People's Justice Party (Malaysia)

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People's Justice Party
Parti Keadilan Rakyat
ڤرتي كعاديلن رعيت
மக்கள் நீதி கட்சி
Rénmín Gōngzhèng Dǎng
Abbreviation PKR, KeADILan
Leader Anwar Ibrahim
President Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
Secretary-General Saifuddin Nasution
Spokesperson Syed Ibrahim Syed Noh
Deputy President Mohamed Azmin Ali
Vice President Nurul Izzah Anwar
Tian Chua
Shamsul Iskandar Md. Akin
Rafizi Ramli
Xavier Jayakumar Arulanandam
Shaharuddin Badaruddin
AMK's Chief Nik Nazmi Nik Ahmad
Women's Chief Rafizi Ramli
Founder Anwar Ibrahim
Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
Founded 4 April 1999 (Parti KeADILan Nasional)
3 August 2003 (Merger of Parti KeADILan Nasional and Parti Rakyat Malaysia)
Merger of Parti Keadilan Nasional and Parti Rakyat Malaysia
Headquarters A-1-09, Merchant Square, Jalan Tropicana Selatan 1, 47410 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
Newspaper Suara Keadilan
Think tank Institut Rakyat
Student wing Mahasiswa KeADILan
Youth wing Angkatan Muda KeADILan (AMK)
Women's wing Wanita KeADILan
Women's youth wing Srikandi KeADILan
Membership 150,000[citation needed]
Ideology Social liberalism
Economic justice
Social Democracy
Social Justice
Political position Centre-left
National affiliation Barisan Alternatif (1999–2004)
Pakatan Rakyat (2008–2015)
Pakatan Harapan (2015-current)
International affiliation Liberal International (observer)[2]
Colours      Light blue, red, white
Slogan Keadilan Untuk Semua, Ketuanan Rakyat, Demi Rakyat,Reformasi,Lawan Tetap Lawan,Membujur Lalu Melintang Patah"
Anthem Arus Perjuangan Bangsa
Dewan Negara:
2 / 70
Dewan Rakyat:
30 / 222
Dewan Undangan Negeri:
49 / 587
Election symbol
Coat of arms of Malaysia.svg
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Founder and current President of People's Justice Party

The People's Justice Party (Malay: Parti Keadilan Rakyat , Chinese: 人民公正党; pinyin: Rénmín Gōngzhèng Dǎng, Tamil: மக்கள் நீதி கட்சி often known simply as KeADILan or PKR) is a centrist multiracial political party in Malaysia formed in 2003 by a merger of the National Justice Party and the older Malaysian People's Party. KeADILan was led by Dr Wan Azizah Wan Ismail and increased its parliamentary representation from 1 seat to 31 seats in the 2008 general election until the five-year political ban imposed on former Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim was lifted on 14 April 2008. The party enjoys strong support from urban states such as Selangor and Penang.

KeADILan was formed for Anwar Ibrahim and his family justice[3] and promotes an agenda with a strong emphasis on social justice and anti-corruption. Recently the party adopted a platform that seeks to abolish the New Economic Policy and replace it with a policy with an emphasis on a non-ethnic approach in poverty eradication and correcting economic imbalances. It is one of the four component parties of the opposition coalition in Malaysia called the Pakatan Harapan (PH).


The early years[edit]

1997 saw the economy of Malaysia affected by what is now known as the Asian Economic Crisis. The Finance Minister, Anwar Ibrahim (also Deputy Prime Minister), instituted a series of economic reforms and austerity measures in response. These actions were exacerbated when he tabled controversial amendments to the Anti Corruption Act that sought to increase the powers of the Anti Corruption Agency.[4] Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad disagreed with these measures and ultimately sacked Anwar from all his posts.[5]

This incident and the circumstances in which it happened led to a public outcry in what became known as the Reformasi movement but it also resulted in the arrest and subsequent incarceration of Anwar on what many believe to be politically motivated charges of sexual misconduct and corruption.[6]

Building on the momentum of the Reformasi, a political movement called the Social Justice Movement (Malay: Pergerakan Keadilan Sosial) (Adil) was formed and led by Dr Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, wife of Anwar Ibrahim. But facing difficulties in registering Adil as a political party, the reformasi movement took over a small party Ikatan Masyarakat Islam Malaysia and launched as National Justice Party (Malay: Parti Keadilan Nasional) on 4 April 1999, just in time to face the 1999 general elections.The party have been noted as having rough similarities with the now-defunct multi-racial social democratic Parti Keadilan Masyarakat Malaysia (Pekemas).[7] The party was joined by the Democratic Action Party (DAP), the Malaysian People's Party (PRM) and the Malaysian Islamic Party (PAS) in a broad based electoral alliance known as Barisan Alternatif (Alternative Front) to take on the ruling Barisan Nasional (National Front) coalition in the 1999 general elections.


