mi) Water supply 1987
Cuajone-El Sargento Peru Ilo-Toquepala / Cuajone Industrial Railroad - Southern Peru Copper Corporation, Peru 14,724 m (9.1 mi)[44] Railway 1975
Mount Macdonald Tunnel Canada Rogers Pass, Glacier National Park, Canada 14,723 m (9.1 mi) Railway Single Track 1989
Lötschberg Tunnel Switzerland Alps, Switzerland 14,612 m (9.1 mi) Railway Single Tube 1913
Caoe River Diversion Project China Zhejiang, China 14,600 m (9.1 mi) Water supply 2011
Romerike Tunnel Norway Oslo - Lillestrøm, Norway 14,580 m (9.1 mi) Railway Single Tube 1999
Snowy-Geehi Tunnel[25] Australia NSW, Australia 14,500 m (9.0 mi) Water supply 1966 Part of the 145 km tunnel network of the Snowy Mountains Scheme
Seoul Metropolitan Subway: Line 4 (Isu-Beomgye) South Korea Seoul, Gwacheon and Anyang in South Korea 14,500 m (9.0 mi) Metro 1980–1994
Jisha Hydroelectric Power Station Water Tunnel China Yunnan, China 14,467 m (9.0 mi) Hydroelectric 2007
#6 Tunnel, Yellow River Diversion to Shanxi South Line China Shanxi, China 14,400 m (8.9 mi) Water supply 2002
Ala Mountain Pass Water Supply Project China Xinjiang, China 14,346 m (8.9 mi) Water Supply 2010
Tunnelbana 3 (Blue line), Kungsträdgården-Hjulsta Sweden Stockholm, Sweden 14,300 m (8.9 mi) Metro 1975–1977
Tooma-Tumut Tunnel[25] Australia NSW, Australia 14,200 m (8.8 mi) Water supply 1961 Part of the 145 km tunnel network of the Snowy Mountains Scheme
Dayaoshan Tunnel[45] China Nanling Mountains, China 14,294 m (8.9 mi) Railway Single Tube 1987
Zaramag Hydroelectric Power Station Water Tunnel[46][47] Russia Ardon River, North Ossetia, Russia 14,226 m (8.8 mi) Hydroelectric 2015[48]
Guangzhou Subway: Line 8 China Guangzhou, China 14,200 m (8.8 mi) Metro 2003–2010
Metro Lisbon - Blue (Seagull) Line Portugal Lisbon, Portugal 14,000 m (8.7 mi) Metro 1959–2007
MTR - Island Line (West of Hang Fa Chuen) Hong Kong Victoria City, Hong Kong 14 km (8.7 mi) Mass transit 1985/1986/2014
Arlberg Road Tunnel Austria Arlberg, Austria 13,972 m (8.7 mi) Road 1978
Shanggongshan Tunnel, Zhangjiuhe Water Supply Project China Yunnan, China 13,941 m (8.7 mi) Water Supply 2007
Dayingshan #4 Hydroelectric Power Station Water Tunnel China Yunnan, China 13,932 m (8.7 mi) Hydroelectric 2009 8.5 meters in diameter (57m2 cross section)
Hokuriku Tunnel Japan Fukui Prefecture, Japan 13,870 m (8.6 mi) Railway 1962 Hokuriku Main Line
Xiapu Tunnel China Fujian, China 13,838 m (8.6 mi) Railway Single Tube 2009
Yesanguan Tunnel China Hubei, China 13,838 m (8.6 mi) Railway Twin Tube 2010 Tube I: 13838 meters, tube II: 13796 meters
Xishan Tunnel China Shanxi, China 13,654 m (8.5 mi) Road Twin Tube 2012 Left tube: 13654 meters, right tube: 13570 meters
Fréjus (Mont Cenis) France Italy Alps, France/Italy 13,636 m (8.5 mi) Railway Single Tube 1871
North Tianshan Tunnel China Xinjiang, China 13,610 m (8.5 mi) Railway Single Tube 2009
Marmaray Turkey Istanbul, Turkey 13,600 m (8.5 mi) Railway 2013 Built next to a fault zone, between two continents
Savio Rail Tunnel Finland Helsinki - Kerava, Finland 13,575 m (8.4 mi) Railway Single Track 2008
Busan Metro: Line 3 (Suyeong-Deokcheon) South Korea Busan, South Korea 13,500 m (8.4 mi) Metro 2005
Shin Shimizu Tunnel[35] Japan Mount Tanigawa, Japan 13,500 m (8.4 mi) Railway Twin Tube 1967
Hex River Tunnel[49] South Africa Hex River Pass, South Africa 13,400 m (8.3 mi) Railway Single Track 1989
Wonhyo Tunnel[50][51] South Korea Ulsan, South Korea 13,270 m (8.2 mi) Railway 2010 Gyeongbu High Speed Railway
Dabieshan Tunnel China Hubei, China 13,256 m (8.2 mi) Railway Single Tube 2008
Schlern Tunnel[52] Italy South Tyrol, Italy 13,159 m (8.2 mi) Railway 1993
Caponero-Capoverde Italy Genova - Ventimiglia, Italy 13,135 m (8.2 mi) Railway Single Tube 2001 Includes an underground station ("San Remo")
Hongtiguan Tunnel China Shanxi, China 13,122 m (8.2 mi) Road Twin Tube 2013 Left tube: 13122 meters, right tube: 13098 meters
Barcelona Metro: Line 2 Spain Barcelona, Spain 13,100 m (8.1 mi) Metro 1985–1997
Aki Tunnel Japan Sanyo Shinkansen, Japan 13,030 m (8.1 mi) Railway 1975
Many more tunnels exist that are shorter than 13 kilometres (8 mi)

