People's Justice Party (Malaysia)

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People's Justice Party
Parti Keadilan Rakyat
ڤرتي كعاديلن رعيت
人民公正党
மக்கள் நீதி கட்சி
Abbreviation PKR, KEADILAN
Leader Anwar Ibrahim
President Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
Secretary-General Saifudin Nasution
Spokesperson Syed Ibrahim Syed Noh
Deputy President Mohamed Azmin Ali
Vice-Presidents Nurul Izzah Anwar
Tian Chua
Shamsul Iskandar Md. Akin
Rafizi Ramli
Xavier Jayakumar Arulanandam
Shaharuddin Badaruddin
AMK's Chief Najwan Halimi
Women's Chief Zuraida Kamaruddin
Founder Anwar Ibrahim
Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
Founded 4 April 1999 (Parti Keadilan Nasional)
3 August 2003 (Merger of Parti Keadilan Nasional and Parti Rakyat Malaysia)
Merger of Parti Keadilan Nasional and Parti Rakyat Malaysia (3 August 2003)
Preceded by Ikatan Masyarakat Islam Malaysia (4 April 1999)
Headquarters A-1-09, Merchant Square, Jalan Tropicana Selatan 1, 47410 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
Newspaper Suara Keadilan
KeadilanDaily
Think tank Institut Rakyat
Student wing Mahasiswa Keadilan
Youth wing Angkatan Muda Keadilan (AMK)
Women's wing Wanita Keadilan
Women's youth wing Srikandi Keadilan
Membership 500,000
Ideology Progressivism
Economic justice
Social democracy
Social justice
Multiracialism
Anti-racism
Reformism[1]
Political position Centre-left
National affiliation Barisan Alternatif (1999–2004)
Pakatan Rakyat (2008–2015)
Pakatan Harapan (2015–present)
International affiliation Liberal International (observer)[2]
Colours      Light blue, red, white
Slogan Keadilan Untuk Semua
Ketuanan Rakyat
Demi Rakyat
Reformasi
Lawan Tetap Lawan
Membujur Lalu Melintang Patah
Anthem Arus Perjuangan Bangsa
Dewan Negara:
1 / 70
Dewan Rakyat:
50 / 222
Dewan Undangan Negeri:
70 / 591
Election symbol
Parti Keadilan Rakyat logo.svg
Website
www.keadilanrakyat.org
www.keadilandaily.com
Coat of arms of Malaysia.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Malaysia
Founder and current President of People's Justice Party, Wan Azizah Wan Ismail.

The People's Justice Party (Malay: Parti Keadilan Rakyat often known simply as KEADILAN or PKR) is a centre-left multiracial political party in Malaysia formed in 2003 by a merger of the National Justice Party and the older Malaysian People's Party (PRM). Keadilan was led by Dr Wan Azizah Wan Ismail and increased its parliamentary representation from 1 seat to 31 seats in the 2008 general election until the five-year political ban imposed on former Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim was lifted on 14 April 2008. Now the party is part of a coalition that formed the government after a 60-year-long tenure by the Barisan Nasional (BN). The party enjoys strong support from urban states such as Selangor, Penang and Johor.

KEADILAN or PKR was formed for Anwar Ibrahim and his family justice[3] and promotes an agenda with a strong emphasis on social justice and anti-corruption. Recently the party adopted a platform that seeks to abolish the New Economic Policy and replace it with a policy with an emphasis on a non-ethnic approach in poverty eradication and correcting economic imbalances. It is one of the four component parties of the government coalition in Malaysia called the Pakatan Harapan (PH).

History[edit]

The early years[edit]

