List of Ford factories

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For the Brantford, Ontario rock venue and art gallery, see The Ford Plant.

The following is a list of current and former facilities of Ford Motor Company for manufacturing automobiles and other components. Per regulations, the factory is encoded into each vehicle's VIN as character 11 for North American models, and character 8 for European models.

For a listing of Ford's proving grounds and test facilities see Ford Proving Grounds.

Current production facilities[edit]

VIN Name City/State Country Status Employees Products Comments
5 (NA) Flat Rock Assembly Plant Flat Rock, Michigan USA Open 2,621 Ford Mustang
Ford Fusion
Built at site of closed Ford Michigan Casting Center
AutoAlliance Thailand Pleukdang Thailand Open 3,618 Ford Fiesta
Ford Ranger (T6)
Ford Ranger (J97)
Ford Everest
Mazda 2
Mazda 3
Mazda BT-50 (T6)
Mazda BT-50 (J97)
Ford Romania Craiova Romania Open 3,600 Ford Transit Connect
Ford B-MAX (2012)
P (EU) Azambuja Assembly Azambuja Portugal Ford Fiesta
Ford Focus
Ford Mondeo
Bahia Plant Camaçari, Bahia Brazil Ford Ka
Ford Ka+
Ford EcoSport /> Ford Fox Engine
Plant opened in 2001
Scheduled to begin production for US market in 2009
V (NA) Blue Diamond Truck Escobedo General, Nuevo León Mexico Ford F-650
Ford F-750
Ford LCF
Commercial truck joint venture with Navistar
Bordeaux Transaxle Blanquefort France Open 947 Ford IB transmission
Bridgend Engine Bridgend Wales Open 2,013 Ford Zetec engine
Jaguar AJ-V8 engine
JG JL (AU) Broadmeadows Assembly Campbellfield, Victoria Australia To be closed Oct 2016[1] 2,088 Ford Falcon
Ford Falcon Ute
Ford Territory
Buffalo Stamping Buffalo, New York USA Open 823 Quarter Panels, Body Sides, Rear Floor Pan, Rear Doors, Roofs, front doors, hoods
J (EU) Valencia Body and Assembly Valencia Spain Open 6,180 Ford Ka
Ford Fiesta
Ford Focus
Valencia Assembly Valencia Venezuela Open 1,797 Ford Fiesta
Ford Explorer
Ford F-350
Ford F-250
Ford Cargo
Plant opened in 1962. serves Ford markets in Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela.
Changan Ford Mazda Engine Co. Nanjing China 700 BZ series engine Joint Venture: Chongqing Changan Automobile Co., Ltd. (50%). Ford Motor Company (25%), Mazda Motor Company (25%)
G (NA) Chicago Assembly Chicago, Illinois USA Open 4,099 Ford Taurus
Lincoln MKS
Ford Explorer (Late 2010)
Chicago Stamping Chicago Heights, Illinois USA Open 781
Chihuahua Engine Chihuahua, Chihuahua Mexico Open 690 Duratec I4
4,4L and 6,7L V8 Diesel
Zetec engine (Discontinued)
Cleveland Engine #1 Brook Park, Ohio USA Reopened (2004) Duratec 30
Duratec 35
Idled from May 2007 to May 2008
Cleveland Engine #2 Brook Park, Ohio USA Open 813 Duratec 25
Duratec 30
RFF and DAMB
A (EU) Cologne Body & Assembly Cologne Germany Open 4,141 Ford Fiesta
Ford Fusion
Cologne Engine Cologne Germany Open 1,008 Cologne V6
Cologne Forge and Die Cast Cologne Germany parts
Cologne Tool and Die Cologne Germany Open 1,144 equipment
Cologne Transmission Cologne Germany Open 1,590 Ford MTX transmission
Ford VXT transmission
Croydon Stamping Croydon England parts
M (NA) Cuautitlán Assembly Cuautitlán-Izcalli Mexico Ford Fiesta
Dagenham Engine Dagenham England Open 2,047 Ford Duratorq engine
Ford Duratec 20
Ford Duratec 23
Dagenham Stamping Dagenham England To close (2013)[2] 1,084
