Olympiastadion (Munich)

Coordinates: 48°10′23″N 11°32′48″E / 48.17306°N 11.54667°E / 48.17306; 11.54667
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The Munich Olympiastadion (2022)
AddressOlympiapark München, Spiridon-Louis-Ring 25, 80809
LocationMunich, Germany
Coordinates48°10′23″N 11°32′48″E / 48.17306°N 11.54667°E / 48.17306; 11.54667
Public transitU-Bahn U3 U8 at Olympiazentrum
OwnerCity of Munich
OperatorOlympiapark München GmbH
Field size105 × 68 m
SurfaceAsphalt concrete and artificial grass[1]
Screenstwo 18.4 x 8 m[2]
Broke ground1968
Opened26 May 1972; 51 years ago (1972-05-26)
Official website
Olympic Park Munich

Olympic Park Munich
Olympic Stadium
Olympic Hall
Aquatic Center
Small Olympic Hall
Olympic Tower
Olympic Ice Sports Center
Olympic Village
SAP Garden
Olympic Mountain

Olympiastadion[3] (German pronunciation: [ʔoˈlʏmpi̯aːˌʃtaːdi̯ɔn] ) is a stadium located in Munich, Germany. Situated at the heart of the Olympiapark München in northern Munich, the stadium was the main venue for the 1972 Summer Olympics.

The original capacity was maximally and officially around 75,000 seats, during the Olympics; yet average audiences of 80,000 to 90,000 people were registered daily. Also, the stadium has hosted many major football matches including the 1974 FIFA World Cup Final and the UEFA Euro 1988 Final – originally the official capacity was 73.000 for football. The stadium hosted the European Cup Finals in 1979, 1993 and 1997. Its current capacity is 69,250, including 11,800 standing places and 57,450 seats; or alternatively 63,118 seated spectators. The stadium has also hosted various concerts, with capacity up to 77,337 depending on configuration.[2]

Until the construction of Allianz Arena for the 2006 FIFA World Cup, the stadium was home to Bayern Munich and 1860 Munich. Football is still played at this venue, which is used for Regionalliga Bayern club Türkgücü Munich most of the time. Unlike the Olympiastadion, the new stadium was purpose-built for football alone.


Designed by the German architect Günther Behnisch and the engineer Frei Otto, with the assistance of John Argyris, the lightweight tent construction of the Olympiastadion was considered revolutionary for its time.[4] This included large sweeping canopies of acrylic glass stabilized by steel cables that were used for the first time on a large scale. The idea was to imitate the Alps skyline and to set a counterpart to the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, held during the Nazi regime. The sweeping and transparent canopy was designed to symbolize the new, democratic and optimistic West Germany. This concept was reflected in the official motto: "The cheerful Games"[5] ("Die Heiteren Spiele").[6]


Shortly after World War I, there were first considerations to build a large stadium in Munich, as football gained popularity. A stadium construction on Oberwiesenfeld failed in 1919, due to an objection by the Bavarian state. In 1921, the Teutoniaplatz was opened by the club FC Teutonia, with a capacity of 12,000. In the month after the opening, about 20,000 guests came to a game, which was almost twice the officially allowed capacity. The FC Bayern used the Teutoniaplatz for his home games from 1923 to 1925. Starting in 1911, the TSV 1860 played on the club's own field at the Grünwalder Straße in Giesing, which became the largest stadium in Munich after it was expanded to a capacity of 40,000 spectators in 1926.

