Kragujevac

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Kragujevac
Крагујевац
City
Flag of Kragujevac
Flag
Coat of arms of Kragujevac
Coat of arms
Location of Kragujevac within Serbia
Location of Kragujevac within Serbia
Coordinates: 44°00′40″N 20°54′40″E / 44.01111°N 20.91111°E / 44.01111; 20.91111Coordinates: 44°00′40″N 20°54′40″E / 44.01111°N 20.91111°E / 44.01111; 20.91111
Country Serbia
District Šumadija
Municipalities 5
Founded 1476
Government
 • Mayor Radomir Nikolić
 • Ruling parties Serbian Progressive Party
Area
 • City 835 km2 (322 sq mi)
Population (2011)[1]
 • City Increase188,809
 • Urban Increase221,588
 • Urban density 559.10/km2 (215.87/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 34000
Area code(s) (+381) 34
Car plates KG
Website www.kragujevac.rs

Kragujevac (Serbian Cyrillic: Крагујевац, pronounced [krǎɡujeʋat͡s]) is the fourth largest city in Serbia, the main city of the Šumadija region and the administrative centre of Šumadija District. It is situated on the banks of the river Lepenica. According to official results of the 2011 census, the city has a population of 188,809 inhabitants, while administrative area has a population of 221,588.

Kragujevac was the first capital of modern Serbia (1818–1839), and the first constitution in the Balkans was proclaimed in this city in 1835. Further on, the first full- fledged university in the newly independent Serbia was founded in 1838, preceded by the first grammar school (Gimnazija), Printworks (both in 1833), professional National theatre (1835) and the Military academy (1837). Belgrade took the lead by becoming the seat of the throne in 1841. The University of Kragujevac was not reestablished until 1976. Contemporary Kragujevac is known for its weapons, munition and automobile industries.

Geography[edit]

Kragujevac lies at 180 metres (591 feet) above sea level, the mathematical and geographical position +44 ° 22 '; +20 ° 56' and is located in the valley of the river Lepenica. The city area covers an area of 835 square kilometres (322 sq mi), surrounded with further slopes of mountains Rudnik, Crni Vrh and Gledić mountains. Šumadija characterized by hilly - mountainous land, slightly ruffled. Kragujevac has developed transportation infrastructure.

The city can be reached by five important roadways from: a) Belgrade, across Batocina, by State road, IB class, number 15; b) the Montenegrin border, across Novi Pazar and Kraljevo, by State road, IB class, number 15; c) Belgrade, across Mladenovac and Topola, by State road, IB class, number 16; d) Jagodina, across Donja Sabanta, by State road, class II, number 170; e) Gornji Milanovac, across Bare, by State road, class II, number 176.[citation needed]

Climate[edit]

Climate data for Kragujevac (1981-2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.6
(69.1)
24.2
(75.6)
29.4
(84.9)
31.4
(88.5)
35.4
(95.7)
39.4
(102.9)
43.9
(111)
40.4
(104.7)
37.4
(99.3)
32.6
(90.7)
27.6
(81.7)
21.0
(69.8)
43.9
(111)
Average high °C (°F) 5.2
(41.4)
7.3
(45.1)
12.5
(54.5)
17.8
(64)
23.0
(73.4)
26.1
(79)
28.7
(83.7)
28.8
(83.8)
24.0
(75.2)
18.5
(65.3)
11.6
(52.9)
6.2
(43.2)
17.5
(63.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.9
(33.6)
2.3
(36.1)
6.6
(43.9)
11.7
(53.1)
16.7
(62.1)
20.0
(68)
21.9
(71.4)
21.5
(70.7)
16.9
(62.4)
11.9
(53.4)
6.4
(43.5)
2.1
(35.8)
11.6
(52.9)
Average low °C (°F) −2.6
(27.3)
−1.9
(28.6)
1.8
(35.2)
5.9
(42.6)
10.6
(51.1)
13.8
(56.8)
15.3
(59.5)
15.1
(59.2)
11.3
(52.3)
7.1
(44.8)
2.5
(36.5)
−1.1
(30)
6.5
(43.7)
Record low °C (°F) −27.6
(−17.7)
−23.8
(−10.8)
−18.3
(−0.9)
−5.8
(21.6)
−0.6
(30.9)
2.7
(36.9)
7.2
(45)
4.6
(40.3)
−2.2
(28)
−6.6
(20.1)
−16.4
(2.5)
−20.7
(−5.3)
−27.6
(−17.7)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 37.9
(1.492)
37.0
(1.457)
42.3
(1.665)
53.9
(2.122)
58.7
(2.311)
76.4
(3.008)
57.7
(2.272)
58.6
(2.307)
51.6
(2.031)
48.9
(1.925)
49.5
(1.949)
45.8
(1.803)
618.5
(24.35)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 12 12 11 12 13 12 9 8 9 10 11 13 132
Average relative humidity (%) 79 75 69 67 68 68 65 67 72 75 77 81 72
Mean monthly sunshine hours 71.9 94.8 144.5 180.4 234.5 257.4 293.5 275.5 200.8 152.1 93.9 63.7 2,078.1
Source: Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia[2]

