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List of former national capitals

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. This is a list of such cities, sorted by country and then by date. Where a city name has changed, the name of the city when it was a capital is listed first, followed by its modern name in brackets.



Northern Africa

Old capital city Country Today a part of From Until Change, reason
Achir Banu Ziri Algeria 936 1014
Al Bayda Kingdom of Libya Libya 1963 1969 Formation of the Libyan Arab Republic under the rule of Muammar Gaddafi
Al-Askar Egypt Egypt 750 868 Moved to Al-Qata'i
al-Mansuriyya Banu Ziri Tunisia 972 1057
Al-Qata'i Egypt Egypt 868 905 Moved to Fustat
Alexandria Ptolemaic Kingdom Egypt 305 BC 30 BC
Altava Kingdom of Masuna Algeria c. 477 578
Altava Kingdom of Altava Algeria 578 708
ʽAziziya Tripolitanian Republic Libya 1918 1922
Benghazi Emirate of Cyrenaica Libya 1949 1951
Béjaïa Kingdom of Bejaia Algeria c. 1090 1152
Béjaïa Emirate of Béjaïa Algeria 1285 1510
Fez Idrisid dynasty Morocco 808 927 Moved to Hajar an-Nasar, to try and restore power base
Fez Marinid dynasty, Idrisid interlude, Wattasid dynasty Morocco 1244 1554 Moved to Marrakesh
Fez Dila'ite interlude, Alaouite dynasty Morocco 1659 1672 Moved to Meknes
Fez Alaouite dynasty Morocco 1727 1912 Moved to Rabat
Fustat Egypt in the Middle Ages Egypt 641 750 Moved to Al-Askar
Fustat Egypt Egypt 905 969 Moved to Cairo
Hippo Regius (Annaba) Vandal Kingdom Algeria 435 439
Kalâa of Ait Abbas Kingdom of Beni Abbas Algeria 1510 1872
Kuku Kingdom of Kuku Algeria c. 1515 1730
Mahdia Banu Ziri Tunisia 1057 1148
Marrakesh Almoravid dynasty, Almohad dynasty Morocco 1071 1244 Moved to Fez
Marrakesh Saadi dynasty Morocco 1554 1659 Moved to Fez
Mascara Emirate of Abdelkader Algeria 1832 1835 Moved to Tagdemt
Meknes Morocco (under Ismail Ibn Sharif) Morocco 1672 1727 Moved to Fez
Memphis Ancient Egypt Egypt 3150 BC 2160 BC Moved to Henen-Nesut. The Ancient Greeks called the city Memphis, its native name was Inbu-Hedj.
Qal'at Bani Hammad Hammadid dynasty Algeria c. 1007 1090 Moved to Béjaïa
Tagdemt Emirate of Abdelkader Algeria 1835 1847
Tahert (Tiaret) Rustamid dynasty Algeria 777 909
Thebes Ancient Egypt Egypt 2134 BC 1292 BC Moved to Pi-Ramesses. The Ancient Greeks called the city Thebes, its native name was Waset.
Tinmel Almohad Caliphate Morocco 1121 1147 Moved to Marrakesh and Seville
Tlemcen Emirate of Tlemcen Algeria c. 757 790
Tlemcen Kingdom of Tlemcen Algeria 1235 1556
Tuggurt Sultanate of Tuggurt Algeria 1414 1871
Walili Idrisid dynasty Morocco 789 808 Moved to Fez

Sub-Saharan Africa


Central Africa

Old capital city Country Today a part of From Until Change, reason
Boma Congo Free State Congo, Democratic Republic of the 1886 1908
Boma Belgian Congo Congo, Democratic Republic of the 1908 1926 moved to Léopoldville (Kinshasa)
Stanleyville (Kisangani) People's Republic of the Congo Congo, Democratic Republic of the 1964 1965
Kasongo Sultanate of Utetera Congo, Democratic Republic of the 1860 1887
Bakwanga (Mbuji-Mayi) South Kasai Congo, Democratic Republic of the 1960 1962
Élisabethville (Lubumbashi) State of Katanga Congo, Democratic Republic of the 1960 1963
Njimi Kanem Chad fl. 11th century c. 1396 lost to Bulala invaders (eventually moved to Ngazargamu)
Lumbala N'guimbo Mbunda Kingdom Angola c. 1500 1917
São Salvador (M'banza-Kongo) Kingdom of Kongo Angola 1483 1915
Cabaça Dongo Angola ? 1657
Jamba Democratic People's Republic of Angola Angola 1975 1976
Jamba Democratic People's Republic of Angola Angola 1979 2002
Cabinda Republic of Cabinda Angola 1975 1976