Dagenham Tool & Die Dagenham England equipment
Dearborn Engine Dearborn, Michigan USA Open 911 Ford Duratec 20
Ford Duratec 23
River Rouge Plant
Dearborn Stamping Dearborn, Michigan USA Open 588 Frames, Truck Axles, Suspension Parts, Tire and Wheel
F (NA) Dearborn Truck Dearborn, Michigan USA Open Ford F-150 and Mustang Originally called Dearborn Assembly Plant until production changed over from Mustang to F150 in MY2005.
Ford Renaissance Global Logistics Detroit, Michigan USA
Essex Engine Windsor, Ontario Canada Reopened (2009) Ford Triton engine
Ford Essex V6 engine
Idled in November 2007, reopened February 2009
Ford India, Ltd. Chennai, Tamil Nadu India Open 2,100 Ford Endeavour
Ford Fiesta
Ford Figo
EcoSport
Sanand Vehicle Assembly Plant Sanand, Gujarat India To Open
(2015)
Sanand Engine Plant Sanand, Gujarat India To Open
(2015)
Ford Lio Ho Assembly Chung Li Taiwan Open 2,332 Ford Econovan
Ford Fiesta
Ford Mondeo
Ford Pronto
Ford Tierra
Mazda 323
Mazda Bongo
Ford Lio Ho Engine Chung Li Taiwan Open 2,332 Ford Zetec engine
Ford Malaysia Sdn. Bhd Selangor Malaysia Open 705 Ford Laser
Ford Telstar
Ford Ranger
Ford Econovan
Ford Transit
Ford Trader
BMW
Land Rover Discovery
Ford Motor Company of South Africa Port Elizabeth South Africa Open 815 Ford PTE engine
Zetec ROCAM
Ford Motor Company of Southern Africa, Ltd. Silverton South Africa Open 3,762 Ford Bantam
Ford Fiesta
Ford Tracer
Ford Ikon
Ford Ranger
Mazda SOHO
Mazda Etude
Mazda Rustler
Volvo S40
Volvo V40
Mitsubishi
Canter
Land Rover
Jaguar
Ford Motor Company Philippines Santa Rosa, Laguna Philippines Closed (December 2012) 719 Lynx
Ford Tierra
Ford Focus
Mazda 323
Ford Escape
Mazda Tribute
Ford Motor Company ZAO St. Petersburg Russia Open 1,571 Ford Focus
Ford Mondeo
Ford Otosan Assembly Kocaeli Turkey Open 7,534 Ford Transit
Ford Transit Connect
Transit Connect starts shipping to US in Fall of 2009
Ford Otosan Engine Eskisehir Turkey Open 1,608 Ford MT75 transmission for Transit
Ford Puma engine<
Ford Cargo truck
Ford Rear Axle for Transit
Geelong Aluminum Casting Norlane, Victoria Australia engine parts
Geelong Chassis Norlane, Victoria Australia parts
Geelong Engine Norlane, Victoria Australia Open 644 I6 engines
Geelong Iron Casting Norlane, Victoria Australia I6 engines
Geelong Stamping Norlane, Victoria Australia Open 1,152 Ford Falcon body panels
Ford Focus body panels (2011)
Getrag Ford Transmission Liverpool England Open 731 MT82 Transmission, IB5 transaxle, MT75 Transmission, PTO Transmissions
B (EU) Genk Body & Assembly Genk Belgium To Close (2014) 4,600 Ford Mondeo
Ford S-MAX
Ford Galaxy
Hai Duong Assembly, Ford Vietnam, Ltd. Hai Duong Vietnam Ford Laser
Ford Transit
Ford Ranger
Ford Escape
Ford Mondeo
Ford Focus
Ford Everest
Halewood Transmission Halewood England Ford MT-75 transmission
Ford IB5 transmission
R (NA) Hermosillo Stamping & Assembly Hermosillo, Sonora Mexico Open Ford Fusion
Lincoln MKZ
IMMSA Monterrey, Nuevo Len Mexico
A (EU) Ipiranga Assembly Ipiranga,São Paulo Brazil Fechado ( 2000 ) CKD, Tractor, Ford F-Series, Ford Galaxie, Ford Jeep, Ford Rural, Trucks.
Jiangling Motors Corp., Ltd. Nanchang, Jianxi China Open 7,258 Ford Transit
Isuzu
Partnership with Jiangling Motors Co., Ltd
K (NA) Kansas City Assembly Claycomo, Missouri USA Open 4,684 Ford F-150
Ford Transit