Although the capacity was sufficient for championship operation, the Teutoniaplatz was filled to its limits in international matches: the game Germany against Switzerland in 1926 showed that the demand for tickets in major events was a much higher than the allowed capacity. The 1928 opened fight course on the Dantestraße did not meet the expectations of a large stadium. For this reason, the construction of a large stadium on the outskirts of Munich, for example on Oberwiesenfeld, was discussed during the Weimar Republic, but did not yield any particular results.[7]

In the early Nazi Germany, local politicians of the NSDAP planned the construction of a stadium west of Munich-Riem Airport with a capacity of 60,000 to 80,000, mirroring the Reichssportfeld in Berlin. However, the airport administration resisted and the Generalbaurat of Munich did not set it as a target. With the outbreak of World War II, the plans were finally rejected.[7]

After the end of the war, the crowds flocked back to the football stadiums at weekends, including in Munich. In 1948, 58,200 spectators visited a game of TSV 1860 against 1. FC Nürnberg in the stadium on the Grünwalder road, intended for only 45,000 visitors. A year later, 57,000 spectators came to Munich for the semi-final match of the German Championship between Kaiserslautern and Borussia Dortmund. The postwar period is today considered the "golden age" of football in Germany; only since the 1990s, have so many visitors come to the German stadiums.[7]

The Grünwalder Stadion, which was destroyed in the war, offered space for 50,000 spectators after the renovation, making it the largest stadium in Munich. However, the Municipal Sports Committee considered the capacity to be too low and sought to expand it to a capacity of 75,000 spectators. The Sports Committee received backlash from local media. For example, the Münchner Merkur asked for the construction of a new stadium on the Oberwiesenfeld in early 1951, after the extended grandstand of the Grünwalder Stadium would have made the construction of the planned Mittlerer Ring as the main access road to the Federal Highway 8 difficult. The major stadium project came to an end with the adoption of the so-called ten-year program on 10 March 1955 which promoted the construction of district sports facilities.[7]

Another reason for this decision was the decreased popularity of football in Munich, after the formerly successful city clubs such as TSV 1860, FC Wacker and FC Bayern underperformed. Because of the small capacity of the Grünwalder Stadium, games of the Germany national team had not been held in Munich since 1940. For the big city clubs, the capacity of the Grünwalder stadium was adequate.[8]

In 1958, the Bavarian party revived the talks of a large stadium. Both FC Bayern and the TSV 1860 resisted the project, fearing that the capacity would not be exhausted anyway.[8] In 1963, in the last season before the introduction of the Bundesliga, the TSV 1860 won the league championship and therefore secured the starting place in the first league for the following season. In the first Bundesliga season, the TSV 1860 had an average of just under 32,000 spectators per game, which far exceeded the average of the previous years of about 20,000. In 1964, the TSV 1860 qualified for the European Cup Winners' Cup 1964/65 by winning the DFB Cup in the preseason, and had constantly more than 30,000 spectators during the course of the competition. In the same year, the FC Bayern became champion of the Regionalliga Süd and qualified for the promotion round to the Bundesliga. The capacity of the Grünwalder Stadium once again proved to be too low. In the following season the TSV 1860 won the championship and FC Bayern the national cup competition. Although the average number of spectators was far lower than the maximum capacity of the Grünwalder Stadium, there were already numerous games in the mid-1960s at which the ticket demand was higher than the capacity of the stadium.

Munich was the only German city with two Bundesliga clubs, which at this time always played in the top table positions and were temporarily represented in international competitions. Therefore, the largest stadium in the city was now again found to be too small. In order to maintain the high level of the Munich football clubs, a larger stadium was considered necessary, because the audience still represented the main source of income of the clubs at that time.

Meanwhile, Georg Brauchle, then deputy Mayor of Munich, tried to bring the 1972 Summer Olympic Games to Munich. In October 1965, Mayor Hans-Jochen Vogel and Willi Daume, President of the West Germany National Olympic Committee, decided to test the city's suitability for the Games. After further talks, among others with Federal Chancellor Ludwig Erhard and Bavaria's Prime Minister Alfons Goppel, they came to the conclusion that an application for the 1972 Summer Olympics could be worthwhile. For this, however, a new and modern stadium had to be built for the city.