Municipalities and settlements[edit]

Municipalities and settlements

The city of Kragujevac is divided into the following municipalities:

Settlements

List of settlements in the municipalities of Kragujevac:

History[edit]

Early and medieval[edit]

Amidža Residence, Balkan style architecture

The name of the town derived from the archaic Serbian word "kraguj", which is a name used for a particular species of hawk, thus the name means "hawk's nesting place".[3]

Kragujevac experienced a lot of historical turbulence, not always without severe casualties. Over 200 archaeological sites in Šumadija confirm that the region's first human settlements occurred 40,000 years ago, during the Paleolithic era.

In the Middle Ages, the area of modern Kragujevac was part of several Serbian states. Kragujevac was first mentioned in the medieval period as related to the public square built in a settlement, while the first written mention of the city was in the Ottoman Tapu-Defter in 1476.[4] Ottoman documents from the 15th century refer to it as a "village of Kragujevdza". The town itself gained prominence during the Ottoman period (1459–1804) as the central point in the Belgrade Pashaluk (Sanjak of Smederevo).[5] In 1718-39, the town was controlled by the Habsburg Monarchy and was part of the Habsburg Kingdom of Serbia. In 1788, it was part of Kočina Krajina, an area controlled by the Serb rebels, while in 1789-1790 it was again controlled by the Habsburg Monarchy.

Early modern period[edit]

The old bridge over Lepenica river

The city has been devastated many times and has suffered great losses of life in a number of wars throughout history. It began to prosper after Serbia's liberation from Turkish rule in 1818, when Prince Miloš Obrenović proclaimed it the capital of the new Serbian State and built the Amidža Konak.[6] The first Serbian constitution was proclaimed here in 1835 and the first idea of independent electoral democracy. The first law on the printing press was passed in Kragujevac in 1870. Kragujevac, the capital, was developing and cherishing modern, progressive, free ideas and resembled many European capitals of that time.[7]

Riverside and the "New Church" in the background

Apart from contemporary political influence, Kragujevac became the cultural and educational center of Serbia. Important institutions built during that time include Serbia's first secondary school (Gimnazija), first pharmacy, and first printing press.[8] The turning point in the overall development of Kragujevac was in 1851 when the Cannon Foundry began production, beginning a new era in the city’s economic development.[9] The main industry of the 19th and 20th century was military production. Kragujevac became one of Serbia’s largest exporters in 1886, when the main BelgradeNiš railway connected through Kragujevac.[citation needed]

During World War I, Kragujevac again became the capital of Serbia (1914–1915), and the seat of many state institutions; even the Supreme Army Command was housed within the court house building.[10] During the war, Kragujevac lost 15% of its population.

Interbellum period[edit]

King Peter's promenade in central Kragujevac

The social aspect, especially theater life, in Kragujevac between the two wars was very vibrant. The first cultural event in liberated Kragujevac occurred in 1918. That was the establishment of the Theater Gundulic that worked only one season and moved to Belgrade.[11]

Following the model of Academic Theater in Belgrade, the formation of the Kragujevac Scholars Academic Theater in 1924 was a theater that supported contemporary ideas, modern approach to stage, live word and repertoire, thus gaining the reputation of a serious art organization.[12] There were many other cultural institutions in the city which began to grow into a large cultural and industrial hub of Central Serbia.