Kechnec Transmission Kechnec, Kosice Slovakia Ford MPS6 transmissions
Ford SPS6 transmissions
Ford/Getrag dual clutch transmission "Powershift", (Getrag Ford Transmissions)
E (NA) Kentucky Truck Assembly Louisville, Kentucky USA Open 5,154 Ford Super Duty
Ford Expedition
Lincoln Navigator
Lima Engine Lima, Ohio USA Open 730 Vulcan V6
Jaguar AJ35
Duratec 35
Livonia Transmission Livonia, Michigan USA Open 1,849 6R
U (NA) Louisville Assembly Plant Louisville, Kentucky USA Open 4,500 Ford Escape 2013 Reopened in 2012.4.4 and building the Ford Kuga for European markets and the Ford Escape for North American markets. Lincoln Variant expected also.
Metcon Casting Santa Fe Province Argentina parts
L (NA) Michigan Assembly Plant Wayne, Michigan USA Open 2012 Ford Focus and a Lincoln variant is expected also.
S (NA) New Model Programs Development Center Allen Park, Michigan USA Commonly known as "Pilot Plant" Opened 1958
B (NA) Oakville Assembly Oakville, Ontario Canada Open 3,820 Lincoln MKX
Ford Edge
Ford Flex
Lincoln MKT
Opened 1953
D (NA) Ohio Assembly Avon Lake, Ohio USA Open 1,821 Ford Econoline Opened 1974, previously a Fruehauf truck trailer plant.
Pacheco Stamping & Assembly Buenos Aires Argentina Open 2,123 Ford Ranger
Ford Focus
Formerly Ford F100
Falcon (1962 to 1991)
Taunus
Sierra
Escort
Fairlane
Rawsonville Parts Ypsilanti, Michigan USA Integrated Air/Fuel Modules
Alternators
Air Induction Systems
Starters
Fuel Pumps
Carbon Canisters
Returned to Ford Motor Company from Visteon in 2005 after landmark deal with UAW
Romeo Engine Romeo, Michigan USA Open 1,160 Ford Intech engine
Ford Triton engine
K (EU) Rheine Assembly Rheine Germany
C (EU) Saarlouis Body & Assembly Saarlouis Germany Open 1,276 Ford Focus
Ford Kuga
Opened January 1970
B (EU) Sao Bernardo Assembly Sao Bernardo do Campo Brazil Ford Fiesta
Ford Cargo Series
Sharonville Transmission Sharonville, Ohio USA Open 1,478 Ford 4R70W transmission
Ford 4R100 transmission
Ford 5R110W transmission
Ford 5R55S transmission
Ford CD4E transmission
Ford FN transmission
Sterling Axle Sterling Heights, Michigan USA Open Front Axles
Rear Axles
Gears
S (EU) Setubal Assembly Setubal Portugal
Swedish Motor Assembly Kuala Lumpur Malaysia Open 468 Volvo Cars
Taubate Chassis Taubate, São Paulo Brazil Ford Sigma engine
Tekfor Cologne GmbH Cologne Germany 352 Steel forgings Joint Venture: 50% Ford; 50% Neumayer
Thai-Swedish Assembly Co. Ltd. Samutprakarn Thailand
P (EU) Valencia Assembly Valencia Venezuela Ford Explorer
Ford Fiesta
Ford Laser
Ford Ranger
Ford F-Series
Mazda Allegro
Mazda B-Series
Valencia Body & Assembly Valencia Spain Ford Focus
Ford Ka
Ford Fiesta
Mazda Mazda2
Ford C-Max
Valencia Engine Valencia Spain Open 1000 Ford Duratec HE
Ford Ecoboost 2.0L
Van Dyke Transmission Plant Sterling Heights, Michigan USA Open 1,260 Ford AX4N transmission
Ford FN transmission
Ford 6F transmission
Walton Hills Stamping Walton Hills, Ohio USA Closed Winter 2014 607 Body panels
W (NA) Wayne Stamping & Assembly Wayne, Michigan USA Ford Focus (NA) Ford Focus (Int'l in 2011)
Ford C-MAX (2011)
Windsor Engine Windsor, Ontario Canada Open 1,850 Ford Modular engine 4.6 and 5.4
Ford Triton engine V10
Woodhaven Forging Woodhaven, Michigan USA Ford Modular engine 5.4 parts
Ford Triton engine V10 parts
Woodhaven Stamping Woodhaven, Michigan USA Open 1,359 Body panels