Between 27 and 30 September 1999, seven activists, including Keadilan leaders; Vice-President Tian Chua, N.Gobalakrishnan, Youth leader Mohd Ezam Mohd Nor, Mohamed Azmin Ali, Fairus Izuddin and Dr Badrul Amin Baharun; were arrested and as a result prevented from contesting in the elections.[8] Further arrests were made on 10 April 2001 and those arrested were subsequently charged and incarcerated under the Internal Security Act.[9] They became known as the Reformasi 10.[10]

1999 general elections[edit]

The party entered the campaign with many of its key leaders under arrest and as a result saw it winning only five parliamentary seats in the elections despite gaining 11.67% of the total votes cast. The Barisan Alternatif as a whole gained 40.21% of the total votes cast with PAS gaining 27 seats and DAP gaining ten seats.

Merger with Parti Rakyat Malaysia[edit]

The post election period saw negotiations between KeADILan and Parti Rakyat Malaysia (PRM) on a possible merger.[11] Despite some opposition in both parties to the move,[12][13] a 13-point Memorandum of Understanding was eventually signed by the two parties on 5 July 2002.[14]

On 3 August 2003, the new merged entity was officially launched and assumed its current name.[15]

2004 general elections[edit]

As the new amendments to the party constitution had yet to be approved by the Registrar of Societies, candidates from PRM contested the 2004 General Elections using the symbol of the old National Justice Party.[16]

The party fared poorly in the elections and only managed to retain one parliamentary seat, Permatang Pauh which is held by Dr Wan Azizah, despite winning 9% of the popular vote. The poor showing was later attributed to malapportionment and gerrymandering in the delineation of constituencies, with one estimate suggesting that on average, a vote for the Barisan Nasional government was worth 28 times the vote of a Keadilan supporter.[17]

Anwar Ibrahim freed[edit]

On 2 September 2004, in a decision by the Federal Court, Anwar Ibrahim's sodomy conviction was overturned and he was freed. This unexpected turn of events came timely for KeADILan which was facing flagging morale due to its dismal performance in the elections.

2008 general elections[edit]

In the 2008 elections, KeADILan won 31 seats in Parliament, with the DAP and PAS making substantial gains as well with 28 seats and 23 seats respectively. In total, the taking of 82 seats by the opposition to Barisan Nasional's 140 seats made it the best performance in Malaysian history by the opposition, and denied Barisan Nasional the two-thirds majority required to make constitutional changes in the Dewan Rakyat.

KeADILan also successfully contested the state legislative elections which saw the loose coalition of KeADILan, DAP and PAS forming coalition governments in the states of Kelantan, Kedah, Penang, Perak and Selangor. The offices of the Menteri Besar of Selangor and the Deputy Chief Minister of Penang were held by KeADILan elected representatives, Khalid Ibrahim and Mohd Fairus Khairuddin, respectively.

Anwar's return to politics[edit]

On 14 April 2008, Anwar celebrated his official return to the political stage, as his ban from public office expired a decade after he was sacked as deputy prime minister. One of the main reasons the opposition seized a third of parliamentary seats and five states in the worst ever showing for the Barisan Nasional coalition that has ruled for half a century, was due to him leading at the helm.[18] A gathering of more than 10,000 supporters greeted Anwar in a rally welcoming back his return to politics. In the midst of the rally, police interrupted Anwar after he had addressed the rally for nearly half an hour and forced him to stop the gathering.[19]