Eastern Africa

Old capital city Country Today a part of From Until Change, reason
Zanzibar City Zanzibar, Sultanate of Tanzania 1856 1964 Sultanate ceased to exist; Zanzibar Revolution
Zanzibar City Zanzibar, People's Republic of Tanzania 1964 1964 Zanzibar merged with Tanganyika in 1964. The city remains the capital of semi-autonomous region of Zanzibar.
Dar es Salaam Tanganyika Tanzania 1961 1964 country merged with Zanzibar to form Tanzania
Dar es Salaam Tanzania Tanzania 1964 1996 capital moved to Dodoma
Axum Kingdom of Aksum Ethiopia 50 ? city abandoned
Debre Berhan Ethiopian Empire Ethiopia 1456 mid-1470s Emperor returned to custom of a moving capital
Gondar Ethiopian Empire Ethiopia 1635 late 19th century moved to Addis Ababa
Bujumbura Burundi Burundi 1962 2018 moved to Gitega
Entebbe Uganda, Protectorate of Uganda 1894 1962 moved to Kampala

Southern Africa

Old capital city Country Today a part of From Until Change, reason
Otjimbingwe German South-West Africa Namibia 1886 1892 moved to Windhoek
Zomba British Central Africa Protectorate Malawi 1893 1907 Protectorate renamed as Nyasaland Protectorate.
Zomba Nyasaland Protectorate Malawi 1907 1953 Merged with Southern Rhodesia and Northern Rhodesia to form the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland.
Zomba Malawi Malawi 1964 1975 Capital moved to Lilongwe.
Fort Jameson (Chipata) North-Eastern Rhodesia Zambia 1899 1911 Merged with North-Western Rhodesia to form Northern Rhodesia.
Kalomo North-Western Rhodesia Zambia 1899 1907 Moved to Livingstone.
Livingstone North-Western Rhodesia Zambia 1907 1911 Merged with North-Western Rhodesia to form Northern Rhodesia.
Livingstone Northern Rhodesia Zambia 1911 1935 Moved to Lusaka.
Island of Mozambique Portuguese Mozambique Mozambique 1498 1898 Moved to Maputo.

Western Africa

Old capital city Country Today a part of From Until Change, reason
Ribeira Grande (Cidade Velha) Portuguese Cape Verde Cape Verde 1462 1770 moved to Praia
Grand-Bassam Ivory Coast (French colony) Ivory Coast 1893 1900 moved to Bingerville
Bingerville Ivory Coast (French colony) Ivory Coast 1900 1933 moved to Abidjan
Abidjan Ivory Coast (French colony) Ivory Coast 1933 1983 moved to Yamoussoukro
Cape Coast Gold Coast Ghana 1664 1877 moved to Accra
Bolama Portuguese Guinea Guinea-Bissau 1879 1941 moved to Bissau
Boe Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau 1973 1974 moved back to Bissau
Ngazargamu Kanem-Bornu Empire Nigeria c. 1472 1808 lost to Fulani invaders (eventually moved to Kukawa)
Kukawa Kanem-Bornu Empire Nigeria 1814 1893 Kingdom ceased to exist
Lagos Colonial Nigeria Nigeria 1914 1960
Lagos Nigeria, Federation of Nigeria 1960 1991 moved to Abuja
Igbo-Ukwu Nri, Kingdom of Nigeria 1043 1911 Nigeria
Aného Togoland Togo 1880s 1897 moved to Lomé