Former production facilities[edit]

VIN Name City/State Country Status Employees Products Comments
Amsterdam Assembly Amsterdam Netherlands Closed (1981) Ford Transit, Fort Transcontinental 1933–1981, assembling a wide range of Ford products primarily for the local market. Car assembly (latterly Ford Escort and Taunus) ended 1978.
A (NA) Atlanta Assembly Hapeville, Georgia USA Closed (2006) Ford Taurus, Mercury Sable Demolished. As of 2012, site to become North American Headquarters for Porsche.[3]
Atlanta Branch Assembly Plant Atlanta, Georgia USA Replaced (1942) Model Ts, Model As and V-8s Southeast USA headquarters and assembly operations from 1915 to 1942
G (EU) Barcelona Assembly Barcelona Spain Lost (1959)
Basildon Essex England Sold (1991) Ford tractor range 1964–1991. Sold with New Holland business
Batavia Transmission Batavia, Ohio USA Closed (2008) 848 Ford CD4E transmission
Ford U204 transmission
C (NA) Chester Assembly Chester, Pennsylvania USA Closed (1961) 1927–1961, demolished in 2002
Cleveland Aluminum Casting Plant Brook Park, Ohio USA Closed (2003) Aluminum engine blocks
Cleveland Casting Brook Park, Ohio USA To close (2010) 1,067 Engine blocks, crankshafts
Columbus Branch Assembly Plant[4] Columbus, Ohio USA Operated from 1913 - 1939 Model Ts, Model As and V-8s Located at 427 Cleveland Avenue, now the Kroger Co. Columbus Bakery
E (EU) Cork Assembly Cork Ireland Closed (1984) Fordson tractor (from 1919) and car assembly, including Escort and Cortina in the 1970s[5] 1917–1984
M (NA) Cuautitlán Engine Cuautitln Izcalli Mexico Closed
M (NA) Cuautitln Tool and die Cuautitln Izcalli Mexico Closed
A (EU) Dagenham Assembly Dagenham England Closed (2002) Ford Anglia, Prefect, Popular, Squire, Consul, Zephyr/Zodiac,Classic, Cortina, Capri, Granada, Fiesta, Sierra 1931–2002, formerly principal Ford UK plant
E (NA) Edgewater Assembly Edgewater, New Jersey USA Closed (1955) 1929–1955 Replaced with the Mahwah Assembly Plant
T (NA) Edison Assembly Edison, New Jersey USA Closed (2004) Ford Ranger
Ford Mustang
Ford Pinto
1948–2004, demolished in 2005. Also known as Metuchen Assembly.
Essex Aluminum Windsor, Ontario Canada Closed (2012) 940 3.8/4.2L V6 cylinder heads
4.6L, 5.4L V8 cylinder heads
6.8L V10 cylinder heads
Sold to Nemak in 2001; shuttered in 2009; closed in 2012
Gaydon Assembly Gaydon, Warwickshire England Sold Aston Martin DB9
Aston Martin V8 Vantage
Sold to Aston Martin
Green Island Plant Green Island, NY USA Closed (1989) close to 1000 Radiators, springs 1922–1989, demolished in 2004
E (NA) Halewood Body & Assembly Merseyside England Sold (2008) Ford Anglia, Ford Corsair, Ford Escort, Ford Orion, Jaguar X-Type, Land Rover Freelander, Range Rover Evoque 1963–2008. Ford assembly ended 2000, then transferred to Jaguar/Land Rover. Sold to Tata Group with Jaguar/Land Rover business
Heimdalsgade Assembly Copenhagen Denmark Closed (1924) Ford Touring 1919–1924. Was replaced by, at the time, Europe's most modern Ford-plant, "Sydhavnen Assembly".
JK Commodore Point Jacksonville, FL USA Closed (1968) 800 Model A and T cars and trucks 1924–1932,Production years. Parts warehouse until 1968.
KC Kansas City Assembly (Winchester) Kansas City, MO USA Closed (1957) 3,200 Ford F Series 1913–1957. 12th Street & Winchester. First Ford plant built outside Detroit area. Replaced by Claycomo plant.
C (EU) Langley Assembly Langley, Slough England Sold/closed (1986/1997) Ford Transit and A-Series vans; D-Series and Cargo lorries; R-Series bus/coach chassis 1949–1986. Former Hawker aircraft factory. Sold to Iveco, closed 1997.
La Villa Assembly La Villa Mexico Closed (1984)
Leamington Foundry Leamington Spa England Closed (2007) 398 Castings including brake drums and discs Opened in 1940, closed in July 2007
Long Beach Assembly Long Beach, California USA Closed (1959) 1930–1959, demolished in 1996 (?)
J (NA) Los Angeles Assembly Pico Rivera, California USA Closed (1980) 1957–1980. Status of structure in Pico Rivera-Sold to Northrop Aircraft Company in 1982 for B-2 Stealth Bomber development. Demolished 2001. Plant only operated one shift due to California Air Quality restrictions. First vehicles produced were Edsels and Mercurys. Later vehicles were Custom, Galaxie 500, LTD and Thunderbird. Thunderbird production ended after the 1979 model year. The last vehicle produced was the Panther platform LTD/Crown Victoria in January 1980.