Malaysia's government intensified its efforts on 6 March to portray opposition figure Anwar Ibrahim as political turncoats, days ahead of Malaysian general election, 2008 on 8 March that would determine whether he posed a legitimate threat to the ruling coalition.[20] Campaigning wrapped up 7 March for general elections that would see gains for Malaysia's opposition amid anger over race and religion among minority Chinese and Indians.[21] Malaysians voted on 8 March 2008 in parliamentary elections.[21] Election results showed that the ruling government suffered a setback when it failed to obtain two-thirds majority in parliament, and five out of 12 state legislatures were won by the opposition parties.[22] Reasons for the setback of the ruling party, which had retained power since the nation declared independence in 1957, were the rising inflation, crime and ethnic tensions.[23]

Permatang Pauh by-election[edit]

Malaysia's government and ruling coalition declared defeat in a landslide victory in the by-election by Anwar Ibrahim. Muhammad Muhammad Taib, information chief of the United Malays National Organisation which leads the Barisan Nasional coalition stated: Yes of course we have lost . . . we were the underdogs going into this race.[24] Malaysia's Election Commission officials announced Anwar won by an astounding majority against Arif Shah Omar Shah of National Front coalition and over Prime Minister Abdullah Badawi's United Malays National Organisation (UMNO).[25] Reuters reported that according to news website Malaysiakini, Anwar Ibrahim had won with a majority of 16,210 votes. He had won 26,646 votes, while Barisan Nasional's Arif Omar won 10,436 votes.[26] Anwar's People's Justice Party's spokeswoman Ginie Lim told BBC: "We won already. We are far ahead."[27]

On 28 August 2008, Anwar, dressed in a dark blue traditional Malay outfit and black "songkok" hat, took the oath at the main chamber of Parliament house in Kuala Lumpur, as MP for Permatang Pauh at 10.03 am before Speaker Tan Sri Pandikar Amin Mulia. He formally declared Anwar the leader of the 3-party opposition alliance. With his wife Wan Azizah Wan Ismail and his daughter Nurul Izzah Anwar, also a parliamentarian, Anwar announced: "I'm glad to be back after a decade. The prime minister has lost the mandate of the country and the nation."[28][29] Anwar needed at least 30 government lawmakers especially from Sabah and Sarawak MPs' votes to defect to form a government.[30][31]

Other developments[edit]

In December 2005 KeADILan organised its second national congress.[32] Among the motions passed was the New Economic Agenda[33] that envisioned a non-racial economic policy to replace the race-based New Economic Policy.

KeADILan managed a breakthrough into Sarawak politics in May 2006. In Sarawak state elections, Dominique Ng, a lawyer and activist, won in the Padungan constituency in Kuching, a majority Chinese locale. KeADILan lost narrowly in Saribas, a Malay-Melanau constituency by just 94 votes. Sarawak is a traditional Barisan Nasional stronghold.

Keadilan has also pursued an aggressive strategy of getting key personalities from within and outside politics. In July 2006, Khalid Ibrahim, former CEO of Permodalan Nasional Berhad and Guthrie, was appointed as Treasurer of the Keadilan. K.S. Nallakarupan, a former Malaysian Indian Congress Youth, and Jeffrey Kitingan, a popular Kadazan politician and brother of Joseph Pairin Kitingan, president of the Barisan Nasional-aligned Parti Bersatu Sabah, have also recently joined the party.

On 25 July 2009 ex-MIC vice-president Datuk S.S. Subramaniam and the members of 12 MIC branches from within Petaling Jaya and Meru, Klang defected from MIC and joined Parti Keadilan Rakyat.[34]

Kajang Move[edit]

In 2014, the Party's Strategy Director then Vice-President-cum-Secretary-General, Rafizi Ramli initiated the failed Kajang Move in a bid to topple the 14th Menteri Besar of Selangor, Abdul Khalid Ibrahim, and install the party's de facto leader Anwar Ibrahim as his replacement. The political maneuver resulted in a nine-month political crisis within the state of Selangor and the Pakatan Rakyat coalition, that also involved the palace of Selangor, a by-election costing RM1.6 million in taxpayers’ money, the party losing one seat in Selangor's assembly and Malaysian Parliament. PKR also ended up not getting the Menteri Besar that it wanted.[35] The crisis concluded with the appointment of PKR's Deputy President, Azmin Ali, as the 15th Menteri Besar of Selangor. Most analysts say that the Kajang Move was a great failure.[36]


KeADILan's constitution has as one of her core principles,[37] the establishment of "a society that is just and a nation that is democratic, progressive and united". In practice, the party has primarily focused on promoting social justice,[38] economic justice,[39][40] eliminating political corruption[41] and human rights issues[42] within a non-ethnic framework.