The year 1997 saw the Malaysian economy being affected by the Asian financial crisis. The Finance Minister at the time, Anwar Ibrahim (also a Deputy Prime Minister), instituted a series of economic reforms and austerity measures in response. These actions were exacerbated when he tabled controversial amendments to the Anti Corruption Act that sought to increase the powers of the Anti Corruption Agency.[4] Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad disagreed with these measures and ultimately sacked Anwar from all his posts.[5] This incident and the circumstances in which it happened led to a public outcry in what became known as the Reformasi movement, but it also resulted in the arrest and subsequent incarceration of Anwar on what many believed to be politically motivated charges of sexual misconduct and corruption.[6] Building on the momentum of the Reformasi, a political movement called the Social Justice Movement (Malay: Pergerakan Keadilan Sosial) (Adil) was formed. It was led by Dr Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, wife of Anwar. But, facing difficulties in registering Adil as a political party, the reformasi movement took over a small party, Ikatan Masyarakat Islam Malaysia (IKATAN), and relaunched it as the National Justice Party (Malay: Parti Keadilan Nasional) on 4 April 1999, just in time to take part in the 1999 general elections.[7] The party has been noted as having rough similarities with the now-defunct multi-racial social democratic Parti Keadilan Masyarakat Malaysia (Pekemas).[8] The party was joined by the Democratic Action Party (DAP), the Malaysian People's Party (PRM) and the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) in a broadly based electoral alliance known as Barisan Alternatif (Alternative Front) to take on the ruling BN coalition in the 1999 general elections.

Arrests[edit]

Between 27 and 30 September 1999, seven activists, including Keadilan leaders; Vice-President Tian Chua, N. Gobalakrishnan, Youth leader Mohd Ezam Mohd Nor, Mohamed Azmin Ali, Fairus Izuddin and Dr Badrul Amin Baharun; were arrested and as a result prevented from contesting in the elections.[9] Further arrests were made on 10 April 2001 and those arrested were subsequently charged and incarcerated under the Internal Security Act.[10] They became known as the Reformasi 10.[11]

1999 general election[edit]

The party entered the campaign with many of its key leaders under arrest and as a result saw it winning only five parliamentary seats in the elections despite gaining 11.67% of the total votes cast. The Barisan Alternatif as a whole gained 40.21% of the total votes cast with PAS gaining 27 seats and DAP gaining ten seats.

Merger with Parti Rakyat Malaysia[edit]

The post election period saw negotiations between KeADILan and Parti Rakyat Malaysia (PRM) on a possible merger.[12] Despite some opposition in both parties to the move,[13][14] a 13-point Memorandum of Understanding was eventually signed by the two parties on 5 July 2002.[15] On 3 August 2003, the new merged entity was officially launched and assumed its current name.[16]

2004 general election[edit]

As the new amendments to the party constitution had yet to be approved by the Registrar of Societies, candidates from PRM contested the 2004 general election using the symbol of the old National Justice Party.[17] The party fared poorly in the elections and only managed to retain one parliamentary seat, Permatang Pauh which is held by Dr Wan Azizah, despite winning 9% of the popular vote. The poor showing was later attributed to malapportionment and gerrymandering in the delineation of constituencies, with one estimate suggesting that on average, a vote for the BN government was worth 28 times the vote of a Keadilan supporter.[18]

Anwar Ibrahim freed[edit]

On 2 September 2004, in a decision by the Federal Court, Anwar Ibrahim's sodomy conviction was overturned and he was freed. This unexpected turn of events came timely for KEADILAN which was facing flagging morale due to its dismal performance in the elections.

2008 general election[edit]

In the 2008 elections, PKR won 31 seats in Parliament, with the DAP and PAS making substantial gains as well with 28 seats and 23 seats respectively. In total, the taking of 82 seats by the opposition to BN's 140 seats made it the best performance in Malaysian history by the opposition, and denied BN the two-thirds majority required to make constitutional changes in the Dewan Rakyat.

PKR also successfully contested the state legislative elections which saw the loose coalition of PKR, DAP and PAS forming coalition governments in the states of Kelantan, Kedah, Penang, Perak and Selangor. The offices of the Menteri Besar of Selangor and the Deputy Chief Minister of Penang were held by KEADILAN elected representatives, Khalid Ibrahim and Mohd Fairus Khairuddin, respectively.

