Page semi-protected

List of tallest buildings

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Tallest building)
Jump to: navigation, search
The 828-metre (2,717 ft) tall Burj Khalifa in Dubai has been the world's tallest building since 2008.[1] The Burj Khalifa has been classified as Megatall.[2]
Tallest buildings in the world.

This list of tallest buildings in the world ranks skyscrapers by height. Only buildings with continuously occupiable floors are included, thus non-building structures, including towers, are not included. (See List of tallest buildings and structures.)

Ranking criteria and alternatives

The international non-profit organization Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) was formed in 1969 and announces the title of "The World's Tallest Building" and sets the standards by which buildings are measured. It maintains a list of the 100 tallest completed buildings in the world.[3] The organization currently ranks Burj Khalifa in Dubai as the tallest at 828 m (2,717 ft).[3] The CTBUH only recognizes buildings that are complete, however, and some buildings listed within these list articles are not considered complete by the CTBUH.

In 1996, as a response to the dispute as to whether the Petronas Towers or the Sears Tower was taller,[4] the council listed and ranked buildings in four categories:

  • height to structural or architectural top;
  • height to floor of highest occupied floor;
  • height to top of roof (removed as category in November 2009);[5] and
  • height to top of any part of the building.

Spires are considered integral parts of the architectural design of buildings, to which changes would substantially change the appearance and design of the building, whereas antennas may be added or removed without such consequences. The Petronas Towers, with their spires, are thus ranked higher than the Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower) with its antennas, despite the Petronas Towers' lower roofs and lower highest point.

Until 1996, the world's tallest building was defined by the height to the top of the tallest architectural element, including spires but not antennae. This led to a rivalry between the Bank of Manhattan Building and the Chrysler Building. The Bank of Manhattan Building employed only a short spire and was 282.5 m (927 ft) tall and had a much higher top occupied floor (the second category in the 1996 criteria for tallest building). In contrast, the Chrysler Building employed a very large 38.1 m (125 ft) spire secretly assembled inside the building to claim the title of world's tallest building with a total height of 318.9 m (1,046 ft), although it had a lower top occupied floor and a shorter height when both buildings' spires were excluded.

Upset by Chrysler's victory, Shreve & Lamb, the consulting architects of the Bank of Manhattan Building, wrote a newspaper article claiming that their building was actually the tallest, since it contained the world's highest usable floor. They pointed out that the observation deck in the Bank of Manhattan Building was nearly 30 m (100 ft) above the top floor in the Chrysler Building, whose surpassing spire was strictly ornamental and inaccessible.[6]

At present, the Burj Khalifa tops the list by some margin, regardless of which criterion is applied.[7][8]

Tallest buildings in the world (350 m+)

As of 2017, this list includes all 51 buildings (completed and architecturally topped out) which reach a height of 350 metres (1,148 ft) or more, as assessed by their highest architectural feature. Six of the last seven buildings to have held the record as 'tallest building' are still found in the list, with the exception being the North Tower of the original World Trade Center after its destruction in the September 11 attacks of 2001. If the twin towers were still standing today they would occupy numbers 24 and 25 on the list (or 23 and 24 since it can be assumed One World Trade Center would have never been built).