Sodomy allegations against Anwar Ibrahim[edit]

At 11.03 pm on 29 June 2008, online news portal Malaysiakini reported that an aide of Anwar Ibrahim had lodged a police report claiming that he had been sodomised by Anwar. The news has since been updated with reports that SMS messages are being distributed claiming that the person who made the report is Anwar's aide, Saiful Bukhari, who was arrested earlier today and allegedly forced to make a false confession. The same SMS message also claimed the possibility of Anwar being arrested later today.[43]

Anwar has since denied the allegations claiming that that it was a complete fabrication and made in retaliation against him due to his recent acquisition of evidence that implicates the current Inspector General of the Police, Musa Hassan, and the Attorney General, Abdul Gani Patail, in misconduct including fabrication of evidence used against him during the 1998–1999 trials for corruption and sodomy.[44]

Suara Keadilan publication license suspended[edit]

In June 2010, Suara Keadilan's publication was suspended for publishing a report which claimed a government agency is bankrupt. Suara Keadilan is run by opposition leader Anwar Ibrahim's KeADILan party. The Home Ministry, which oversees Malaysia's newspapers, said it was not satisfied with the paper's explanation for the allegedly inaccurate report.Malaysia suspends main opposition newspaper.

Structure and membership[edit]

Current office bearers[edit]

Elected representatives[edit]

Dewan Negara (Senate)[edit]


  1. Siti Aishah Shaik Ismail – elected by the Penang State Legislative Assembly
  2. Muhammad Nor Manuty – elected by the Selangor State Legislative Assembly

Dewan Rakyat (House of Representatives)[edit]

Members of Parliament of the 13th Malaysian Parliament[edit]

PKR currently has 30 MPs.

Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Legislative Assembly)[edit]

Malaysian State Assembly Representatives[edit]

General election results[edit]

Election Total seats won Total votes Share of votes Outcome of election Election leader
5 / 193
773,679 11.67% Increase5 seats; Opposition coalition (Barisan Alternatif) Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
1 / 219
617,518 8.9% Decrease4 seats; Opposition coalition (Barisan Alternatif) Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
31 / 222
1,509,080 18.58% Increase30 seats; Opposition coalition (Pakatan Rakyat) Wan Azizah Wan Ismail
30 / 222
2,254,211 20.39% Decrease1 seats; Opposition coalition (Pakatan Rakyat) Anwar Ibrahim

State election results[edit]

State election State Legislative Assembly
Perlis State Legislative Assembly Kedah State Legislative Assembly Kelantan State Legislative Assembly Terengganu State Legislative Assembly Penang State Legislative Assembly Perak State Legislative Assembly Pahang State Legislative Assembly Selangor State Legislative Assembly Negeri Sembilan State Legislative Assembly Malacca State Legislative Assembly Johor State Legislative Assembly Sabah State Legislative Assembly Sarawak State Legislative Assembly Total won / Total contested
0 / 15
0 / 36
0 / 43
0 / 32
1 / 33
1 / 52
1 / 38
1 / 48
0 / 32
0 / 25
0 / 40
0 / 48
4 / 70
0 / 62
0 / 25
0 / 15
0 / 36
0 / 45
0 / 32
0 / 40
0 / 59
0 / 42
0 / 56
0 / 36
0 / 28
0 / 56
0 / 60
0 / 121
1 / 71
1 / 25
0 / 15
4 / 36
1 / 45
0 / 32
9 / 40
7 / 59
0 / 42
15 / 56
4 / 36
0 / 28
0 / 56
0 / 60
40 / 176
3 / 71
3 / 49
1 / 15
4 / 36
1 / 45
1 / 32
10 / 40
5 / 59
2 / 42
14 / 56
3 / 36
0 / 28
1 / 56
7 / 60
49 / 172
5 / 82
5 / 40

