Charing Cross railway station

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Charing Cross
National Rail
London Charing Cross
Charingcross-eye s.jpg
Approach tracks across the River Thames
Charing Cross is located in Central London
Charing Cross
Charing Cross
Location of Charing Cross in Central London
Location Charing Cross
Local authority City of Westminster
Managed by Network Rail
Station code CHX
DfT category A
Number of platforms 6
Accessible Yes [1]
Fare zone 1
OSI Charing Cross LU [2]
Embankment
Cycle Parking No
Toilet Facilities Yes
National Rail annual entry and exit
2007–08 Increase 36.294 million[3]
2008–09 Increase 37.105 million[3]
2009–10 Decrease 36.460 million[3]
2010–11 Increase 37.222 million[3]
2011–12 Increase 38.114 million[3]
— interchange 1.959 million[3]
2012–13 Increase 38.607 million[3]
— interchange Decrease 1.879 million[3]
Key dates
1864 (1864) Opened
Other information
Lists of stations
External links
Portal icon London Transport portal
Portal icon UK Railways portalCoordinates: 51°30′29″N 0°07′30″W / 51.508°N 0.125°W / 51.508; -0.125

Charing Cross railway station,[4] also known as London Charing Cross,[5] (sometimes informally abbreviated as Charing X) is a central London railway terminus in the City of Westminster, England. It is one of 19 stations managed by Network Rail [6] and all regular trains serving it are operated by Southeastern. It is the fifth busiest rail terminal in London. The office and shopping complex above the station is formally known as Embankment Place.

The station takes its name from its location next to the central London road junction of Charing Cross. The front of the station faces the Strand, while at the other end is the northern end of Hungerford Bridge, which is crossed by all trains serving the station. Ticket barriers control access to all platforms, although the bridge entrance has no barriers and is only open to passengers during the morning peak hours.

Charing Cross is the London terminus of the South Eastern Main Line. All regular services are operated by Southeastern which provides the majority of commuter/regional services to South East London and Kent.

History[edit]

Nearing completion in 1864, showing the pre-1905 arched roof
The front entrance of Charing Cross station in a 19th-century print. The Charing Cross is in front of the Charing Cross Hotel, now a Guoman hotel.
A replica of the Eleanor Cross in Charing Cross station forecourt

The original station building was built on the site of the Hungerford Market by the South Eastern Railway and opened on 11 January 1864. The station was designed by Sir John Hawkshaw, with a single span wrought iron roof arching over the six platforms on its relatively cramped site. It is built on a brick arched viaduct, the level of the rails above the ground varying from 13 feet at the north-east end to 27 feet at the bridge abutment at the south-east end. A year later the Charing Cross Hotel, designed by Edward Middleton Barry, opened on 15 May 1865 and gave the station an ornate frontage in the French Renaissance style.

Eleanor Cross[edit]

Contemporary with the Charing Cross Hotel was a replica of the Eleanor Cross in Red Mansfield stone, also designed by Edward Middleton Barry, that was erected in the station forecourt. It was based on the original 13th century Whitehall Cross that had been demolished in 1647. Distances in London are officially measured from the original site of the cross in Whitehall, now the statue of Charles I, and not from this replica cross.

The condition of the cross deteriorated until it was in such a vulnerable condition that it was placed on the English Heritage At Risk Register in 2008. A ten-month project to repair and restore the cross was completed in August 2010. This work included recreating and attaching almost 100 missing ornamental features including heraldic shields, an angel, pinnacles, crockets and finials; securing weak or fractured masonry with stainless steel pins and rods and re-attaching decorative items which had previously been removed after becoming loose.[7]

The station in 1971
Station entrance and Hotel (1983)

1905 roof collapse[edit]

A 77-foot (23 m) length of the elegant original roof structure, comprising the two end bays at the south of the station, and part of the western wall collapsed at 3.45 pm on 5 December 1905. A gang of men were employed at the time in repairing, glazing and painting the section of roof which fell. Shortly after 3.30 pm a loud noise was heard in the roof and it was noticed that one of the main tie rods had broken and was hanging down. Part of the roof began to sag and cracks appeared in the western wall. It was another 12 minutes before the collapse occurred, which enabled trains and platforms to be evacuated and incoming trains to be held back. The roof, girders and debris fell across four passenger trains standing in platforms 3, 4, 5 and 6 and all rail lines were blocked. The part of the western wall which fell crashed through the wall and roof of the neighbouring Royal Avenue Theatre (now the Playhouse Theatre) in Northumberland Avenue which was being reconstructed at the time. Six lives were lost (two workmen on the roof, a W.H. Smith bookstall vendor and three workmen on the Royal Avenue Theatre site).[8]