The three square kilometer and largely undeveloped Oberwiesenfeld was selected as the centerpiece of the Olympic Games. Due to the proximity to the city center, Munich was able to promote the games with the slogan "Olympia of the short ways", which contributed to the decision-making process. Since the Oberwiesenfeld had served as a parade ground of the Bavarian cavalry regiment and later mainly military purposes, it was – except for armaments works – free of buildings. From 1931 to 1939 the Munich Airport was located on the Oberwiesenfeld. After the World War II, the debris rubble of the bombing of the city was piled up, from which the Olympic Mountain emerged. This was intentionally created in an oval shape, so that it could be used as a tribune foundation for a stadium.

In 1964, Munich opened an architectural competition for the planning of a large stadium, which was won by the offices of Henschker from Brunswick and Deiss from Munich. Their stadium design was integrated into an overall concept.[9] In the planning of 1965, the stadium was planned to hold around 100,000 spectators, although later the capacity was reduced for the purpose of reusability. The plans were integrated into an overall concept, with the addition of a multi-purpose arena and a swimming pool on a large, concrete surface. Under the concrete slabs, supply systems and parking lots were to be built.[9] On 26 April 1966, the IOC announced that Munich had prevailed against the other candidates Detroit, Madrid and Montreal. Thus the stadium construction was decided. The original plans of the Olympic Park and the stadium were criticized because of a lack of unity in the urban planning. In addition, the Association of German Architects suggested to avoid any monumentality at the sports facilities because of the Nazi past. The plans were finally rejected.

In February 1967, an architectural competition was again advertised, in which by the deadline of 3 July 1967 a total of 104 drafts were submitted, one of which came from the architectural firm Behnisch & Partner. The architect Günter Behnisch and his employee Fritz Auer planned to build the stadium, the Olympic Hall and the swimming pool closely adjacent to each other west of the Olympic Tower, for which the base already existed.[10] When a model was built at a scale of 1: 1000, the employee Cordel Wehrse came up with the idea of laying a tent roof construction over the three buildings. He had become aware of Frei Otto's tent roof construction at the World Fair in Montreal through a newspaper article.[10] Together with Carlo Weber and Heinz Isler the model was supplemented with wooden sticks and parts of a women's stocking.[10] The architects thought of the Olympic roof as a circus tent.

Finally, the model was submitted on the deadline. It was already eliminated after the first round by the jury, as it was considered too daring. However, the juror Egon Eiermann intervened and campaigned together with Mayor Hans-Jochen Vogel and NOK President Willi Daume, among others, for the model. Ultimately, the reviewers voted for the plan of Behnisch & Partner, which emerged as the winner of the competition. The decision was announced on 13 October 1967. In addition to the stadium designed for 90,000 spectators, which was then reduced to maximally 75,000. The model convinced with its surrounding landscape architecture and the tent roof construction. Thus, it fulfilled the leitmotif of the games: human scale, lightness, bold elegance and unity of the landscape with nature. In addition, the possibility of reuse was given.[10] Even with regard to short distances, the model convinced the jury.

Panoramic view of the Münchener Olympiastadion


To make room for the arena, the terminal building of the old airport had to be blown up. On 9 June 1969 work began on the stadium, the multi-purpose Olympic arena and swimming pool. However, it was only on 14 July 1969 with the laying of the cornerstone in a symbolic ceremony that the construction officially begun. In addition to the three buildings emerging on the Oberwiesenfeld, the Werner von Linde Hall, a volleyball hall, the Olympic Radstadion, the Olympic Village and various other buildings such as stations for U-Bahn and S-Bahn were built. During the time of the construction there was a spirit of optimism in Munich. The inner city received a pedestrian zone between Marienplatz and the Stachus and the metro was implemented. on the Oberwiesenfeld alone, there were 60 construction sites. From a total of 1.35 billion German marks, 137 million were used in the construction of the Olympic Stadium and another 170.6 million in the tent roof. About 5,000 construction workers worked at the construction site for more than one million hours. Contrary to the custom of German construction, the Olympic Stadium was built largely without prefabricated parts.

