Voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant
|Voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant|
The voiced alveolo-palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some oral languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʑ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is z\.
Features of the voiced alveolo-palatal fricative:
- Its manner of articulation is sibilant fricative, which means it is generally produced by channeling air flow along a groove in the back of the tongue up to the place of articulation, at which point it is focused against the sharp edge of the nearly clenched teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is alveolo-palatal. This means that:
- Its place of articulation is postalveolar, meaning that the tongue contacts the roof of the mouth in the area behind the alveolar ridge (the gum line).
- Its tongue shape is laminal, meaning that it is the tongue blade that contacts the roof of the mouth.
- It is heavily palatalized, meaning that the middle of the tongue is bowed and raised towards the hard palate.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Abkhaz||ажьа||[aˈʑa]||'hare'||See Abkhaz phonology|
|Catalan||Eastern and Majorcan||ajut||[əˈʑut]||'help' (n.)||See Catalan phonology|
|Chinese||Southern Min||今仔日 kin-á-ji̍t||[kɪn˧a˥ʑɪt˥]||'today'|
|Japanese||火事 kaji||[kaʑi]||'fire'||Found in free variation with [dʲʑ] between vowels. See Japanese phonology|
|Polish||źrebię||[ˈʑrɛbjɛw̃] (help·info)||'foal'||Also denoted by the digraph ⟨zi⟩. See Polish phonology|
|Portuguese||Brazilian||magia||[mɐˈʑi.ɐ]||'magic', 'sorcery'||Allophonic variation of /ʒ/. Contrasts with other sibilants only in onset. Argued both to be laminal [ʒ], and generally produced "in the middle of the hard palate", same of fellow alveolo-palatal [l̠ʲ] and [n̠ʲ], and further palatalized than Italian post-alveolars. Found in coda mainly before fricative, coronal and palatalized consonants in Brazil. See Portuguese phonology|
|European (?)||rasgos dóem||[ˈʀaʑguʑ ˈdɔẽj]||'[these] rips hurt'|
|Many Brazilian dialects||eles, desde sempre||[ˈeɫiʑ ˈdeʑdʑi̥ ˈsẽpɾi̥]||'they, since ever'|
|Some speakers||[ˈelɪz ˈdeɪ̯ʑːɪ ˈsẽpɾɪ]|
|Romanian||Transylvanian dialects||geană||[ʑanə][stress?]||'eyelash'||Realized as [dʒ] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology|
|Russian||езжу||[ˈjeʑːʊ]||'I drive'||Most speakers. Usually written ⟨жж⟩ or ⟨зж⟩. See Russian phonology|
|Serbo-Croatian||Croatian||пуж ħе / puž će||[pûːʑ t͡ɕe̞]||'the snail will'||Allophone of /ʒ/ before /t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ/. See Serbo-Croatian phonology|
- Recasens & Espinosa (2007:145, 167)
- Zygis (2003), pp. 180–181.
- Jassem (2003:103)
- seqüências de (sibilante + africada alveopalatal) no português falado em Belo Horizonte Page 18 (Portuguese)
- Análise acústica de sequências de fricativas seguidas de [i produzidas por japoneses aprendizes de português brasileiro] (Portuguese)
- Considerações sobre o status das palato-alveolares em português (Portuguese)
- Dialects of Brazil: the palatalization of the phonemes /t/ and /d/ Page 27 (Portuguese)
- Pará Federal University – The pronunciation of /s/ and its variations across Bragança municipality's Portuguese (Portuguese)
- Rio de Janeiro Federal University – The variation of post-vocallic /S/ in the speech of Petrópolis, Itaperuna and Paraty (Portuguese)
- Pop (1938), p. 30.
- Landau et al. (1999:68)
- Sjoberg (1963:11)
- Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
- Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
- Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
- Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2007), "An electropalatographic and acoustic study of affricates and fricatives in two Catalan dialects" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (2): 143–172, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002829
- Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar
- Zygis, Marzena (2003), "Phonetic and Phonological Aspects of Slavic Sibilant Fricatives" (PDF), ZAS Papers in Linguistics 3: 175–213