World's longest tunnels (under construction)[edit]

Name Location Length Type Year Comment
New York City Water Tunnel No. 3 United States New York State, United States 96,560 m (60.0 mi) Water Supply 2020 More water supply for New York City. Already in use; at completion it will be the world's third longest tunnel
Third Interchange Contour Russia Moscow Metro, Russia 58,300 m (36.2 mi) Metro 2016–2019 Circular line
Brenner Base Tunnel Austria Italy Stubai Alps, AustriaItaly 55,000 m (34.2 mi) Railway Twin Tube 2025 Pilot tunnel under construction. Together with the already constructed Inntal Tunnel it will form the world's longest continuous railway tunnel with 64 km.[53]
Yulhyeon Tunnel South Korea Suseo HSR, South Korea 52,251 m (32.5 mi)[54] Railway Twin Tube 2016 89.5 m2, Breakthrough 2013-3-28.
L9 / L10 Spain Barcelona, Spain 43,710 m (27.2 mi) Metro 2009-2016 (partially) The total system will have a length of 47.8 km, of which 43.71 km is underground and 4.9 km is on viaducts. Northern section of the line is in operation since 2009-12-13. Southern section of the line is in operation since 2016-02-12. Future of central section is unclear.
Gaoligongshan Tunnel China Yunnan, China 34,531 m (21.5 mi) Railway 2017 Railway between Dali and Ruili
Koralm Tunnel Austria Koralpe, Austria 32,900 m (20.4 mi) Railway Twin Tube 2022 Part of Koralm Railway; boring of main tunnel started at the west portal May 2010[55]
Neelum Jhelum HydroPower Tunnel Pakistan Muzaffarabad AJ&k, Pakistan 31,500 m (19.6 mi) Hydroelectric 2016
Semmering Base Tunnel Austria Lower Austria/Styria, Austria 27,300 m (17.0 mi) Railway Twin Tube 2024 Construction of the first contract section started January 2014.[56] Will cut travel time between Vienna and Graz by 30 minutes and is part of the Baltic-Adriatic Corridor
Melamchi Water supply Development Board Nepal Melamchi to Kathmandu, Nepal 26,000 m (16.2 mi) Water Supply 2015(??) Under construction, financed by Asian Development Bank
Musil Tunnel[57][58] South Korea Wonju-Jecheon (Jungang Line), South Korea 25,080 m (15.6 mi) Railway 2018 Work slated to start June 2011[needs update]
Pajares Base Tunnel Spain Principado de Asturias and León, Spain 24,667 m (15.3 mi) Railway Twin Tube 2016(??) Breakthrough 2008; opening date in question due to severe water leakage and lowering of local water tables[59]
Daegwallyeong Tunnel South Korea Pyeongchang-Gangneung (Wonju-Gangneung Line), South Korea 21,755 m (13.5 mi) Railway 2017
Förbifart Stockholm[60] Sweden Stockholm, Sweden 16,500 m (10.3 mi) Road 2025
Ceneri Base Tunnel Switzerland Lepontine Alps, Switzerland 15,400 m (9.6 mi) Railway Twin Tube 2020-21 New Gotthard Railway
Mount Ovit Tunnel[61] Turkey Erzurum Province-Rize Province, Turkey 14,700 m (9.1 mi) Road Twin tube 2016 Groundbreaking 2012
Ryfast Norway Stavanger-Strand, Norway 14,300 m (8.9 mi) Road Twin tube 2019 Groundbreaking 2012
Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore): Downtown Line Singapore Singapore, Singapore 43,700 m (27.2 mi) Metro 2017
Mass Rapid Transit (Singapore): Thomson-East Coast Line Singapore Singapore, Singapore 42,000 m (26.1 mi) Metro 2024
Possibly incomplete table. Many more tunnels are under construction that will be shorter than 13 kilometres (8 mi)

