List of government-owned companies

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This is a world-wide list of government-owned companies. This list can be considered as non-exhaustive because of lack of space and time. For example, China alone has in the wikipedia database as of October 2019 more than 350 individual entries in its "Government-owned companies of China" Category page.

The paragraph that follows was paraphrased from a 1996 GAO report which investigated only the 20th-century American experience. The GAO report did not consider the potential use in the international forum of SOEs as extensions of a nation's foreign policy utensils. A government-owned corporation is a legal entity that undertakes commercial activities on behalf of an owner government. Their legal status varies from being a part of government to stock companies with a state as a regular stockholder. There is no standard definition of a government-owned corporation (GOC) or state-owned enterprise (SOE), although the two terms can be used interchangeably. The defining characteristics are that they have a distinct legal form and that they are established to operate in commercial affairs. While they may also have public policy objectives, GOCs should be differentiated from other forms of government agencies or state entities established to pursue purely non-financial objectives.[1]

Government-owned companies[edit]

Afghanistan[edit]

In 2009, the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan formed the Afghan Public Protection Force (APPF) as a "state owned enterprise" subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior. By presidential decree, the APPF is mandated to replace all non-diplomatic private security companies by 20 March 2013 to become the sole provider of pay-for-service security contracts within Afghanistan.[2]

Albania[edit]

Algeria[edit]

Argentina[edit]

Australia[edit]

Defence Housing Australia

Austria[edit]

  • ÖBB (national railway system of Austria, administrator of Liechtenstein's railways)
  • ASFINAG (Autobahn and highway financing, building, maintaining and administration)
  • Hypo Alpe-Adria-Bank International: Austria nationalised this bank in 2009, and in 2014 its then-Chancellor feared its insolvency might have a similar effect to the Creditanstalt event of 1931.[3]
  • Verbund 51% SOE (electricity generator and provider)
  • Volksbank 43.3% SOE (retail banking group, with additional operations in Hungary, Romania and Malta)
  • ORF: funded from television licence fee revenue, dominant player in the Austrian broadcast media
  • Österreichische Industrieholding (ÖIAG): Austrian industry-holding stock corporation for partially or entirely nationalized companies, as of 2005:
    • 31.50% of the oil producer OMV: an integrated international oil and gas company
    • 28.42% of Telekom Austria: fixed line, mobile, data, and Internet communications services
    • 52.85% of Österreichische Post: postal services
    • 100% of ÖIAG-Bergbauholding
    • 100% of Finanzmarkt Beteiligungs AG (FIMBAG)

Azerbaijan[edit]

Bangladesh[edit]

Belgium[edit]

Region of Wallonia owns:

Belize[edit]

Brazil[edit]

State-owned enterprises are divided into public enterprises (empresa pública) and mixed-economy companies (sociedade de economia mista). The public enterprises are subdivided into two categories: individual – with its own assets and capital owned by the Union – and plural companies – whose assets are owned by multiple government agencies and the Union, which have the majority of the voting interest. Caixa Econômica Federal, Correios, Embrapa, BNDES and USP are examples of public enterprises. Mixed-economy companies are enterprises with the majority of stocks owned by the government, but that also have stocks owned by the private sector and usually have their shares traded on stock exchanges. Banco do Brasil, Petrobras, Sabesp, and Eletrobras are examples of mixed-economy companies.

Beginning in the 1990s, the central government of Brazil launched a privatization program inspired by the Washington Consensus. State-owned enterprises such as Vale do Rio Doce, Telebrás, CSN, and Usiminas (most of them mixed-economy companies) were transferred to the private sector as part of this policy.

Brasil State Owned Companies Fact Sheet / Download from the planejamento.gov.br website.[4]

Brunei[edit]

Bulgaria[edit]

Canada[edit]

In Canada, state-owned corporations are referred to as Crown corporations, indicating that an organization is established by law, owned by the sovereign (either in right of Canada or a province), and overseen by parliament and cabinet. Examples of federal Crown corporations include:

Ministers of the Crown often control the shares in such public corporations, while parliament both sets out the laws that create and bind Crown corporations and sets their annual budgets.