According to Behnisch, the stadium was to be a "democratic sports venue" according to the ideas of the Mayor of Munich Hans-Jochen Vogel and the specifications of the Federal Chancellor Willy Brandt, creating a contrast to the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin during the period of National Socialism, the hitherto single summer Olympics in Germany. Since the time of National Socialism, Munich had the reputation of being the "capital of the Nazi movement". The Olympics were intended to help improve Munich's reputation. The foundation's deed stated that the planned games should "bear witness to the spirit of our people in the last third of the 20th century".[10]

Behnisch wanted Frei Otto as a partner architect, whose tent roof construction at the EXPO 1967 in Montreal was a model for the stadium tent roof. Otto had already been involved in numerous construction projects with suspended and membrane structures and became the development consultant for the Olympiastadion tent roof construction. In addition to Behnisch and Otto, an architect team was also formed to realize the roof construction, including Fritz Leonhardt and Wolf Andrä. The planning management was done by Fritz Auer. Otto developed parts of the roof by means of the trial-and-error principle by making larger models of the roof construction, while Andrä and Leonhardt developed the roof with a CAD program elsewhere. Under the direction of civil engineer Jörg Schlaich, the roof over the stadium was completed on 21 April 1972. The current roof covers around 40,000 seats. Plans to cover an additional 15,000 seats in the eastern stands of the stadium existed, but were never completed; only the main foundations to hold the second roof were built, and they are still visible; one in each of the curves: behind, respectively under the existing roof. (In total some 60,000 seats would have been covered by the two separate tent roofs.)

Already in the summer of 1970 the shell of the buildings was finished and on 23 July 1970 the topping-out ceremony was celebrated. The plans for the stadium had forgotten to allocate cabins for football teams in the stadium interior. For this reason, from 24 May 1972 to the official opening of the stadium on 26 May 1972, two medical rooms were provisionally converted into changing rooms. There was enough room to set up a room for paramedics and referees as well. Later, the cabins were further equipped and remained in place. At the turn of the year 1971/1972 the main works were finished and at the end of June 1972 the finished buildings were handed over to the organizing committee. The planning, construction and financing of the buildings were controlled by the 1967 founded Olympia-Baugesellschaft mbH Munich, which was founded by the Federal Republic of Germany, the Free State of Bavaria and the City of Munich. The stadium is property of the Olympiapark München GmbH, a society wholly owned by the City of Munich's Referat für Arbeit und Wirtschaft.[citation needed]

Post Olympic legacy[edit]

TSV 1860 München football match

Following the Olympics, the stadium became the home of FC Bayern Munich. In 1979 the ground was host to the 1979 European Cup Final in which Nottingham Forest won the first of their consecutive European Cups.

In the 1990s Bayern Munich's rivals TSV 1860 Munich moved into the stadium. The two teams coexisted in the Olympiastadion until 2005, when both clubs moved to the purpose built Allianz Arena.

Borussia Dortmund won the 1997 UEFA Champions League Final at the Olympiastadion.

In 2011 and 2012, there were non-championship DTM events hosted in the Olympiastadion

On 6 to 11 August 2002 the 18th European Athletics Championships were held at the Olympiastadion.

Since 2005, it is the host of the yearly air and style snowboard event.

On 31 December 2006, the stadium made history as being the first venue to host the Tour de Ski cross-country skiing competition. The individual sprint events, held at 1100 m, were won by Norway's Marit Bjørgen (women) and Switzerland's Christoph Eigenmann (men). The snow was made in the stadium by combining the hot air with the cold refrigerated water that causes the snow to act like the icy type one would see in the Alps.

It was not used in the 2006 FIFA World Cup due to the Allianz Arena being the host stadium in Munich.

On 23 to 24 June 2007, the stadium was host to the Spar European Cup 2007, a yearly athletics event featuring the top 8 countries from around Europe.