H (NA) Lorain Assembly Lorain, Ohio USA Closed (2005) Ford Econoline Operations transferred to Avon Lake
Manukau Alloy Wheel Manukau, Auckland New Zealand Sold (2001) wheels Sold in 2001 to Argent Metals Technology
Maumee Stamping Maumee, Ohio USA Closed (2007) 413 body panels Closed in 2007 sold and re-opened as independent stamping plant
E (NA) Mahwah Assembly Mahwah, NJ USA Closed (1980) Last vehicles produced, Ford Fairmont
Mercury Zephyr
1955–1980, demolished
(NO) New Orleans Arabi, Louisiana USA Closed (1933) 700 Model T, Model TT, Model A 1923–1933
Newport Pagnell Assembly Newport Pagnell England Sold Aston Martin V12 Vanquish Aston Martin now sold
M (NA) Northville Valve Plant Northville, MI USA Closed (198x) Engine valves Closed in the 1980s
N (NA) Norfolk Assembly Norfolk, Virginia USA Closed (2007) Ford F-Series Partially Demolished
Omaha Ford Motor Company Assembly Plant Omaha, Nebraska USA Closed (1936)
C (NA) Ontario Truck Oakville, Ontario Canada Closed (2004) Ford F-Series
Ford SVT Lightning
Ford Richmond Plant Richmond, California USA Closed (1956) Various, WWII tanks and armored vehicles
Opened in 1930 and closed in 1956. Renovated, now part of Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park
R (NA) San Jose Assembly Plant Milpitas, California USA Closed (1984) Ford Mustang/Mustang Shelby/Mercury Capri
Opened in 1952 and closed in 1984. Now Great Mall of the Bay Area
X (NA) Sheffield Aluminum Casting Plant Sheffield, Alabama USA Closed (1983) 1,500 Die cast parts
pistons
transmission cases
Opened in 1958, closed in December 1983. Demolished 2008.
St. Thomas Assembly Talbotville, Ontario Canada Closed (2011)[6] 2,460 Ford Crown Victoria
Lincoln Town Car
Mercury Grand Marquis
Opened in 1967
L (NZ) Seaview Assembly Plant Lower Hutt New Zealand Closed (1988) Ford Zephyr
Ford Zodiac
Ford Anglia
Ford Falcon
Ford Escort
Ford Cortina
Ford Sierra
Opened in 1936, closed in 1988
Z (NA) St. Louis Assembly Hazelwood, Missouri USA Closed (2006) Ford Explorer
Mercury Mountaineer
Lincoln Aviator
Demolished
S (NA) Somerville Assembly Somerville, Massachusetts USA Closed (1958) Built Edsel Corsairs & Citations July–October 1957, Built Fords November 1957-March 1958 1926–1958. Converted to Assembly Square Mall in 1980
Southampton Body & Assembly Southampton England Closed (2013)[7] Ford Transit van Former Supermarine aircraft factory, acquired 1953. Built Ford vans 1972-July 2013
Sydhavnen Assembly Copenhagen Denmark Closed (1966) 1924–1966. Tractor accessory production until 1969, when Ford sold the building. Building stood until 2006. 325.482 vehicles were built.
J (NA) TH!NK Nordic AS Aurskog Norway Sold (2003) TH!NK City Sold to Kamkorp Microelectronics as of February 1, 2003
P (NA) Twin Cities Assembly Plant St. Paul, Minnesota USA Closed (2011) Ford Ranger
Mazda B-Series
Oldest vehicle plant, from 1924
Scheduled to be closed December 19, 2011
Volvo Nedcar Born Netherlands Sold Mitsubishi Colt
Mitsubishi Space Star
Taken over by Mitsubishi, and later by VDL Groep
Windsor Aluminum Windsor, Ontario Canada Sold Duratec V6 parts
Jaguar AJ-V8 engine parts
Ford Modular engine parts
Sold to Nemak
Windsor Casting Windsor, Ontario Canada Closed (2007) Engine parts
Y (NA) Wixom Assembly Plant Wixom, Michigan USA Closed (2007), Torn Down (2013) Lincoln Continental
Lincoln Town Car
Lincoln LS
Ford GT
Ford Thunderbird
H (NA) Windsor/Walkerville Plant Windsor, Ontario Canada Closed (1953) Ford Modular Model T Opened in 1904, closed in 1953
Ypsilanti Plant Ypsilanti, Michigan USA Sold Starters
Starter Assemblies
Alternators
C.O.P.
Originally owned by Ford Motor Company it then became a Visteon Plant later turned into an ACH Plant in 2006. It is said that Henry Ford used to walk this factory when he acquired it in 1932. The Ypsilanti Plant was Closed in December 2008. The Local UAW was local 849 Visteon.
UK Sydney Assembly Plant Homebush, Sydney Australia Closed 1994 Ford Escort MK1
Capri MK1
Ford Laser
Ford Telstar
Opened in 1936, closed in September 1994