Anwar's return to politics[edit]

On 14 April 2008, Anwar celebrated his official return to the political stage, as his ban from public office expired a decade after he was sacked as deputy prime minister. One of the main reasons the opposition seized a third of parliamentary seats and five states in the worst ever showing for the BN coalition that has ruled for half a century, was due to him leading at the helm.[19] A gathering of more than 10,000 supporters greeted Anwar in a rally welcoming back his return to politics. In the midst of the rally, police interrupted Anwar after he had addressed the rally for nearly half an hour and forced him to stop the gathering.[20]

Malaysia's government intensified its efforts on 6 March to portray opposition figure Anwar Ibrahim as political turncoats, days ahead of Malaysian general election, 2008 on 8 March that would determine whether he posed a legitimate threat to the ruling coalition.[21] Campaigning wrapped up 7 March for general elections that would see gains for Malaysia's opposition amid anger over race and religion among minority Chinese and Indians.[22] Malaysians voted on 8 March 2008 in parliamentary elections.[22] Election results showed that the ruling government suffered a setback when it failed to obtain two-thirds majority in parliament, and five out of 12 state legislatures were won by the opposition parties.[23] Reasons for the setback of the ruling party, which had retained power since the nation declared independence in 1957, were the rising inflation, crime and ethnic tensions.[24]

Permatang Pauh by-election[edit]

Malaysia's government and ruling coalition declared defeat in a landslide victory in the by-election by Anwar Ibrahim. Muhammad Muhammad Taib, information chief of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) which leads the BN coalition stated: Yes of course we have lost . . . we were the underdogs going into this race.[25] Malaysia's Election Commission officials announced Anwar won by an astounding majority against Arif Shah Omar Shah of National Front coalition and over Prime Minister Abdullah Badawi's UMNO.[26] Reuters reported that according to news website Malaysiakini, Anwar Ibrahim had won with a majority of 16,210 votes. He had won 26,646 votes, while BN's Arif Omar won 10,436 votes.[27] Anwar's People's Justice Party's spokeswoman Ginie Lim told BBC: "We won already. We are far ahead".[26]

On 28 August 2008, Anwar, dressed in a dark blue traditional Malay outfit and black "songkok" hat, took the oath at the main chamber of Parliament house in Kuala Lumpur, as MP for Permatang Pauh at 10.03 am before Speaker Tan Sri Pandikar Amin Mulia. He formally declared Anwar the leader of the 3-party opposition alliance. With his wife Wan Azizah Wan Ismail and his daughter Nurul Izzah Anwar, also a parliamentarian, Anwar announced: "I'm glad to be back after a decade. The prime minister has lost the mandate of the country and the nation".[28][29] Anwar needed at least 30 government lawmakers especially from Sabah and Sarawak MPs' votes to defect to form a government.[30][31]

Other developments[edit]

In December 2005 PKR organised its second national congress.[32] Among the motions passed was the New Economic Agenda[33] that envisioned a non-racial economic policy to replace the race-based New Economic Policy. PKR managed a breakthrough into Sarawak politics in May 2006. In Sarawak state elections, Dominique Ng, a lawyer and activist, won in the Padungan constituency in Kuching, a majority Chinese locale. KEADILAN lost narrowly in Saribas, a Malay-Melanau constituency by just 94 votes. Sarawak is a traditional BN stronghold. PKR has also pursued an aggressive strategy of getting key personalities from within and outside politics. In July 2006, Khalid Ibrahim, former CEO of Permodalan Nasional Berhad and Guthrie, was appointed as Treasurer of the PKR.

Kajang Move[edit]

In 2014, the Party's Strategy Director then Vice-President-cum-Secretary-General, Rafizi Ramli initiated the failed Kajang Move in a bid to topple the 14th Menteri Besar of Selangor, Abdul Khalid Ibrahim, and install the party's de facto leader Anwar Ibrahim as his replacement. The political manoeuvre resulted in a nine-month political crisis within the state of Selangor and the Pakatan Rakyat coalition, that also involved the palace of Selangor, a by-election costing RM1.6 million in taxpayers’ money, the party losing one seat in Selangor's assembly and Malaysian Parliament. PKR also ended up not getting the Menteri Besar that it wanted.[34] The crisis concluded with the appointment of PKR's Deputy President, Azmin Ali, as the 15th Menteri Besar of Selangor. Most analysts say that the Kajang Move was a great failure.[35]

Ideology[edit]

PKR’s constitution has as one of her core principles,[36] the establishment of "a society that is just and a nation that is democratic, progressive and united". In practice, the party has primarily focused on promoting social justice,[37] economic justice,[38][39] eliminating political corruption[40] and human rights issues[41] within a non-ethnic framework.[42]

Structure and membership[edit]

Current office bearers[edit]

Elected representatives[edit]

Dewan Negara (Senate)[edit]

Senators[edit]

  1. Dr. Mohd. Nor Monutty – elected by the Selangor State Legislative Assembly

Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)[edit]

Members of Parliament of the 14th Malaysian Parliament[edit]

PKR has 50 members in the House of Representatives.