WWII and the Kragujevac massacre[edit]

Main article: Kragujevac massacre

Kragujevac underwent a number of ordeals, the worst probably having been the October massacre during World War II. The Kragujevac massacre was the slaughter of 2,300 to 5,000 civilians—mostly Serbs and Roma— by Nazi soldiers between 19–21 October 1941.[13] Staniša Brkić, curator of The Museum of 21 October, published a book in 2007 where he listed names and personal data of 2,796 victims.[14]

The killings went on from 19–21 October 1941, in retaliation for a partisan attack on German soldiers. 50 people were to be murdered for every German soldier who was wounded, while 100 were murdered if a German soldier was killed. Among the murdered were a generation of schoolboys. A monument for the executed pupils is a symbol of the city.[15] This atrocity has inspired a poem called "Krvava Bajka" ("Bloody Fairy Tale") by Desanka Maksimović, a well known Serbian poet from the former Yugoslavia.[16]

Post-war city[edit]

In the post-war period, Kragujevac developed more industry. Its main exports were passenger cars, trucks and industrial vehicles, hunting arms, industrial chains, leather, and textiles. The biggest industry, and the city's main employer was Zastava, which employed tens of thousands.[17] The industry suffered under economic sanctions during the Milošević era, and was all but destroyed by the NATO bombing campaign in 1999.[18] Despite a possible deal with the Italian auto manufacturer, Fiat, to reopen the factory, the city currently suffers from widespread unemployment.[19] Since 1976, Kragujevac has grown as a university centre.

Main sights[edit]

Museum of Genocide in Kragujevac

The architecture of Kragujevac displays a fusion of two different styles—traditional Turkish (nowadays almost completely gone) and 19th century Vienna Secession style.[20] Modern conceptions also appear throughout the city, firstly in the shape of post-war concrete (usually apartments designed to house those left homeless during World War II), and secondly the up-to-date glass offices reflecting the ambitious business aspects of modern architects.

Some important buildings and institutions in Kragujevac include:

  • The old church of Descent of the Holy Spirit was built in 1818, as a part of Prince Miloš' court. Its interior was decorated from 1818 to 1822. The new belfry was built in 1907.
  • The Old Parliament was built in the court of the church where the first parliamentary meeting was held in 1859. Many events of great historical importance, such as verifying the Berlin Congress decision about the independence of Serbia, took place there. After undergoing reconstruction in 1992, the building was converted into a museum.
  • The Amidža Konak was built by Prince Miloš in 1820 as a residential house. It is one of the finest examples of regional architecture in Serbia. It now houses an exhibition from the National Museum.
  • The Prince Mihailo Konak was built in 1860. Its architecture blends local tradition with European architectural concepts. The building is now the National Museum.
  • The High School (Gimnazija) was built between 1885 and 1887 according to designs from the Ministry of Civil Engineering. It is one of the city's oldest edifices designed in a European style, in the tradition of the oldest Serbian Gimnazija from 1833. Some famous Serbian scientists, artists and politicians were educated in this school.
Knjaževsko-srpski teatar (Serbian Principal Theatre), 1835
  • These institutions continue to promote cultural activities in modern-day Kragujevac: Knjaževsko-srpski teatar (founded in 1835), National Library "Vuk Karadžić" (1866), Cultural and Artistic Group "Abrasević" (1904).
  • The "Kragujevac October" Memorial Park, located in Šumarice, commemorates the tragic events of October 21, 1941.
  • The National Museum has various displays including those pertaining to archeology, ethnic diversity, the history of Kragujevac and Šumadija and many paintings. The archeology department has a rich collection of 10,000 display items and over 100,000 study items. The painting department has over 1,000 pieces of prominent Serbian art of extraordinary value.
  • The "Old Foundry Museum" is located within the old gun foundry, the oldest surviving part of the military factory with military - artisan school, the first of its kind in the principality of Serbia. Museum is founded in 1953 and exhibits the history of industrial development in Kragujevac and Serbia. It has the collection of 5,800 pieces: weapons and equipment, machines and tools, archive material, photos, paintings, trophies and medals.
  • The Historical Archives of Šumadija collects and files the archives and issues of the seven municipalities of Šumadija and has at its disposal 700 metres (2,297 feet) of archive issues with 780 registries and hundreds of thousands of original historical documents.
  • The scenic attractions nearby include the Aranđelovac, Gornji Milanovac, Vrnjačka Banja, and Mataruška Banja, Karađorđe's castle, the Church of Saint George in Topola 40 kilometres (25 miles) away, the Old Kalenić monastery 55 kilometres (34 miles) away, the resorts of Rogot (28 km (17 mi)) and Stragari (34 km (21 mi)) with old monasteries of Blagoveštenje and Voljavca.