bold Denotes building that is or was once the tallest in the world
Rank Building[A][9] City Country Height (m)[3] Height (ft) Floors Built
1 Burj Khalifa Dubai  United Arab Emirates 828 m 2,717 ft 163 2010
2 Shanghai Tower Shanghai  China 632 m[10] 2,073 ft 128 2015
3 Abraj Al-Bait Clock Tower Mecca  Saudi Arabia 601 m[11] 1,971 ft 120 2012
4 Ping An Finance Centre Shenzhen  China 599 m 1,965 ft 115 2017
5 Lotte World Tower Seoul  South Korea 554.5 m 1,819 ft 123 2016
6 One World Trade Center New York City  United States 541.3 m 1,776 ft 104 2014
7 Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre Guangzhou  China 530 m[12] 1,739 ft 111 2016
8 Taipei 101 Taipei  Taiwan 508 m[13] 1,667 ft 101 2004
9 Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai  China 492 m 1,614 ft 101 2008
10 International Commerce Centre Hong Kong  China 484 m 1,588 ft 118 2010
11 Changsha IFS Tower T1 Changsha  China 452.1 m 1,483 ft 88 2017
12 Petronas Tower 1 Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia 451.9 m 1,483 ft 88 1998
Petronas Tower 2 Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia 451.9 m 1,483 ft 88 1998
14 Zifeng Tower Nanjing  China 450 m 1,476 ft 89 2010
Suzhou IFS Suzhou  China 450 m 1,476 ft 92 2017
16 Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower) Chicago  United States 442.1 m 1,450 ft  108 1974
17 KK100 Shenzhen  China 442 m 1,449 ft 100 2011
18 Guangzhou International Finance Center Guangzhou  China 440 m 1,440 ft 103 2010
19 Wuhan Center Wuhan  China 438 m 1,437 ft 88 2016[B]
20 432 Park Avenue New York City  United States 425.5 m 1,396 ft 88 2015
21 Marina 101 Dubai  United Arab Emirates 425 m 1,394 ft 101 2015[B]
22 Trump International Hotel and Tower[14] Chicago  United States 423.2 m 1,388 ft 98 2009
23 Jin Mao Tower Shanghai  China 421 m 1,380 ft 88 1999
24 Princess Tower Dubai  United Arab Emirates 414 m 1,358 ft[15] 101 2012
25 Al Hamra Tower Kuwait City  Kuwait 413 m 1,354 ft 80 2011
26 Two International Finance Centre Hong Kong  China 412 m 1,352 ft 88 2003
27 23 Marina Dubai  United Arab Emirates 395 m 1,296 ft 89 2012
28 China Resources Headquarters Shenzhen  China 393 m 1,288 ft 67 2017
29 CITIC Plaza Guangzhou  China 391 m 1,283 ft 80 1996
30 Capital Market Authority Headquarters Riyadh  Saudi Arabia 385 m 1,263 ft 77 2016
31 Shun Hing Square Shenzhen  China 384 m 1,260 ft 69 1996
32 Eton Place Dalian Tower 1 Dalian  China 383 m 1,257 ft 81 2015
33 Logan Century Center 1 Nanning  China 381.3 m 1,251 ft 82 2017
34 Burj Mohammed bin Rashid Abu Dhabi  United Arab Emirates 381 m 1,251 ft 88 2014
35 Empire State Building New York City  United States 381 m 1,250 ft 102 1931
36 Elite Residence Dubai  United Arab Emirates 381 m 1,248 ft 87 2012
37 Central Plaza Hong Kong  China 374 m 1,227 ft 78 1992
Federation Tower (East Tower)[16] Moscow  Russia 374 m 1,227 ft 95 2016
39 Dalian International Trade Center Dalian  China 370 m 1,214 ft 86 2016[B]
40 The Address the BLVD Dubai  United Arab Emirates 368 m 1,207 ft 72 2017
41 Bank of China Tower Hong Kong  China 367 m 1,205 ft 70 1990
42 Bank of America Tower New York City  United States 365.8 m 1,200 ft 54 2009
43 Almas Tower Dubai  United Arab Emirates 363 m 1,191 ft 68 2009
44 JW Marriott Marquis Dubai Tower 1 Dubai  United Arab Emirates 355 m 1,166 ft 82 2012
JW Marriott Marquis Dubai Tower 2 Dubai  United Arab Emirates 355 m 1,166 ft 82 2012
46 Emirates Office Tower Dubai  United Arab Emirates 355 m 1,163 ft 54 2000
47 OKO Tower - South Tower Moscow  Russia 354 m 1,160 ft 85 2015
48 The Marina Torch Dubai  United Arab Emirates 352 m 1,155 ft 86 2011
49 Forum 66 Tower 2 Shenyang  China 351 m 1,152 ft 68 2015
50 The Pinnacle Guangzhou  China 350 m 1,150 ft 60 2012
51 Hanking Center Shenzhen  China 350 m 1,148 ft 73 2017

Photo gallery

Alternative measurements

Height to pinnacle (highest point)

Tallest buildings by pinnacle height, including all masts, poles, antennae, etc. in 2014.