The DTM touring car series held its first stadium event there in 2011: a Race of Champions-style event which took part over a two-day period, although it was not a championship scoring round.[11] Edoardo Mortara won the first day, and Bruno Spengler the second.[12][13] The event was repeated in 2012, but the stadium withdrew in 2013 because it proved impossible to turn it into a points-scoring event.[14]

On 17 May 2012, the ground played host to the 2012 UEFA Women's Champions League Final in which Olympique Lyonnais won their second consecutive trophy. The attendance of that game was a record for a UEFA Women's Champions League Final. On 19 May 2012 it hosted the "Public Viewing" of the 2012 UEFA Champions League Final which took place at Allianz Arena in Munich.

In August 2020, it was announced that Türkgücü München who have been promoted into third division will be playing a couple of their home matches on the ground. On 10 October 2020, after more than eight years, Olympiastadion was due to host a professional football match of Türkgücü München against SV Wehen Wiesbaden.

The 2022 European Athletics Championships took place at the stadium.

Association football[edit]

1974 FIFA World Cup[edit]

The stadium was one of the venues for the 1974 FIFA World Cup.

The following games were played at the stadium during the World Cup of 1974:

Date Time (CEST) Team #1 Res. Team #2 Round Spectators
15 June 1974 18.00 Italy Italy 3–1  Haiti Group 4 53,000
19 June 1974 19.30  Haiti 0–7  Poland 25,300
23 June 1974 16.00 Argentina Argentina 4–1  Haiti 25,900
6 July 1974 16.00 Brazil Brazil 0–1  Poland Third place match 74,100
7 July 1974 16.00 Netherlands Netherlands 1–2  West Germany Final 75,200

UEFA Euro 1988[edit]

The stadium was one of the venues for the UEFA Euro 1988.

The following games were played at the stadium during the Euro 1988:

Date Time (CEST) Team #1 Res. Team #2 Round Spectators
17 June 1988 20.15  West Germany 2–0  Spain Group A 63,802
25 June 1988 15.30  Soviet Union 0–2  Netherlands Final 72,770

Germany and West Germany national football team[edit]

The stadium hosted German national football teams for a total of 14 games.[2]

UEFA Club Competition Finals[edit]

Date Winners Result Runners-up Round Attendance
30 May 1979 England Nottingham Forest 1–0 Sweden Malmö FF 1979 European Cup final 58,500
26 May 1993 France Marseille 1–0 Italy Milan 1993 UEFA Champions League final 64,444
28 May 1997 Germany Borussia Dortmund 3–1 Italy Juventus 1997 UEFA Champions League final 59,000
17 May 2012 France Lyon 2–0 Germany Frankfurt 2012 UEFA Women's Champions League final 50,212


