Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate

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Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate
t͡ɕ
t͜ɕ
c͡ɕ
c͜ɕ
IPA number 215
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʨ
Unicode (hex) U+02A8
X-SAMPA t_s\ or c_s\
Listen

The voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are ⟨t͡ɕ⟩, ⟨t͜ɕ⟩, ⟨c͡ɕ⟩ and ⟨c͜ɕ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are t_s\ and c_s\, though transcribing the stop component with ⟨c⟩ (c in X-SAMPA) is rare. The tie bar is sometimes omitted, yielding ⟨⟩ or ⟨⟩ in the IPA and ts\ or cs\ in X-SAMPA. This is potentially problematic in case of at least some affricates, because there are languages that contrast certain affricates with stop-fricative sequences. Polish words czysta ('clean (f.)', pronounced with an affricate /t͡ʂ/) and trzysta ('three hundred', pronounced with a sequence /tʂ/) are an example of a minimal pair based on such a contrast.

Neither [t] nor [c] are a completely narrow transcription of the stop component, which can be narrowly transcribed as [t̠ʲ] (retracted and palatalized [t]) or [c̟] (advanced [c]). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are t_-' or t_-_j and c_+, respectively.

This affricate used to have a dedicated symbol ⟨ʨ⟩, which was one of the six dedicated symbols for affricates in the International Phonetic Alphabet. It occurs in languages such as Mandarin Chinese, Polish, Serbo-Croatian, and Russian, and is the sibilant equivalent of voiceless palatal affricate.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate:

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan[1] All dialects fletxa [ˈfɫet͡ɕə] 'arrow' See Catalan phonology
Valencian xec [ˈt͡ɕek] 'cheque'
Chinese Cantonese /zyu1 [tɕyː˥] 'pig' Contrasts with aspirated form. Allophone of /t͡s/, usually in front of the front high vowels /iː/, /ɪ/, /yː/. See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin 北京/Běijīng About this sound [peɪ˨˩ t͡ɕiŋ˥]  'Beijing' Contrasts with aspirated form. Pronounced by some speakers as a palatalized dental. In complementary distribution with [t͡s], [k], and [ʈ͡ʂ] series. See Standard Chinese phonology
Danish[2] tjener [ˈt͡ɕe̝ːnɐ] 'servant' Normal realization of the sequence /tj/.[2] See Danish phonology
Japanese 知人/chijin [t͡ɕid͡ʑĩɴ] 'acquaintance' See Japanese phonology
Korean /jip [t͡ɕip̚] 'house' See Korean phonology
Norwegian tjern [t͡ɕæɳ] 'pond' See Norwegian phonology
Polish[3] ćma About this sound [t͡ɕmä]  'moth' See Polish phonology
Romanian Banat dialect[4] frate [frat͡ɕe][stress?] 'brother' One of the most distinct phonological features of the Banat dialect. Corresponds to [t][in which environments?] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian чуть [t͡ɕʉtʲ] 'barely' See Russian phonology
Sema[5] akichi [à̠kìt͡ɕì] 'mouth' Possible allophone of /t͡ʃ/ before /i, e/; can be realized as [t͡ʃ] instead.[5]
Serbo-Croatian Ловћен / Lovćen [ɫǒ̞ʋt͡ɕe̞n] 'Lovćen' Merges with /t͡ʃ/ in most Croatian and some Bosnian accents. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Sorbian Lower[6] šćit [ɕt͡ɕit̪] 'protection'
Swedish Finland kjol [t͡ɕuːl] 'skirt' See Swedish phonology
Thai[7] จาน [t͡ɕaːn] 'dish' Contrasts with aspirated form.
Uzbek[8] [example needed]
Vietnamese cha [t͡ɕa] 'father' See Vietnamese phonology
Xumi Lower[9] [Ht͡ɕɐ] 'star'
Upper[10] [Ht͡ɕɜ]
Yi /ji [t͡ɕi˧] 'sour' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]