Central Asia

Old capital city Country Today a part of From Until Change, reason
Kandahar Durrani Empire Afghanistan 1748 1772 moved to Kabul
Samarkand Timurid Empire Uzbekistan 1370 1405 Capital moved to Herat.
Herat Timurid Empire Afghanistan 1405 1507 Invaded by Muhammad Shaybani.
Alexandria in the Caucasus (Bagram) Yavana Kingdom Afghanistan 180 BC AD 10
Bagram Kushan Empire Afghanistan 1st century AD 1st century AD
Maymana Maimana Khanate Afghanistan 1747 1892 Annexation of the country to the Emirate of Kabul, preceded by the sacking of the city
Zaranj Saffarid dynasty Afghanistan 861 1002
Zaranj Mihrabanid dynasty Afghanistan 1236 1537
Asadabad Islamic Emirate of Kunar Afghanistan 1991 1991 Fall of the state.
Kandahar Principality of Kandahar Afghanistan 1818 1855 Annexation of the country to the Emirate of Kabul
Herat Emirate of Herat Afghanistan 1793 1863 Annexation of the country to the Emirate of Afghanistan
Ghazni Ghaznavid Empire Afghanistan 977 1163 moved to Lahore
Ghazni Ghurid dynasty Afghanistan 1170s 1215
Semey Alash Orda Kazakhstan 1917 1920 Entity named Kyrgyz ASSR established, capital moved to Orenburg
Alma-Ata (Almaty) Kazakh SSR Kazakhstan 1936 1991
Alma-Ata (Almaty) Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 1991 1993 city renamed Almaty
Almaty Kazakhstan Kazakhstan 1993 1998 moved to Astana
Iasy (Turkistan) Uzbek Khanate Kazakhstan 1469 1471
Omsk Russia (White Movement) Russia 1918 1920 White Movement defeated by Reds
Samarkand Uzbek SSR Uzbekistan 1925 1930 moved to Tashkent
Bactra (Balkh) Greco-Bactrian Kingdom Afghanistan 3rd century BC 2rd century BC
Gurganj (Konye-Urgench) Khwarazmian Empire Turkmenistan 1077 1212 moved to Samarqand
Kokand (Fergana) Khanate of Kokand Uzbekistan 1709 1876 Annexation of the country to the Russian Empire
Bukhara Khanate of Bukhara Uzbekistan 1533 1551 moved to Samarqand
Bukhara Khanate of Bukhara Uzbekistan 1556 1756
Bukhara Emirate of Bukhara Uzbekistan 1785 1920
Bukhara Bukharan SRR Uzbekistan 1920 1924
Khiva Khanate of Khiva Uzbekistan 1511 1920
Khiva Khorezm SRR Uzbekistan 1920 1924