List of concerts at Olympiastadion, showing date, artist, tour and attendance
Date Artist Tour Attendance
10 June 1982 The Rolling Stones The Rolling Stones European Tour 1982
11 June 1982
1985 Diana Ross Swept Away Tour
18 June 1985 Bruce Springsteen Born in the U.S.A. Tour
21 June 1987 Genesis Invisible Touch Tour
3 July 1988 Pink Floyd A Momentary Lapse of Reason Tour
8 July 1988 Michael Jackson Bad
27 May 1990 Tina Turner Foreign Affair: The Farewell Tour
2 June 1990 The Rolling Stones Steel Wheels/Urban Jungle Tour
3 June 1990
14 June 1990 Prince Nude Tour
27 June 1992 Michael Jackson Dangerous World Tour
17 July 1992 Genesis We Can't Dance Tour
4 June 1993 U2 Zoo TV Tour
26 June 1993 Guns N' Roses Use Your Illusion Tour
4 August 1994 Pink Floyd The Division Bell Tour
3 August 1995 The Rolling Stones Voodoo Lounge Tour 67,509
25 May 1996 Sting Mercury Falling 1996/97
26 May 1996 Dave Matthews Band Summer 1996
4 July 1997 Michael Jackson HIStory World Tour
6 July 1997
14 June 1998 Elton John & Billy Joel Face to Face 1998
13 July 1998 The Rolling Stones Bridges to Babylon Tour 74,588
27 June 1999 Michael Jackson and various artists MJ & Friends
3 July 1999 Celine Dion Let's Talk About Love World Tour 57,479
23 July 2000 Tina Turner Twenty Four Seven Tour 73,920
14 June 2001 AC/DC Stiff Upper Lip World Tour
30 June 2001 Bon Jovi One Wild Night Tour
6 June 2003 The Rolling Stones Licks Tour
10 June 2003 Bruce Springsteen The Rising Tour
13 June 2003 Bon Jovi Bounce Tour
6 July 2003 Robbie Williams 2003 Tour
6 June 2004 Phil Collins First Final Farewell Tour
13 June 2004 Metallica Madly in Anger with the World Tour
28 July 2004 Simon & Garfunkel Old Friends
3 August 2005 U2 Vertigo Tour 77,435
28 May 2006 Bon Jovi Have A Nice Day Tour 71,467
16 July 2006 The Rolling Stones A Bigger Bang 53,501
1 August 2006 Robbie Williams Close Encounters Tour
2 August 2006
3 August 2006
29 June 2007 Red Hot Chili Peppers Stadium Arcadium World Tour
10 July 2007 Genesis Turn It On Again: The Tour
22 September 2007 The Police The Police Reunion Tour 44,740
24 May 2008 Bon Jovi Lost Highway Tour 70,473
22 June 2008 Celine Dion Taking Chances Tour
15 May 2009 AC/DC Black Ice World Tour 66,023
13 June 2009 Depeche Mode Tour of the Universe 60,293
2 July 2009 Bruce Springsteen Working on a Dream Tour 39,896
18 August 2009 Madonna Sticky & Sweet Tour 35,127
15 September 2010 U2 U2 360° Tour 76,150
12 June 2011 Bon Jovi Bon Jovi Live 68,025
29 July 2011 Take That Progress Live 52,376
12 September 2012 Coldplay Mylo Xyloto Tour 54,017
18 May 2013 Bon Jovi Because We Can 64,284
26 May 2013 Bruce Springsteen Wrecking Ball World Tour 41,579
1 June 2013 Depeche Mode The Delta Machine Tour 62,976
7 August 2013 Robbie Williams Take the Crown Stadium Tour
19 May 2015 AC/DC Rock or Bust World Tour
21 May 2015
29 May 2015 Rockavaria Festival
30 May 2015
31 May 2015
17 June 2016 Bruce Springsteen The River Tour 2016 54,119
7 August 2016 Rihanna Anti World Tour
6 June 2017 Coldplay A Head Full of Dreams Tour 62,548
9 June 2017 Depeche Mode Global Spirit Tour
13 June 2017 Guns N' Roses Not in This Lifetime... Tour 66,795
22 July 2017 Robbie Williams The Heavy Entertainment Show Tour
12 September 2017 The Rolling Stones No Filter Tour 72,637
29 July 2018 Ed Sheeran ÷ Tour 135,036
30 July 2018
8 June 2019 Rammstein Europe Stadium Tour 2019 121,250
9 June 2019
24 June 2019 Phil Collins Not Dead Yet Tour 38,723
26 July 2019 P!nk Beautiful Trauma World Tour 113,564
27 July 2019
23 August 2019 Metallica WorldWired Tour 68,117
8 July 2022 Guns N' Roses 2020 Tour
10 September 2022 Ed Sheeran +–=÷× Tour 211,782
11 September 2022
12 September 2022
17 May 2023 Harry Styles Love On Tour
18 May 2023
7 June 2023 Rammstein Europe Stadium Tour
8 June 2023
10 June 2023
11 June 2023
20 June 2023 Depeche Mode Memento Mori World Tour
4 August 2023 The Weeknd After Hours til Dawn Tour 72,011
24 May 2024 Metallica M72 World Tour
26 May 2024
12 June 2024[15] AC/DC
27 July 2024 Taylor Swift The Eras Tour
28 July 2024
15 August 2024 Coldplay Music of the Spheres World Tour
17 August 2024
18 August 2024

Other uses[edit]

The stadium was the setting of a skit for Monty Python's Flying Circus in 1972, for The Philosophers' Football Match, in which Greek Philosophers played German Philosophers (plus Franz Beckenbauer) and the Greeks winning the game with a last-minute goal from Socrates. However, the skit was filmed instead at the Grünwalder Stadion.