Foreign SOEs are welcome to invest in Canada: in fall 2013, British Columbia[5][6] and Alberta[7][8][9] signed agreements overseas to promote foreign direct investment in Canada. The Investment Canada Act governs this area federally. Former Prime Minister Stephen Harper stated in 2013 that the "government [needs] to exercise its judgement" over SOEs.[10]

Saskatchewan has maintained the largest number of Crown corporations, including:

Crown corporations of British Columbia include:

In Ontario:

In Quebec:

Privatization, or the selling of Crown corporations to private interests, has become common throughout Canada over the past 30 years. Petro-Canada, Canadian National Railway, and Air Canada are examples of former federal Crown corporations that have been privatized. Privatized provincial Crown corporations include Alberta Government Telephones (which merged with privately owned BC Tel to form Telus), BCRIC, Manitoba Telecom Services, Saskatchewan Oil & Gas Corporation and Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan.

China[edit]

After 1949, all business entities in the People's Republic of China were created and owned by the government. In the late 1980s, the government began to reform the state-owned enterprise, and during the 1990s and 2000s, many mid-sized and small sized state-owned enterprises were privatized and went public. There are a number of different corporate forms which result in a mixture of public and private capital. In PRC terminology, a state-owned enterprise refers to a particular corporate form, which is increasingly being replaced by the listed company.[citation needed] State-owned enterprises are mostly governed by both local governments' SASAC and, in the central government, the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission (SASAC) of the State Council. However, some state-owned enterprise were governed by China Investment Corporation (and its domestic arm Central Huijin Investment), as well as under the governance of Ministry of Education for the university-run enterprises, or some financial institutes that were under the governance of the Ministry of Finance.

As of 2011, 35% of business activity and 43% of profits in the People's Republic of China resulted from companies in which the state owned a majority interest. Critics, such as The New York Times, have alleged that China's state-owned companies are a vehicle for corruption by the families of ruling party leaders who have sometimes amassed fortunes while managing them.[11]

Hong Kong[edit]

In the postwar years, Hong Kong's colonial government operated under a laissez-faire economic philosophy called positive non-interventionism. Hence Crown corporations did not play as significant a role in the development of the territory as in many other British territories.

The MTR Corporation (MTR) was formed as a Crown corporation, mandated to operate under "prudent commercial principles", in 1975. The Kowloon-Canton Railway, operated under a government department, was corporatised in 1982 to imitate the success of MTR (see Kowloon-Canton Railway Corporation). MTR was privatised in 2000 although the Hong Kong Government is still the majority shareholder. KCR was operationally merged with MTR in 2007.

Examples of present-day statutory bodies include the Airport Authority, responsible for running the Hong Kong International Airport, or the Housing Authority, which provides housing to about half of Hong Kong residents.

Colombia[edit]

Cuba[edit]

Czech Republic[edit]

Denmark[edit]

Municipal

  • Aarhus Vand A/S
  • Kalundborg Forsyning A/S
  • Middelgrunden offshore electricity generation wind farm
  • Samsø offshore electricity generation wind farm and district heating plants
  • Vandcenter Syd as

Egypt[edit]

Finland[edit]

France[edit]

Gabon[edit]

Germany[edit]

Ghana[edit]

Greenland[edit]

Hungary[edit]

India[edit]

In India, state-owned enterprise is termed a Public Sector Undertaking (PSU) or a Central Public Sector Enterprise (CPSE). These companies are owned by the Union Government, or one of the many state or territorial governments, or both. The company equity needs to be majority owned by the government to be a PSU. Examples are Life Insurance Corporation of India, Oil and Natural Gas Corporation, Engineers India Limited, India Trade Promotion Organization, GAIL, BSNL, Food Corporation of India, Air India, and Bharat Heavy Electrials Limited (BHEL).