State No. Parliament Constituency Member Party
 Perlis P002 Kangar Noor Amin Ahmad PKR
 Kedah P009 Alor Setar Chan Ming Kai PKR
P010 Kuala Kedah Azman Ismail PKR
P014 Merbok Nor Azrina Surip PKR
P015 Sungai Petani Johari Abdul PKR
P017 Padang Serai Karupaiya Mutusami PKR
P018 Kulim-Bandar Baharu Saifuddin Nasution Ismail PKR
 Penang P044 Permatang Pauh Nurul Izzah Anwar PKR
P047 Nibong Tebal Mansor Othman PKR
P052 Bayan Baru Sim Tze Tzin PKR
P053 Balik Pulau Muhammad Bakhtiar Wan Chik PKR
 Perak P062 Sungai Siput Kesavan Subramaniam PKR
P071 Gopeng Lee Boon Chye PKR
P077 Tanjong Malim Chang Lih Kang PKR
 Pahang P082 Indera Mahkota Saifuddin Abdullah PKR
P083 Kuantan Fuziah Salleh PKR
 Selangor P094 Hulu Selangor June Leow Hsiad Hui PKR
P097 Selayang William Leong Jee Keen PKR
P098 Gombak Mohamed Azmin Ali PKR
P099 Ampang Zuraida Kamaruddin PKR
P100 Pandan Wan Azizah Wan Ismail PKR
P104 Subang Wong Chen PKR
P105 Petaling Jaya Maria Chin Abdullah PKR
P107 Sungai Buloh Sivarasa Rasiah PKR
P109 Kapar Abdullah Sani Abdul Hamid PKR
P112 Kuala Langat Xavier Jayakumar Arulanandam PKR
 Kuala Lumpur P115 Batu P. Prabakaran M. Parameswaran PKR
P116 Wangsa Maju Tan Yee Kew PKR
P118 Setiawangsa Nik Nazmi Nik Ahmad PKR
P121 Lembah Pantai Fahmi Fadzil PKR
P124 Bandar Tun Razak Kamarudin Jaffar PKR
 Negeri Sembilan P132 Port Dickson Danyal Balagopal Abdullah PKR
 Malacca P136 Tangga Batu Rusnah Aluai PKR
P137 Hang Tuah Jaya Shamsul Iskandar Md. Akin PKR
 Johor P140 Segamat Edmund Santhara Kumar Ramanaidu PKR
P141 Sekijang Natrah Ismail PKR
P144 Ledang Syed Ibrahim Syed Noh PKR
P150 Batu Pahat Mohd Rashid Hasnon PKR
P158 Tebrau Steven Choong Shiau Yoon PKR
P159 Pasir Gudang Hassan Abdul Karim PKR
P160 Johor Bahru Ahmad Akmal Nasrullah Mohd. Nasir PKR
 Sabah P173 Putatan Awang Husaini Sahari PKR
P179 Ranau Jonathan Yasin PKR
P190 Tawau Christina Liew Chin Jin PKR
 Sarawak P198 Puncak Borneo Willie Mongin PKR
P203 Lubok Antu Jugah Muyang PKR
P205 Saratok Ali Biju PKR
P209 Julau Larry Sng Wei Shien PKR
P214 Selangau Baru Bian PKR
P219 Miri Michael Teo Yu Keng PKR
Total Perlis (1), Kedah (10), Penang (11), Perak (13), Pahang (5), Selangor (20), F.T. Kuala Lumpur (11), Negeri Sembilan (5), Malacca (4), Johor (18), Sabah (15), Sarawak (12)

Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Legislative Assembly)[edit]

Malaysian State Assembly Representatives[edit]

General election results[edit]