This measurement disregards distinctions between architectural and non-architectural extensions, and simply measures to the highest point. This measurement is useful for air traffic obstacle determinations, and is also a wholly objective measure. However, this measurement includes extensions that are easily added, removed, and modified from a building and are independent of the overall structure.

This measurement only recently came into use, when the Petronas Towers passed the Sears Tower (now called Willis Tower) in height. The former was considered taller because its spires were considered architectural, while the latter's antennae were not. This led to the split of definitions, with the Sears Tower claiming the lead in this and the height-to-roof (now highest occupied floor) categories, and with the Petronas claiming the lead in the architectural height category.

bold †Denotes building with pinnacle height higher than architectural
Rank Building City Country Height Floors Built
1 Burj Khalifa Dubai  UAE 829.8 m 2,722 ft 163 2010
2 Shanghai Tower Shanghai  China 632 m 2,073 ft 128 2015
3 Abraj Al-Bait Towers Mecca  Saudi Arabia 601 m[11] 1,971 ft 120 2012
4 Ping An Finance Center Shenzhen  China 599 m 1,965 ft 115 2016
5 Lotte World Tower Seoul  South Korea 555.7 m 1,823 ft 123 2016
6 One World Trade Center New York City  United States 546.2 m 1,792 ft 104 2014
7 CTF Finance Centre Guangzhou  China 530 m[17] 1,739 ft 111 2016
8 Willis Tower Chicago  United States 527 m 1,729 ft 108 1974
9 Taipei 101 Taipei  Taiwan 508 m 1,667 ft 101 2004
10 Shanghai World Financial Center Shanghai  China 494.3 m 1,622 ft 101 2008
11 International Commerce Centre Hong Kong  China 484 m 1,588 ft 118 2010
12 John Hancock Center Chicago  United States 456.9 m 1,499 ft 100 1969
13 Changsha IFS Tower T1 Changsha  China 452 m 1,483 ft 94 2017
14 Petronas Tower 1 Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia 451.9 m 1,483 ft 88 1998
14 Petronas Tower 2 Kuala Lumpur  Malaysia 451.9 m 1,483 ft 88 1998
16 Zifeng Tower Nanjing  China 450 m 1,476 ft 89 2009
16 Suzhou IFS Suzhou  China 450 m 1,476 ft 98 2017
18 Empire State Building New York City  United States 443.2 m 1,454 ft 102 1931
19 Kingkey 100 Shenzhen  China 442 m 1,449 ft 100 2011
20 Guangzhou International Finance Center Guangzhou  China 438.6 m 1,445 ft 103 2009
21 Wuhan Center Wuhan  China 438 m 1,437 ft 88 2017
22 432 Park Avenue New York City  United States 425.5 m 1,396 ft 85 2015
23 Marina 101 Dubai  United Arab Emirates 425 m 1,394 ft 101 2017
24 Trump International Hotel and Tower Chicago  United States 423.2 m 1,388 ft 96 2009
25 Jin Mao Tower Shanghai  China 421 m 1,381 ft 88 1998
26 Princess Tower Dubai  UAE 414 m 1,358 ft[15] 101 2012
27 Al Hamra Tower Kuwait City  Kuwait 412.6 m 1,354 ft 80 2010
28 Two International Finance Centre Hong Kong  China 412 m 1,352 ft 88 2003
29 China Resources Headquarters Shenzhen  China 392.5 m 1,288 ft 67 2017
30 23 Marina Dubai  UAE 392.4 m 1,287 ft 89 2012
31 CITIC Plaza Guangzhou  China 391 m 1,283 ft 80 1997
32 Logan Century Center 1 Nanning  China 390 m 1,279 ft 82 2017
33 Capital Market Authority Headquarters Riyadh  Saudi Arabia 385 m 1,263 ft 77 2017
34 Shun Hing Square Shenzhen  China 384 m 1,260 ft 69 1996
35 Eton Place Dalian Tower 1 Dalian  China 383.1 m 1,257 ft 81 2015
36 Burj Mohammed bin Rashid Abu Dhabi  UAE 381.2 m 1,251 ft 88 2014
37 Elite Residence Dubai  UAE 381 m 1,250 ft 87 2012
38 Tuntex Sky Tower Kaohsiung  Taiwan 378 m 1,240 ft 85 1997
39 Central Plaza Hong Kong  China 373.9 m 1,227 ft 78 1992
40 Federation Tower (East Tower) Moscow  Russia 373.8 m 1,226 ft 95 2016
32 Bank of China Tower Hong Kong  China 367.4 m 1,205 ft 72 1990
33 Bank of America Tower New York City  United States 365.8 m 1,200 ft 54 2008
34 Almas Tower Dubai  UAE 363 m 1,191 ft 68 2008
35 Aon Center Chicago  United States 362.5 m 1,189 ft 83 1973
36 SEG Plaza Shenzhen  China 355.8 m 1,167 ft 70 2000
37 Emirates Park Tower 1 Dubai  UAE 355.4 m 1,166 ft 77 2010
38 Emirates Park Tower 2 Dubai  UAE 355.4 m 1,166 ft 77 2010
39 First Canadian Place Toronto  Canada 355 m 1,165 ft 72 1975
40 Emirates Office Tower Dubai  UAE 354.6 m 1,163 ft 56 2000
41 OKO Tower - South Tower Moscow  Russia 354.1 m 1,160 ft 85 2015
42 The Marina Torch Dubai  UAE 352 m 1,155 ft 86 2011
43 Forum 66 Tower 2 Shenyang  China 350.6 m 1,150 ft 68 2015
44 The Pinnacle Guangzhou  China 350.3 m 1,149 ft 60 2012
45 Hanking Center Shenzhen  China 350 m 1,148 ft 73 2017