Indonesia[edit]

Iran[edit]

Iraq[edit]

Ireland[edit]

Israel[edit]

Central post office and the headquarters of Israel Postal Company in Jerusalem

Italy[edit]

Companies owned by the Ministry of Economy and Finances:

Japan[edit]

State-owned enterprises in Japan are commonly divided into tokushu hōjin (特殊法人, lit. "special legal person") and tokushu gaisha (特殊会社, lit. "special company"). Tokushu hōjin are the Japanese equivalent to statutory corporations; tokushu gaisha are kabushiki gaisha owned wholly or majorly by the government.

Japan Post was reorganized into Japan Post Group in 2007 as a material step of the postal privatization. It ceased to be wholly owned by the government on November 4, 2015 when the government listed 11% of its holdings on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. Parts of the Japan Railways Group (JR) were formerly owned by the government. The Electric Power Development Co., Limited was also state-owned before being privatized.

Tokushu hōjin[edit]

Tokushu gaisha[edit]

Kazakhstan[edit]

Kenya[edit]

A Kenya Railways GE U26C type locomotive

Parastatals in Kenya, partly from a lack of expertise and endemic corruption, have largely inhibited economic development. In 1979, a presidential commission went as far as saying that they constituted "a serious threat to the economy", and, by 1989, they had still not furthered industrialization or fostered the development of a Black business class.[12]

Several Kenyan SOEs have been privatized since the 1980s, with mixed results.[13][14]

South Korea[edit]

There are many state-owned enterprises in South Korea.

Latvia[edit]

Libya[edit]

Lithuania[edit]

Luxembourg[edit]

Madagascar[edit]

Malaysia[edit]

Mauritius[edit]

Mexico[edit]

Namibia[edit]

Netherlands[edit]

New Zealand[edit]

New Zealanders commonly refer to their state-owned enterprises as "SOEs", or as "crown entities". Local government councils and similar authorities also set up locally controlled enterprises, such as water-supply companies and "local-authority trading enterprises" (LATEs) as separate corporations or as business units of the councils concerned.

Government-owned businesses designated as crown entities include:

New Zealand's state-owned enterprises have included:

State-owned enterprises which have undergone privatisation and subsequent renationalisation:

Nigeria[edit]

North Korea[edit]

Norway[edit]

Oman[edit]

Pakistan[edit]

Pakistan has a large list of government owned companies called State owned entities (SOEs). These played an important role in the development of the business and industry in Pakistan, but recently they are considered responsible for fiscal difficulties of the government due to corruption and bad governance. These SOEs, roughly 190 in number, operate in a wide range of economic areas including energy, communication, transport, shipping, trading, and banking & finance. Some of the most common examples of crown companies in Pakistan are Pakistan State Oil, Sui Norther Gas Pipelines, Pakistan International Airlines, and Pakistan Steel Mills.

Panama[edit]

Philippines[edit]

In the Philippines, state-owned enterprises are known as government-owned and controlled corporations (GOCCs). They can range from the Social Security System (SSS) and the Philippine Coconut Authority with no counterparts in the private sector, to Land Bank of the Philippines, a wholly government-owned bank that competes with private banks. A number of government-owned and controlled corporations, especially those that were seized by the President Ferdinand Marcos during his time as the leader of the Fourth Republic of the Philippines, were given back to the original owners by the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century, including Philippine Airlines (PAL), Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT), Philippine National Bank (PNB), and ABS-CBN.

Poland[edit]

Portugal[edit]

Romania[edit]

The state of Romania owns a minority stake in:

Russia[edit]

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Serbia[edit]

Seychelles[edit]

Singapore[edit]

Government-linked corporations play a substantial role in Singapore's domestic economy. These GLCs are partially or fully owned by a state-owned investment company, Temasek Holdings. As of November 2011, the top six Singapore-listed GLCs accounted for about 17% of total capitalization of the Singapore Exchange (SGX). Notable GLCs include Singapore Airlines, SingTel, ST Engineering, and MediaCorp.[17]

Slovakia[edit]

Slovenia[edit]