At the Board Of Trade Inquiry into the accident doubts were expressed by expert witnesses about the design of the roof, even though the cause of the failure was attributed to a faulty weld in a tie rod. Consequently, the South Eastern and Chatham Railway decided not to repair the roof but to replace it. An enormous travelling timber gantry had to be constructed to take the remainder of the station roof down safely. The replacement was a utilitarian post and girder structure supporting a ridge and furrow roof. The curve of the original roof design can still be seen on the interior brickwork. The station was re-opened on 19 March 1906.

Hastings express in 1957

Second World War[edit]

Following bomb damage in the Second World War, the hotel received extensive repairs in 1951, ten years after being bombed. In general, this consisted of a whole new set of top floors. The elaborate Mansard roof of the upper floors of the hotel was rebuilt in a plain neo-Georgian white brick.

Recent events[edit]

In 1990 most of the area over the British Rail platforms was covered by Embankment Place, a post-modern office and shopping complex designed by Terry Farrell and Partners. This development led to the replacement of almost the whole of the 1906 roof. The rear two spans of this structure – immediately adjacent to the existing concourse roof – were retained as part of an enlarged waiting area. In addition the original retaining side walls of the station which once supported it remain in near complete condition.[9] Most of the Embankment Place complex is currently occupied by PricewaterhouseCoopers.

Concourse in 2014

Services[edit]

The station concourse before the Solari boards were replaced
Trains to and from Charing Cross go over Hungerford Bridge to cross the River Thames.

Trains run a high frequency service between Charing Cross and London Bridge calling at Waterloo East. As of December 2010 the typical off-peak service from the station is:

Services are formed using Southeastern's fleet of Class 375 and Class 376 Electrostars and older Class 465 and Class 466 Networker units.

Charing Cross station from the River Thames
Preceding station National Rail National Rail Following station
Terminus   Southeastern
South Eastern Main Line
  Waterloo East

Connections[edit]

Mainline railways around the South Bank
Charing Cross
Hungerford Bridge across River Thames
Waterloo International (1994-2007)
SWML &c. Waterloo
Waterloo East
Blackfriars Road (1864-1868)
Thameslink and to Sevenoaks
Elephant & Castle
/ B'friars / City Tlk.  TLK
 (, above, was B'friars Bdg [1864-85])
Cannon Street
London Bridge
River Thames
Brighton and SE Main Lines

Charing Cross is served by two London Underground stations, one at each end: Charing Cross, and Embankment. Charing Cross railway station is within walking distance. Embankment and Charing Cross have an Oyster Out of Station Interchange.

Originally Embankment was called Charing Cross, while the present Charing Cross was Trafalgar Square (Bakerloo line) and Strand (Northern line) stations, combining under the new name when connected by the new Jubilee Line station in 1979. The change of name acknowledged that Strand and Trafalgar Square were closer to the station than Embankment. Note that additionally, for a short time, the stations were signed as "Charing Cross Embankment" and "Charing Cross Strand". The Jubilee line platforms are no longer served, following the 1999 extension of the line in which it was diverted to Westminster and onwards south of the river Thames.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "London and South East" (pdf). National Rail Enquiries. National Rail. September 2006. Archived from the original on 6 March 2009. 
  2. ^ "Out of Station Interchanges" (Microsoft Excel). Transport for London. May 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-10-20. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "Station usage estimates". Rail statistics. Office of Rail Regulation.  Please note: Some methodology may vary year on year.
  4. ^ "Stations Run by Network Rail". Network Rail. Retrieved 23 August 2009. 
  5. ^ "Station facilities for London Charing Cross". National Rail Enquiries. Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  6. ^ "Commercial information". Our Stations. London: Network Rail. April 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2014. 
  7. ^ "Eleanor Cross restored at Charing Cross station". Rail-News.com. 9 August 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 
  8. ^ http://www.railwaysarchive.co.uk/documents/BoT_CharingCross1905.pdf
  9. ^ "London Charing Cross". Kentrail.org.uk. Retrieved 13 December 2011. 

External links[edit]