Buildings under construction

This is a list of buildings taller than 350 metres that are currently under construction. More than half of the buildings are located in China.

Building Planned architectual height Floors Planned completion Country City Remarks
Jeddah Tower 1,008 m (3,307 ft) 167+ 2020  Saudi Arabia Jeddah Will become the tallest in the world upon completion.[18]
Wuhan Greenland Center 636 m (2,087 ft) 125 2018  China Wuhan
KL118 630 m (2,070 ft) 118 2019  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Will become the tallest building in Southeast Asia.
Rama IX Super Tower 615 m (2,018 ft) 118 2021  Thailand Bangkok [19]
Goldin Finance 117 597 m (1,959 ft) 128 2018  China Tianjin
Baoneng Shenyang Global Financial Center 568 m (1,864 ft) 114 2018  China Shenyang
Tianjin Chow Tai Fook Binhai Center 530 m (1,740 ft) 98 2018  China Tianjin
China Zun 528 m (1,732 ft) 118 2018  China Beijing
Skyfame Center Landmark Tower 528 m (1,732 ft) 108 2021  China Nanning [20]
Dalian Greenland Center 518 m (1,699 ft) 88 2018[21]  China Dalian Building currently on hold
Evergrande IFC 1 518 m (1,699 ft) 112 2021  China Hefei [22]
Central Park Tower 478 m (1,568 ft) 131 2019  United States New York City Will become the second tallest building in New York. Also known as the Nordstrom Tower.
Chengdu Greenland Tower 468 m (1,535 ft) 116 2018  China Chengdu
International Commerce Center 1 468 m (1,535 ft) 99 2019[23]  China Chongqing
Lakhta Center 462 m (1,516 ft) 86 2018  Russia St. Petersburg Will become tallest building in Europe upon completion.[24]
Landmark 81 461.2 m (1,513 ft) 81 2018  Vietnam Ho Chi Minh City
TRX Signature Tower 452 m (1,483 ft) 106 2021  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur [25]
China Resources Centre Block A 445 m (1,460 ft) 90 2018  China Nanning [26]
World One 442 m (1,450 ft) 117 2018  India Mumbai Will become tallest residential skyscraper in the world if completed before Pentominium.[27][28][29][30][31][32]
Riverview Plaza 436 m (1,430 ft) 73 2018  China Wuhan
111 West 57th Street 435.3 m (1,428 ft) 82 2018  United States New York City Scheduled to be world's skinniest skyscraper "with a slenderness ratio of about 1:24."[33]
Akhmat Tower 435 m (1,427 ft) 100 2020  Russia Grozny It will be the second tallest building in Europe upon completion.
Diamond Tower 432 m (1,417 ft) 93 2019  Saudi Arabia Jeddah [34]