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Senkyr, Jan (2013), "Political Awakening in Malaysia", KAS International Reports (7): 75 
  2. ^ Parti Keadilan Rakyat, Liberal International, Retrieved on 17 November 2011.
  3. ^ "Is divorce looming in Pakatan? – Tajuddin Rosli - The Malaysian Insider". Archived from the original on 6 May 2015. 
  4. ^ "Lim Kit Siang". Lim Kit Siang. 10 September 1999. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  5. ^ Garry Rodan, Fellow, Asia Research Centre, Murdoch University, Australia Transparency, Asian Economic Crisis and the Prospects of Media Liberalisation
  6. ^ Amnesty International The arrest of Anwar Ibrahim and his political associates Archived 7 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ "A CAUTIONARY TALE OF TWO COALITIONS | A Kadir Jasin - Other Thots | Kolum". 
  8. ^ Aliran : The Rakyat have Awakened and They want Justice
  9. ^ Amnesty International : Malaysia: Fear of torture or ill-treatment / incommunicado detention / prisoners of conscience Archived 27 October 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^ Human Rights Watch : The Anwar Case and the Reformasi 10
  11. ^ Kyodo News International : Anwar's party sees future in merger with socialists[permanent dead link]
  12. ^ Malaysiakini : PRM votes to dissolve, merge with Keadilan
  13. ^ Malaysiakini : Abim faction’s opposition to Keadilan-PRM merger plan triggers party split
  14. ^ Malaysiakini : Leadership transition details included in Keadilan, PRM merger MoU
  15. ^ Malaysiakini : PKR launched, promises to be truly multi-racial
  16. ^ Malaysiakini PRM to contest elections under ally's symbol
  17. ^ Surin, Jacqueline Ann (22 Jan 2007). German electoral system more democratic Archived 18 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. The Sun.
  18. ^ "Malaysian opposition leader Anwar marks end of political ban" 14 April 2008, AFP
  19. ^ "Malaysia Police Halt Anwar Speech" 14 April 2008, AFP[dead link]
  20. ^ [1] Archived 21 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  21. ^ a b [2] Archived 12 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  22. ^ "Asia-Pacific | Election setback for Malaysia PM". BBC News. 8 March 2008. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  23. ^ [3] Archived 8 June 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ ", Malaysian government declares by-election defeat to Anwar". Archived from the original on 20 December 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  25. ^ ", Malaysia's Anwar wins by landslide in election". Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  26. ^ Chance, David (26 August 2008). ", Website says Anwar wins Malaysia vote with big majority". Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  27. ^ ", Malaysia's Anwar claims vote win". BBC News. 26 August 2008. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  28. ^, Anwar sworn in as member of Malaysian parliament Archived 24 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  29. ^ Aziz, Faisal (28 August 2008). ", NEWSMAKER – Malaysia Anwar sworn in, ends political exile". Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  30. ^ (AFP) – 27 Aug 2008 (27 August 2008). ", Malaysia's Anwar returns to parliament". Google. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  31. ^, 28 August 2008: Anwar sworn in, appointed as Opposition Leader Archived 29 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  32. ^ Malaysia Today : "keADILan akan adakan kongres kedua" Archived 18 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine.
  33. ^ Anwar Ibrahim : New Economic Agenda
  34. ^ "MIC leader joins list of defections from BN to PKR". Malaysian Insider. 25 July 2009. Archived from the original on 26 July 2009. Retrieved 25 July 2009. 
  35. ^ "2 out of 3 Kajang Move aims met with the last on the way, says PKR’s Rafizi - The Malaysian Insider". 
  36. ^ "With Azmin as MB, the failure of PKR’s Kajang Move, say analysts - The Malaysian Insider". Archived from the original on 25 September 2014. 
  37. ^ PKR : Core Principles Archived 4 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  38. ^ PKR : KeADILan questions progress of gender equality Archived 4 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  39. ^ PKR : Fair share of oil revenue for Sabah: Jeffrey Archived 4 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  40. ^ The Sun : Time for a non-race based agenda[permanent dead link]
  41. ^ PKR : Education Expenditure & Contracts Archived 4 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  42. ^ PKR (AP) : Malaysian opposition politician arrested at protest over village demolition Archived 4 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  43. ^ "Aide alleges sodomy: Report lodged". Malaysiakini. Mkini Dotcom Sdn Bhd. 28 June 2008. Retrieved 28 June 2008. 
  44. ^ "Press statement on police report" (Press release). Parti KeADILan Rakyat. 29 June 2008. Archived from the original on 2 July 2008. Retrieved 29 June 2008. 
  45. ^ Arfa Yunus (11 September 2015). "Two major PAS figures defect to PKR". Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved 11 September 2015. 

External links[edit]