Economy[edit]

Kragujevac pedestrian zone

Kragujevac has been an important industrial and trading centre in Serbia for more than two centuries. The city's industry are best known by its automotive production and firearms manufacturing. The former state-owned Zastava Automobiles company was founded in 1953 and produced the well known, Yugo subcompact brand of vehicles. Zastava was sold to Fiat in 2008, with Fiat pledging to invest 700 million euros into the company now renamed as Fiat Automobiles Serbia. Weapons manufacturing in Kragujevac began in 1853 and has since grown to become Serbia's primary supplier of firearms through the Zastava Arms corporation.[citation needed]

Johnson Controls, Rapp Marine Group, Metro Cash and Carry, Mercator and Plaza Centers established their operations in Kragujevac. The most important local companies include Forma Ideale, Blažeks (furniture production), KUČ Company (dairy producer), Valentino (fashion production), Flores (brandy), Prizma (medical equipment production and distribution), Agromarket and Agrojevtic.

The Kragujevac Fair was established in 2005 thanks to the project "Support to the development and promotion of regional economy through development of City Fair". It comprises 1,600 square metres (17,222 sq ft) of area dedicated to trade and exhibitions and 1,000 square metres (10,764 sq ft) of area for other activities (administration, Media center, restaurant etc.).[citation needed]

Out of 179,417 inhabitants of administrative area, around 65% is of working age. Total number of employees in September 2012 was 41,457. Majority of persons of working age have secondary education (51.34%) or primary education (21,22%), while 14% have college or university degree.[21] Around 93% of total city area is covered with water supply system, 78% with sewage system, 72% with natural gas supply network, and 92% with cell phone networks.[22]

Education[edit]

University of Kragujevac

There are 22 primary and 8 secondary schools in Kragujevac.[23] There are also 3 special schools: School for hearing impaired children,[24] Music school Dr Miloje Milojevic,[25] and School for children with disabilities Vukasin Markovic.[26] The University of Kragujevac was established on 21 May 1976 although the first higher education institutions started with operations in 1960 as departments of the University of Belgrade. It is fourth largest university in Serbia and is organized in 12 faculties and two institutes which are spread over six cities (Kragujevac, Cacak, Kraljevo, Uzice, Jagodina and Vrnjačka Banja) of the Central Serbia region which covers an area populated by 2,500,000 people. Around 16.000 students is currently enrolled at the university. It has around 1.350 employees out of which 900 is teaching and research staff.[27] The University Library in Kragujevac is of generally scientific character, and its primary users are university teaching staff and students. It takes space of 1,500 square meters and includes several storage rooms, reading area and University Gallery. Library takes care of around 100,000 copies of books, 2,500 doctoral and master thesis, 450 titles of domestic journals and 105 titles of foreign journals.[28]

Sports[edit]

Stadion Čika Dača in Kragujevac

Kragujevac is home to Čika Dača Stadium, which is the third largest stadium in Serbia by seat capacity. FK Radnički 1923 is the city's most successful football club and competes in the Serbian SuperLiga. However, in football, Kragujevac is also known for having the oldest Serbian club, FK Šumadija 1903 (although FK Bačka 1901 is the oldest club in present-day Serbia, at time of its foundation was located in Austro-Hungary while Kragujevac was in Serbia, so that is why Šumadija is the oldest Serbian club, while Bačka is the oldest club in Serbia).[citation needed]

KK Radnički is the city's premier basketball team which, besides the Basketball League of Serbia it also competes in the Adriatic Basketball League. Volleyball club Radnički is one of strongest volleyball teams in Serbia, and water polo club VK Radnički Kragujevac competes in the Serbian Water polo League A and has won the domestic league and the LEN Trophy in 2013. The city is home to the CROSS OVER Basketball Summer Camp, and Bandy Federation of Serbia.[29] The team of Kragujevac plays against the one from Subotica.

Demographics[edit]

St. George's Cross at the entry of the city.

Ethnic groups in the municipal area of Kragujevac (including all municipalities) as of 2011:

Ethnicity

Number

Serbs 172,052
Roma 1,482
Montenegrins 645
Macedonians 297
Croats 192
Yugoslavs 175
Gorani 101
Other 4,473

Total

179,417

Politics[edit]

Results of the 2012 local elections (there are 87 seats in local assembly):[30]

Notable people[edit]

International relations[edit]

Kragujevac twinning agreement

Twin towns – Sister cities[edit]

Kragujevac is twinned with:[31]

Partnerships and cooperations[edit]

The town has other forms of cooperation and city friendship similar to the twin/sister city programmes with:

Local media[edit]