Haikou Tower 428 m (1,404 ft) 94 2020  China Haikou
One Vanderbilt 427 m (1,401 ft) 58 2021  United States New York City [35]
Dongguan International Trade Center 1 427 m (1,401 ft) 88 2019  China Dongguan
Haeundae LCT The Sharp Landmark Tower 411.6 m (1,350 ft) 101 2018  South Korea Busan
Hongshu Bay Metro Station Tower 1 400 m (1,300 ft) 87 2021  China Shenzhen [36]
Guiyang Financial Center Tower 1 400 m (1,300 ft) 76 2021  China Guiyang [37]
Ningbo Center Tower 1 398 m (1,306 ft) 80 2021  China Ningbo [38]
Shum Yip Upperhills Tower 1 388 m (1,273 ft) 80 2019  China Shenzhen
30 Hudson Yards 387 m (1,270 ft) 73 2019  United States New York City
Altitude 383 m (1,257 ft) 96 2019  Sri Lanka Colombo [39]
Abu Dhabi Plaza 382 m (1,253 ft) 75 2019  Kazakhstan Astana
Gemdale Gangxia Tower 1 375.5 m (1,232 ft) 80 2018  China Shenzhen
Fairmont Kuala Lumpur Tower 1 370 m (1,210 ft) 78 2019  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur [40]
Coronation Square Tower 1 370 m (1,210 ft) 78  ?  Malaysia Johor Bahru [41]
Hai Tian Center Tower 2 369 m (1,211 ft) 72 2021  China Qingdao [42]
Golden Eagle Tiandi Tower A 368 m (1,207 ft) 76 2018  China Nanjing
Guiyang Financial Center Tower 2 367 m (1,204 ft) 72 2021  China Guiyang [43]
La Maison by HDS 364.5 m (1,196 ft) 105 2021  UAE Dubai [44]
VietinBank Business Center Office Tower 363.2 m (1,192 ft) 70 2018  Vietnam Hanoi
Three Sixty West Tower B 361.2 m (1,185 ft)[45] 90 2017  India Mumbai
Wanda Vista 361 m (1,184 ft) 93 2020  United States Chicago
Greenland Group Suzhou Center 358 m (1,175 ft) 75 2018  China Suzhou [46]
Icon Tower 1 350 m (1,150 ft) 75 2018  Indonesia Jakarta

List by continent

The following list shows the tallest completed buildings located in each continent listed by greatest to least height:

Continent Building Height Floor count Completed Country City
Asia Burj Khalifa 828 m (2,717 ft) 160 2010  United Arab Emirates Dubai
Europe Federation Tower 374 m (1,227 ft) 95 2015  Russia Moscow
North America One World Trade Center 541.3 m (1,776 ft) 104 2014  United States New York City
Oceania Q1 323 m (1,060 ft) 78 2005  Australia Gold Coast
South America Gran Torre Santiago[47] 300 m (980 ft) 64 2012  Chile Santiago
Africa Carlton Centre 225.5 m (740 ft) 50 1973  South Africa Johannesburg
Antarctica Long Duration Balloon (LDB) Payload Preparation Buildings[48] 15 m (49 ft) - 2005[49]  Antarctica McMurdo Station