Election Total seats won Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Election leader
1999
5 / 193
773,679 11.67% Increase5 seats; Opposition coalition (Barisan Alternatif) Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
2004
1 / 219
617,518 8.9% Decrease4 seats; Opposition coalition (Barisan Alternatif) Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
2008
31 / 222
1,509,080 18.58% Increase30 seats; Opposition coalition (Pakatan Rakyat) Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
2013
30 / 222
2,254,211 20.39% Decrease1 seats; Opposition coalition (Pakatan Rakyat) Anwar Ibrahim
2018
49 / 222
2,046,484 17.10% Increase19 seats; Government (Pakatan Harapan) Wan Azizah Wan Ismail

State election results[edit]

State election State Legislative Assembly
Perlis State Legislative Assembly Kedah State Legislative Assembly Kelantan State Legislative Assembly Terengganu State Legislative Assembly Penang State Legislative Assembly Perak State Legislative Assembly Pahang State Legislative Assembly Selangor State Legislative Assembly Negeri Sembilan State Legislative Assembly Malacca State Legislative Assembly Johor State Legislative Assembly Sabah State Legislative Assembly Sarawak State Legislative Assembly Total won / Total contested
1999
0 / 15
0 / 36
0 / 43
0 / 32
1 / 33
1 / 52
1 / 38
1 / 48
0 / 32
0 / 25
0 / 40
0 / 48
4 / 70
2001
0 / 62
0 / 25
2004
0 / 15
0 / 36
0 / 45
0 / 32
0 / 40
0 / 59
0 / 42
0 / 56
0 / 36
0 / 28
0 / 56
0 / 60
0 / 121
2006
1 / 71
1 / 25
2008
0 / 15
4 / 36
1 / 45
0 / 32
9 / 40
7 / 59
0 / 42
15 / 56
4 / 36
0 / 28
0 / 56
0 / 60
40 / 176
2011
3 / 71
3 / 49
2013
1 / 15
4 / 36
1 / 45
1 / 32
10 / 40
5 / 59
2 / 42
14 / 56
3 / 36
0 / 28
1 / 56
7 / 60
49 / 172
2016
5 / 82
5 / 40
2018
3 / 15
7 / 36
0 / 45
0 / 32
14 / 40
4 / 59
2 / 42
21 / 56
6 / 36
3 / 28
5 / 56
2 / 60
70 / 172


Controversies[edit]

Sodomy allegations against Anwar Ibrahim[edit]

At 11.03 pm on 29 June 2008, online news portal Malaysiakini reported that an aide of Anwar Ibrahim had lodged a police report claiming that he had been sodomised by Anwar. The news has since been updated with reports that SMS messages are being distributed claiming that the person who made the report is Anwar's aide, Saiful Bukhari, who was arrested earlier today and allegedly forced to make a false confession. The same SMS message also claimed the possibility of Anwar being arrested later today.[43]

Anwar has since denied the allegations claiming that it was a complete fabrication and made in retaliation against him due to his recent acquisition of evidence that implicates the current Inspector General of the Police, Musa Hassan, and the Attorney General, Abdul Gani Patail, in misconduct including fabrication of evidence used against him during the 1998–1999 trials for corruption and sodomy.[44]

Suara Keadilan publication license suspended[edit]

