Voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant
||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (September 2015)|
||This article's discussion of the second sound in particular (the voiced alveolo-palatal non-sibilant fricative) provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject. (September 2015)|
|Voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant|
The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) that represents this sound is ⟨ʑ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is z\.
Although the voiced alveolo-palatal non-sibilant fricative (which has the features of ⟨ʑ⟩ except sibilance) has not been reported to occur in any language, it can be represented in the IPA as either ⟨ʝ͇⟩ or ⟨ʝ̟⟩.
Features of the voiced alveolo-palatal fricative:
- Its manner of articulation is sibilant fricative, which means it is generally produced by channeling air flow along a groove in the back of the tongue up to the place of articulation, at which point it is focused against the sharp edge of the nearly clenched teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is alveolo-palatal. This means that:
- Its place of articulation is postalveolar, meaning that the tongue contacts the roof of the mouth in the area behind the alveolar ridge (the gum line).
- Its tongue shape is laminal, meaning that it is the tongue blade that contacts the roof of the mouth.
- It is heavily palatalized, meaning that the middle of the tongue is bowed and raised towards the hard palate.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Abkhaz||ажьа||[aˈʑa]||'hare'||See Abkhaz phonology|
|Catalan||Eastern and Majorcan||ajut||[əˈʑut]||'help' (n.)||See Catalan phonology|
|Chinese||Jiangshan dialect of Wu||十||[ʑyœʔ]||'ten'|
|Japanese||火事/kaji||[kaʑi]||'fire'||Found in free variation with [dʲʑ] between vowels. See Japanese phonology|
|Polish||źrebię||[ˈʑrɛbjɛw̃] (help·info)||'foal'||Also denoted by the digraph ⟨zi⟩. See Polish phonology|
|Portuguese||Brazilian||magia||[mɐˈʑi.ɐ]||'magic', 'sorcery'||Allophonic variation of /ʒ/. Contrasts with other sibilants only in onset. Argued both to be laminal [ʒ], and generally produced "in the middle of the hard palate", same of fellow alveolo-palatal [l̠ʲ] and [n̠ʲ], and further palatalized than Italian post-alveolars. Found in coda mainly before fricative, coronal and palatalized consonants in Brazil. See Portuguese phonology|
|European (?)||rasgos dóem||[ˈʀaʑguʑ ˈdɔẽj]||'[these] rips hurt'|
|Many Brazilian dialects||eles, desde sempre||[ˈeɫiʑ ˈdeʑdʑi̥ ˈsẽpɾi̥]||'they, since ever'|
|Some speakers||[ˈelɪz ˈdeɪ̯ʑːɪ ˈsẽpɾɪ]|
|Romanian||Transylvanian dialects||geană||[ʑanə][stress?]||'eyelash'||Realized as [dʒ] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology|
|Russian||езжу||[ˈjeʑːʊ]||'I drive'||Most speakers. Usually written ⟨жж⟩ or ⟨зж⟩. See Russian phonology|
|Serbo-Croatian||Croatian||пуж ħе / puž će||[pûːʑ t͡ɕe̞]||'the snail will'||Allophone of /ʒ/ before /t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ/. See Serbo-Croatian phonology|
- Recasens & Espinosa (2007:145, 167)
- Zygis (2003), pp. 180–181.
- Jassem (2003:103)
- seqüências de (sibilante + africada alveopalatal) no português falado em Belo Horizonte Page 18 (Portuguese)
- Análise acústica de sequências de fricativas seguidas de [i produzidas por japoneses aprendizes de português brasileiro] (Portuguese)
- Considerações sobre o status das palato-alveolares em português (Portuguese)
- Dialects of Brazil: the palatalization of the phonemes /t/ and /d/ Page 27 (Portuguese)
- Pará Federal University – The pronunciation of /s/ and its variations across Bragança municipality's Portuguese (Portuguese)
- Rio de Janeiro Federal University – The variation of post-vocallic /S/ in the speech of Petrópolis, Itaperuna and Paraty (Portuguese)
- Pop (1938), p. 30.
- Landau et al. (1999:68)
- Sjoberg (1963:11)
- Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
- Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
- Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
- Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2007), "An electropalatographic and acoustic study of affricates and fricatives in two Catalan dialects" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (2): 143–172, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002829
- Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar
- Zygis, Marzena (2003), "Phonetic and Phonological Aspects of Slavic Sibilant Fricatives" (PDF), ZAS Papers in Linguistics 3: 175–213