See also

Notes

A. ^ Destroyed buildings not included
B. ^ Topped out but not completed.

References

  1. ^ "Burj Dubai now a record 688m tall and continues to rise". Emaar Properties. 1 September 2008. Retrieved 1 September 2008. 
  2. ^ "The Tallest 20 in 2020: Entering the Era of the Megatall". CTBUH. 8 December 2011. Retrieved 19 October 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c "100 tallest completed buildings in the world". CTBUH. Retrieved 27 April 2012. 
  4. ^ Lynn S. Beedle. "Tallest: Petronas vs. Sears Tower Controversy". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved 2014-08-24. 
  5. ^ "CTBUH changes height criteria, Burj Khalifa height increases". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. 17 November 2009. Retrieved 18 November 2009. 
  6. ^ Binders, George (August 2006). 101 of the World's Tallest Buildings. p. 102.
  7. ^ "Tall Buildings In Numbers Vanity Height". Ctbuh.org. Retrieved 2013-09-21. 
  8. ^ "Most of the World's Tallest Buildings Game the System With 'Vanity Height' - Jenny Xie". The Atlantic Cities. 2013-09-09. Retrieved 2013-09-21. 
  9. ^ Adapted from Emporis - World's Tallest Skyscrapers Archived 2010-12-25 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ "China tallest building, Shanghai Tower, gets final beam". 3 August 2013. Retrieved 4 August 2013. 
  11. ^ a b Abraj Al-Bait Towers at CTBUH
  12. ^ Guangzhou CTF Finance Centre at CTBUH
  13. ^ Taipei 101 at CTBUH
  14. ^ CTBUH: Trump Tower Chicago
  15. ^ a b "Princess Tower | Buildings". Dubai /: Emporis. Retrieved 2012-08-21. 
  16. ^ http://realty.interfax.ru/realtyinf.asp?id=445420&sec=1460
  17. ^ CTF Finance Centre at CTBUH
  18. ^ "Kingdom Tower in Saudi Arabia Will Soon Be the World's Tallest Building". Retrieved 2014-12-28. 
  19. ^ "Rama IX Super Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  20. ^ "Skyfame Center Landmark Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  21. ^ "Dalian Greenland Center - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com.  line feed character in |title= at position 26 (help)
  22. ^ "Evergrande IFC 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  23. ^ "Corporate Avenue 1 - The Skyscraper Center". skyscrapercenter.com.  line feed character in |title= at position 21 (help)
  24. ^ "Lakhta Center - The Skyscraper Center". skyscrapercenter.com.  line feed character in |title= at position 16 (help)
  25. ^ "TRX Signature Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  26. ^ "China Resources Centre Block A". The Skyscraper Center. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved October 21, 2014. 
  27. ^ "Lodha’s premium project require a capex of Rs 2000 crore". Moneycontrol.com. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  28. ^ (AFP) – Jun 7, 2010 (2010-06-07). "AFP: Mumbai plans world's tallest apartment block". Google.com. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  29. ^ "Sakaal Times". Sakaal Times. 2010-06-08. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  30. ^ "World’s tallest apartment in Mumbai by 2014 - Videos - India - IBNLive". Ibnlive.in.com. 2010-02-03. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  31. ^ "Mumbai". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2012-08-21. 
  32. ^ "World One, Mumbai". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2012-08-21. 
  33. ^ SHoP Goes Skinny
  34. ^ "Diamond Tower". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  35. ^ "One Vanderbilt". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  36. ^ "Hongshu Bay Metro Station Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  37. ^ "Guiyang Financial Center Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  38. ^ "Ningbo Center Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  39. ^ "Altitude". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  40. ^ "Fairmont Kuala Lumpur Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  41. ^ "Coronation Square Tower 1". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  42. ^ "Hai Tian Center Tower 2". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  43. ^ "Guiyang Financial Center Tower 2". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  44. ^ "La Maison by HDS". CTBUH Skyscraper Database. 
  45. ^ "Oberoi Oasis Residential Tower;". CTBUH. Retrieved 2012-08-23. 
  46. ^ "Greenland Group Suzhou Center". The Skyscraper Center. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved October 21, 2014. 
  47. ^ "Costanera Center es oficialmente el edificio más alto de Latinoámerica". La Segunda. 2012-02-14. 
  48. ^ "McMurdo Station - Antarctica", StratoCat. Retrieved 26 April 2014.
  49. ^ Jones, W. Vernon. "Report on the Balloon Program", NASA Astrophysics Subcommittee Meeting. 16 April 2013.

External links