In June 2010, Suara Keadilan's publication was suspended for publishing a report which claimed a government agency is bankrupt. Suara Keadilan is run by opposition leader Anwar Ibrahim's PKR party. The Home Ministry, which oversees Malaysia's newspapers, said it was not satisfied with the paper's explanation for the allegedly inaccurate report.[45]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jan Senkyr (2013). "Political Awakening in Malaysia". KAS International Reports (7): 75. 
  2. ^ "Parti Keadilan Rakyat". Liberal International. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2011. 
  3. ^ Tajuddin Rosli (6 May 2015). "Is divorce looming in Pakatan?". The Malaysian Insider. Archived from the original on 6 May 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2018. 
  4. ^ Lim Kit Siang (1999). "Media statement by Lim Kit Siang". Democratic Action Party. Archived from the original on 8 November 2006. Retrieved 26 May 2018. 
  5. ^ Peter Symonds (3 October 1998). "Behind the sacking and arrest of Anwar Ibrahim". World Socialist Web Site. Archived from the original on 26 May 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018. 
  6. ^ "[MALAYSIA] The arrest of Anwar Ibrahim and his political associates". Amnesty International. 3 October 1998. Archived from the original on 7 June 2006. Retrieved 26 May 2018. 
  7. ^ Azam Aris (26 February 2008). "PKR's watershed election". Indian Malaysian Online. Retrieved 26 May 2018. 
  8. ^ A Kadir Jasin (21 January 2011). "A cautionary tale of two coalitions". Agenda Daily. Retrieved 26 May 2018. 
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  10. ^ "Malaysia: Fear of torture or ill-treatment / incommunicado detention / prisoners of conscience". Amnesty International. 12 April 2001. Archived from the original on 27 October 2006. Retrieved 26 May 2018. 
  11. ^ "II. Background: The ISA in Law and Practice". Human Rights Watch. 2004. Retrieved 26 May 2018. 
  12. ^ "FOCUS: Anwar's party sees future in merger with socialists". Kyodo News International. bnet. 10 April 2000. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2018. 
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  25. ^ "Malaysian government declares by-election defeat to Anwar". Agence France-Presse. The Standard (Hong Kong). 26 August 2008. Archived from the original on 20 December 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  26. ^ a b "Anwar Ibrahim wins landslide vote". BBC News. 26 August 2008. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  27. ^ David Chance; Faisal Aziz; Alex Richardson (26 August 2008). "Website says Anwar wins Malaysia vote with big majority". Reuters (UK). Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  28. ^ "Anwar sworn in as member of Malaysian parliament". CNN. 28 August 2008. Archived from the original on 24 September 2008. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  29. ^ Faisal Aziz (28 August 2008). "NEWSMAKER - Malaysia Anwar sworn in, ends political exile". Reuters India. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  30. ^ "Malaysia's Anwar returns to parliament". Agence France-Presse and Google. 27 August 2008. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  31. ^ "Anwar sworn in, appointed as Opposition Leader". The Edge Daily. 28 August 2008. Archived from the original on 29 August 2008. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  32. ^ "keADILan akan adakan kongres kedua" (in Malay). Malaysia Today. 2 November 2005. Archived from the original on 18 December 2007. Retrieved 26 May 2018. [unreliable source?]
  33. ^ Anwar Ibrahim : New Economic Agenda
  34. ^ Eileen Ng (5 October 2014). "2 out of 3 Kajang Move aims met with the last on the way, says PKR's Rafizi". The Malaysian Insider. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2018. 
  35. ^ Eileen Ng (23 September 2014). "With Azmin as MB, the failure of PKR's Kajang Move, say analysts". The Malaysian Insider. Archived from the original on 25 September 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2018. 
  36. ^ "Core Principles". People's Justice Party (Malaysia). 4 March 2008. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2018. 
  37. ^ "KEADILAN questions progress of gender equality". People's Justice Party (Malaysia). 4 March 2008. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2018. 
  38. ^ "Fair share of oil revenue for Sabah: Jeffrey". People's Justice Party (Malaysia). 4 March 2008. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2018. 
  39. ^ Noriyuki Segawa (29 May 2013). "Ethnic Politics in Malaysia: Prospects for National Integration". Taylor & Francis Online. p. 210–232. doi:10.1080/13537113.2013.788918. 
  40. ^ "Education Expenditure & Contracts". People's Justice Party (Malaysia). 4 March 2008. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2018. 
  41. ^ "Malaysian opposition politician arrested at protest over village demolition". People's Justice Party (Malaysia). 4 March 2008. Archived from the original on 4 March 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2018. 
  42. ^ Maznah Mohamad (28 November 2008). "Malaysia — democracy and the end of ethnic politics?". Taylor & Francis Online. p. 441–459. doi:10.1080/10357710802480691. 
  43. ^ "Aide alleges sodomy: Report lodged". Malaysiakini. 28 June 2008. Retrieved 28 June 2008. 
  44. ^ "Kenyataan Media Anwar Ibrahim" (in Malay). People's Justice Party (Malaysia). 29 June 2008. Archived from the original on 2 July 2008. Retrieved 26 May 2018. 
  45. ^ "Malaysia suspends main opposition newspaper". Agence France-Presse and Google. 29 June 2008. Archived from the original on 5 July 2010. Retrieved 26 May 2018. 

External links[edit]