World's longest tunnels (advanced planning stage)[edit]

Name Location Length Type Year Comment
Bohai Strait tunnel China Bohai Strait, China 123,000 m (76.4 mi) Railway 2020–2023
Gulf of Finland Tunnel FinlandEstonia

Helsinki, Finland-Tallinn, Estonia

100,000 m (62.1 mi) Railway  ??? Awaiting financing
Qinling Tunnel, Han River Diversion to Wei River China Shaanxi, China 98,300 m (61.1 mi) Water supply  ???
Mont d'Ambin Base Tunnel France Italy Cottian Alps, FranceItaly 52,000 m (32.3 mi) Railway 2020–2023 Access shafts under construction
York Potash Project Mineral Transport System (MTS) United Kingdom North York Moors, United Kingdom 36,700 m (22.8 mi)[62] Mineral transportation 2021 6 m in diameter[63] incorporating conveyor and maintenance access. Start of construction planned for 2016.[64]
Line 4 (Athens Metro)[65] Greece Athens, Greece 33,000 m (20.5 mi) Metro 2022–2023 Start of construction planned for 2016
Rogfast Norway Stavanger, Norway 25,000 m (15.5 mi) Road twin tube 2023 Two tunnels at 25 km each plus a 4 km detour tunnel. Start of construction was planned for 2015[needs update].
Barrandov Tunnel Czech Republic PragueBeroun 24,700 m (15.3 mi)[66] Railway after 2018 Project is on hold
Follo Line Norway Oslo, Norway 19,000 m (11.8 mi) Railway 2020–2021
Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link GermanyDenmark GermanyDenmark 17,600 m (10.9 mi) Road and railway 2024 Start of construction planned for 2016
Kresna Gorge Tunnel[67] Bulgaria Kresna, Bulgaria 15,400 m (9.6 mi) Road twin tube cancelled Part of Struma motorway, connecting Sofia and Athens. Start of construction planned for 2016
Agua Negra Tunnel ChileArgentina ChileArgentina 14,000 m (8.7 mi) Road twin tube  ??? Awaiting ratification by Chile

World's longest tunnels (abandoned)[edit]

Name Location Length Type Year Comment
Gadara Aqueduct Roman Empire 94 km (58.4 mi) Water supply 129– In present-day Jordan

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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