Radio stations

  • Radio Kragujevac (94.7)
  • Radio 9 (95.9)
  • TDI Radio (97.9)
  • Radio Centar (95.9)
  • Radio Bravo (103.7)
  • Radio Stari Grad (RSG) (104.3)
  • Radio Zlatousti (90.50)
  • Radio 34 (88.9)

TV stations

Newspapers

  • Svetlost
  • Kragujevacke

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Human resources" (PDF). Statistics office of Serbia. Retrieved 2011-11-16. 
  2. ^ "Monthly and annual means, maximum and minimum values of meteorological elements for the period 1981-2010" (in Serbian). Republic Hydrometeorological Service of Serbia. Retrieved 2012-09-15. 
  3. ^ [1] Archived November 27, 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "Tapu Tahrir Defteri 491 : Ottoman government: Free Download & Streaming: Internet Archive". Archive.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  5. ^ "Map of the Belgrade Pashaluk" (GIF). Terkepek.adatbank.transindex.ro. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  6. ^ "Photos of San Antonio - Images of San Antonio, Texas, USA". Members.virtualtourist.com. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  7. ^ "Kragujevac | Beautiful Serbia". Voiceofserbia.org. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  8. ^ "Serbian Printing | History of Serbian Culture". Srpskoblago.org. 1994-01-04. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  9. ^ [2][dead link]
  10. ^ "Kragujevac (Stadt)". En.europeonline-magazine.eu. 1941-10-21. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  11. ^ "Knjaževsko-Srpski Teatar - About Theatre". Joakimvujic.com. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  12. ^ "Kragujevac: Bed and breakfast in Kragujevac, Serbia". Hotel LAMA. 1941-10-21. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  13. ^ Carl K. Savich. "German Occupation of Serbia and the Kragujevac Massacre". Antiwar.com. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  14. ^ "Blic Online: "Engleska krvava bajka" u Kragujevcu". Blic.co.rs. Retrieved 16 September 2011. 
  15. ^ "Monument to the executed pupils (Kragujevac, Serbia): Address, Attraction Reviews". TripAdvisor. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  16. ^ Krvava Bajika profile, sites.google.com; accessed 2 August 2015.
  17. ^ "Welcome to Zastava-arms". Zastava-arms.rs. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  18. ^ ""Collateral damage" and the workers of the Zastava factory". Marxist.com. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  19. ^ "FCA Srbija". Fiatsrbija.rs. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  20. ^ "Kragujevac-City Tour - Kuća Čolovića". Kucacolovica.com. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  21. ^ "Људски ресурси: Званичан сајт града Крагујевца". Kragujevac.rs. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  22. ^ "Инфраструктура: Званичан сајт града Крагујевца". Kragujevac.rs. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  23. ^ "Образовање :: Званичан сајт града Крагујевца". Kragujevac.rs. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  24. ^ "Dobrodošli na skolazagluve.edu.rs - Škola za gluve Kragujevac". Skolazagluve.edu.rs. 2015-01-27. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  25. ^ "Музичка школа "др Милоје Милојевић"". Muzicka-kg.com. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  26. ^ "Škola Vukašin Marković". Sosovukasinmarkovickg.edu.rs. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  27. ^ "University of Kragujevac". Kg.ac.rs. 1976-05-21. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  28. ^ "Introduction". Ub.kg.ac.rs. 1985-06-05. Retrieved 2015-08-12. 
  29. ^ "Federation of International Bandy-About-About FIB-National Federations-Serbia-Serbia". 
  30. ^ "24. седница ГИК-а - Седнице: Званичан сајт града Крагујевца". Kragujevac.rs. Retrieved 2012-05-28. 
  31. ^ "Kragujevac Twin Cities". © 2009 Information service of Kragujevac City. Retrieved 2009-02-21. 
  32. ^ "Bielsko-Biała - Partner Cities". © 2008 Urzędu Miejskiego w Bielsku-Białej. Retrieved 2008-12-10. 
  33. ^ "Mostar Gradovi prijatelji" [Mostar Twin Towns]. Grad Mostar [Mostar Official City Website] (in Macedonian). Archived from the original on 2013-10-30. Retrieved 2013-12-19. 
  34. ^ "Opole Official Website - Twin Towns". (in English and Polish) © 2007-2009 Urząd Miasta Opola. Retrieved 2009-06-18. 
  35. ^ Vacca, Maria Luisa. "Comune di Napoli -Gemellaggi" [Naples - Twin Towns]. Comune di Napoli (in Italian). Archived from the original on 2013-06-22. Retrieved 2013-08-08. 

Gallery[edit]

External links[edit]