Parts of the 1975 film Rollerball were shot on the (then) futuristic site surrounding the stadium.

The Olympic Stadium also hosted Motorcycle speedway when it held the 1989 World Final on 2 September 1989. Denmark's Hans Nielsen won his third World Championship with a 15-point maximum from his five rides. Simon Wigg of England finished in second place after defeating countryman Jeremy Doncaster in a run-off to decide the final podium places after both had finished with 12 points from their five rides. Three time champion Erik Gundersen of Denmark finished in fourth place with 11 points. Gundersen, the defending World Champion, missed finishing outright second when his bike's engine expired while he was leading Heat 9 of the World Final.

American rock band Guns N' Roses filmed parts of their Estranged video there when they visited Munich in June 1993.

In 2021, the stadium was visited during the fourth episode of the ninth season of Belgian reality series De Mol for a football-themed assignment.[16]

The stadium is also used for American football.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Thomas Schmidt (22 March 2012). "Olympiastadion: Abschied vom echten Grün". www.merkur.de (in German). Retrieved 23 February 2023.
  2. ^ a b c d olympiapark.de – Olympic Stadium Key Facts
  3. ^ "Olympiastadion München – Sportstätte mit viel Historie".
  4. ^ Uhrig, Klaus (20 March 2014). "Die gebaute Utopie: Das Münchner Olympiastadion". Bayerischer Rundfunk. Archived from the original on 13 February 2015. Retrieved 13 February 2015.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  5. ^ Digitized version of the Official Report of the Organizing Committee for the Games of the XXth Olympiad Munich 1972 (Volume 2). proSport GmbH & Co. KG. München Ed. Herbert Kunze. 1972. p. 22. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2015. … the theme of the "cheerful Games"…
  6. ^ "Ein Geschenk der Deutschen an sich selbst". DER SPIEGEL 35/1972. 21 August 1972. … für die versprochene Heiterkeit der Spiele, die den Berliner Monumentalismus von 1936 vergessen machen und dem Image der Bundesrepublik in aller Welt aufhelfen sollen
  7. ^ a b c d Armin Radtke: Olympiastadion München – Fußballgeschichte unter dem Zeltdach. Göttingen 2005, S. 10.
  8. ^ a b Armin Radtke: Olympiastadion München – Fußballgeschichte unter dem Zeltdach. Göttingen 2005, S. 12.
  9. ^ a b Armin Radtke: Olympiastadion München – Fußballgeschichte unter dem Zeltdach. Göttingen 2005, S. 18.
  10. ^ a b c d e Florian Kinast: Es begann mit einem Damenstrumpf – 40 Menschen – 40 Geschichten – Erzählungen aus dem Olympiapark. München 2012, S. 25.
  11. ^ Freeman, Glenn (3 July 2010). "DTM to add stadium event in 2011". Autosport. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  12. ^ "Edoardo Mortara wins first day of DTM Show Event in Munich". Autosport. 16 July 2011. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  13. ^ O'Leary, Jamie (17 July 2011). "Bruno Spengler takes victory on second day of DTM Show Event in Munich". Autosport. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  14. ^ Cataldo, Filippo (23 October 2012). "DTM: Moskau statt München" (in German). Abendzeitung. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  15. ^ https://www.rockantenne.at/rockwissen/musik-news/at-acdc-geruechte-um-tour-2024-verdichten-sich AC/DC: Gerüchte um Tour 2024 verdichten sich (in German)
  16. ^ Maaike Van den Cruyce (12 April 2021). "De Mol: dit merkten we op in aflevering 4 – De Mol op het Spoor". mudoo (in Dutch). Retrieved 16 April 2022.

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