Slovenia is an ex-Yugoslavian republic. As such, its economy was largely state-owned prior to dissolution of that federation. The state still owns many enterprises, such as the banks, which in turn own such businesses as supermarkets and newspapers.[18]

South Africa[edit]

Spain[edit]

Sri Lanka[edit]

Sweden[edit]

There are two types. Government-owned companies are legally normal companies but mainly or fully national owned. They are expected to be funded by their sales. A big customer might be the government or a government agency. The other type is government agencies which might also do activities competing with private owned companies. They usually are funded by tax money but can also sell services. The government has tried to avoid having agencies doing commercial activities, by separating out areas that compete with private companies into government-owned companies, for example within road construction. The reason is both to avoid unfair competition, and a wish to have market economy instead of plan economy as much as possible. Based on the tradition of avoiding "ministerial rule", the government has avoided interfering with the business of the companies, and allowed them to go international.

Switzerland[edit]

Syria[edit]

Taiwan[edit]

Tanzania[edit]

The Government of Tanzania owns a number of commercial enterprises in the country via the Treasury Registrar. It wholly owns the following corporations unless indicated otherwise:[20]

Thailand[edit]

Trinidad and Tobago[edit]

Tunisia[edit]

Turkey[edit]

United Arab Emirates[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

United States[edit]

Uruguay[edit]

Venezuela[edit]

Media companies[edit]

Vietnam[edit]

Zambia[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Subcommittee on Post Office and Civil Service, Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate - GOVERNMENT CORPORATIONS - Profiles of Existing Government Corporations (PDF). United States General Accounting Office. December 1995. pp. 1–16. GAO/GGD-96-14
  2. ^ "Afghan Public Protection Force-معینیت محافظت عامه".
  3. ^ Groendahl, Boris (17 February 2014). "Faymann Evokes 1931 Austria Creditanstalt Crash on Hypo Alpe". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  4. ^ http://www.planejamento.gov.br/secretarias/upload/Arquivos/dest/perfil_empresas_estatais/2014/2015_ano_base_2014.pdf
  5. ^ Office of the Premier, International Trade, and Minister Responsible for the Asia Pacific Strategy and Multiculturalism. "Premier Clark announces Jobs and Trade Mission to Asia". Retrieved 12 September 2015.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ "B.C. minister says Malaysian investment vindicates province's bets on LNG sector". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  7. ^ "Redford’s trip to China highlights petrochemical potential", edmontonjournal.com, 17 Sep 2013.
  8. ^ "Alberta Premier Alison Redford says China's investors want more details on rules". Calgary Sun. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  9. ^ "CHINA: Canada's Alberta province signs framework agreement to expand energy ties amid waning Chinese interest". EnergyAsia. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  10. ^ "Foreign investment doesn't need 'absolute clarity: Harper". thestar.com. 8 November 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  11. ^ Bradsher, Keith (November 9, 2012). "China's Grip on Economy Will Test New Leaders". The New York Times. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  12. ^ Himbara, David (1993). "Myths and Realities of Kenyan Capitalism". Journal of Modern African Studies. 31 (1): 93–107. doi:10.1017/s0022278x00011824. JSTOR 161345.
  13. ^ "Productivity performance in Kenya" (PDF): 43. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  14. ^ "Conflicting Information Over Kenya Airways' Layoffs". Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  15. ^ Putt, Sarah (15 April 2013). "Kordia sells Orcon to private investors". Computerworld. Archived from the original on 17 April 2013. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
  16. ^ PRIVATISATION DEBATE SHOULD BE RIGOROUS | Roger Kerr, New Zealand Business Roundtable Executive Director. Rogerkerr.wordpress.com (2011-01-17). Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
  17. ^ Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs (June 2012). "2012 Investment Climate Statement - Singapore". United States Department of State. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
  18. ^ a b c d "Saved a state bailout, Slovenes question hefty banking bill". tribunedigital-chicagotribune. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  19. ^ "Revamped Airbus lives up to the European dream". Telegraph.co.uk. 5 January 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
  20. ^ "Treasury Registrar". Ministry of Finance (Tanzania). Retrieved 11 October 2014.

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]