Former Branch Assembly Plants,[8][9][edit]

VIN Name City/State Country Status Employees Products Comments
Atlanta Branch Assembly Plant Atlanta, Georgia USA Replaced (1942) Model Ts, Model As and V-8s Southeast USA headquarters and assembly operations from 1915 to 1942
Buffalo Branch Assembly Plant Buffalo, NY USA
Cambridge Branch Assembly Plant Cambridge, MA USA
Chicago Branch Assembly Plant Chicago, IL USA
Cincinnati Branch Assembly Plant Cincinnati, Ohio USA
Cleveland Branch Assembly Plant Cleveland, Ohio USA
Columbus Branch Assembly Plant[10] Columbus, Ohio USA Operated from 1913 - 1939 Model Ts, Model As and V-8s Located at 427 Cleveland Avenue, now the Kroger Co. Columbus Bakery
Dallas Branch Assembly Plant Dallas, TX USA
Denver Branch Assembly Plant Denver, CO USA
Detroit Branch Assembly Plant Detroit, MI USA
Fargo Branch Assembly Plant Fargo, ND USA
Houston Branch Assembly Plant Houston, TX USA
Indianapolis Branch Assembly Plant Indianapolis, IN USA
Kansas City Branch Assembly Plant Kansas City, MO USA
Long Island City Branch Assembly Plant Long Island, NY USA
Los Angeles Branch Assembly Plant Los Angeles, CA USA
Louisville Branch Assembly Plant Louisville, KY USA
Memphis Branch Assembly Plant Memphis, TN USA
Cincinnati Branch Assembly Plant Cincinnati, Ohio USA
Milwaukee Branch Assembly Plant Milwaukee, WI USA
Minneapolis Branch Assembly Plant Minneapolis, MN USA
Oklahoma City Branch Assembly Plant Oklahoma City, OK USA
Omaha Branch Assembly Plant Omaha, NE USA
Philadelphia Branch Assembly Plant Philadelphia USA
Pittsburgh Branch Assembly Plant Pittsburgh, PA USA
Portland Branch Assembly Plant Portland, OR USA
San Francisco Branch Assembly Plant San Francisco, CA USA
Seattle Branch Assembly Plant Seattle, WA USA
St. Louis Branch Assembly Plant St. Louis, MO USA

See also[edit]

References[edit]

General

Specific

  1. ^ "Ford Australia to close Broadmeadows and Geelong plants, 1,200 jobs to go". abc.net.au. Retrieved 25 May 2013. 
  2. ^ "End of an era". BBC News. Retrieved 26 October 2012. 
  3. ^ "Porsche breaks ground in Hapeville on new North American HQ". CBS Atlanta. 
  4. ^ "Ford Motor Company - Columbus Plant (Photo and History)", Columbus Metropolitan Library Digital Collections
  5. ^ "The history of Ford in Ireland". Ford. Retrieved 10 July 2012. 
  6. ^ http://www.globeinvestor.com/servlet/story/RTGAM.20090923.wfordcaw0923/GIStory/
  7. ^ "End of an era". BBC News. Retrieved 26 October 2012. 
  8. ^ "Ford's System of Branch Assembly Plants", fordmotorhistory.com
  9. ^ "Ford Factory Facts", Ford Motor Company (1915), Model T Ford Club of America
  10. ^ "Ford Motor Company - Columbus Plant (Photo and History)", Columbus Metropolitan Library Digital Collections