Eastern Asia

Old capital city Country Today a part of From Until Change, reason
Anyang Shang dynasty China c. 1600 BC c. 1046 BC moved to Chang'an - end of Shang dynasty
Chang'an Zhou dynasty China c. 1046 BC 722 BC moved to Luoyang
Luoyang Zhou dynasty China 772 BC 221 BC moved to Xianyang - fall of Zhou dynasty
Xianyang Qin dynasty China 221 BC 206 BC moved back to Chang'an - fall of Qin dynasty
Chang'an Han dynasty China 206 BC 25 moved back to Luoyang
Luoyang Han dynasty China 25 220 Fall of the Han dynasty marking the beginning of the Six Dynasties period
Chang'an Sui dynasty and Tang dynasty China 581 907 fall of the Tang dynasty marking the beginning of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period
Kaifeng Song dynasty China 960 1127 moved to Hangzhou
Hangzhou Song dynasty China 1127 1279 Kublai Khan integrated China into the Mongol Empire
Nanjing Ming dynasty China 1368 1421 moved to Beijing
Nanjing China, Republic of China 1928 1937 moved to Chongqing because of Japanese occupation
Ruijin China, Soviet Republic of China 1931 1934 moved to Shaanxi due to the Long March
Chongqing China, Republic of China 1937 1945 moved back to Nanjing
Nanjing China, Republic of China 1945 1949 (de facto) moved to Taipei after the loss of the mainland which caused the nationalist government fled to Taiwan and made Taipei the temporary capital of the Republic of China. Beijing was proclaimed the capital of the People's Republic of China.
Hakodate Republic of Ezo Japan 1868 1869 Annexed by Japan
Middag Middag, Kingdom of Taiwan ? 1732? Middag annexed by Qing dynasty
Tainan Formosa, Republic of Taiwan 1895 1895 Annexed by Japan
Tainan Tungning, Kingdom of Taiwan 1662 1683 Kingdom of Tungning conquered by Qing dynasty. Tainan remained the seat of government until 1885.
Asuka Japan Japan ? 694 moved to Fujiwara-kyō (Kashihara)
Fujiwara-kyō (Kashihara) Japan Japan 694 710 moved to Heijō-kyō (Nara)
Heijō-kyō (Nara) Japan Japan 710 784 moved to Nagaoka-kyō (Nagaoka)
Nagaoka-kyō (Nagaoka) Japan Japan 784 794 moved to Heian-kyō (Kyoto)
Heian-kyō (Kyoto) Japan Japan 794 1868 moved to Tokyo (see also: Capital of Japan)
Shuri Ryūkyū Kingdom Japan 1429 1879 Annexed by Japan
Wanggeom (Pyongyang) Gojoseon North Korea 194 BC 108 BC fall of Gojoseon
Holbon (Mt. Wunü) Goguryeo China 37 BC 3 moved to Gungnae
Gungnae (Ji'an) Goguryeo China 3 427 moved to Pyongyang
Pyongyang Goguryeo North Korea 427 668 fall of Goguryeo
Seorabeol (Gyeongju) Silla South Korea 57 BC 935 fall of Silla
Wirye (Southern Seoul) Baekje South Korea 18 BC 476 moved to Ungjin
Ungjin (Gongju) Baekje South Korea 476 538 moved to Sabi
Sabi (Buyeo) Baekje South Korea 538 660 fall of Baekje
Sanggyeong (Ning'an) Balhae China 756 926 fall of Balhae
Gaegyeong (Kaesong) Goryeo North Korea 919 1392 moved to Hanyang (Seoul) - fall of Goryeo dynasty
Seoul North Korea South Korea 1948 1972 de jure capital changed to Pyongyang in a new Constitution of North Korea[1]

Northern Asia

Old capital city Country Today a part of From Until Change, reason
Qashliq Khanate of Sibir Russia 15th century 1598 sovereignty lost

South-eastern Asia

Old capital city Country Today a part of From Until Change, reason
Yaśodharapura (Angkor) Khmer Empire Cambodia 802 1431 Sacked by Ayutthaya
Srey Sorchhor Cambodia Cambodia 1431 1434 Move to Chaktomuk (in 1434)
Chaktomuk Cambodia Cambodia 1434 1525 Move to Longvek (in 1525)
Longvek Cambodia Cambodia 1525 1593 Move to Oudong (in 1618)
Oudong Cambodia Cambodia 1620 1863 Move to Phnom Penh (in 1863)
Phnom Penh Colonial Cambodia Cambodia 1863 1887 annexed by France; moved to Saigon
Batavia Dutch East Indies Indonesia 1800 1945 Independence of Indonesia, renamed to Jakarta
Jakarta Indonesia Indonesia 1945 1946 NICA occupation, moved to Yogyakarta
Yogyakarta Indonesia Indonesia 1946 1948 Dutch military occupation, moved to Bukittinggi
Bukittinggi Indonesia Indonesia 1948 1949 moved to Jakarta
Luang Prabang Lan Prabang Laos 1707 ? Luang Prabang was one of three successors states to Lan Xang.
Luang Prabang Laos, Kingdom of Laos 1949 1975 abdication of King Savang Vatthana; the second capital
Vientiane Lan Xang Laos 1354 ? moved to Luang Prabang
Vientiane Vientiane Lao Laos c. 1707 (?) 1828 incorporated to Siam, then absorbed into French Indochina (in 1893)
Vientiane Kingdom of Laos Laos 1949 1975 abdication of King Savang Vatthana
Champasak Champasak Kingdom Laos 1713 1946 Became part of Kingdom of Laos.
Pagan (Bagan) Pagan Kingdom Myanmar 849 1297 moved to Myinsaing, Mekkhaya and Pinle
Martaban (Mottama) Hanthawaddy Kingdom Myanmar 1287 1363 moved to Donwun
Donwun Hanthawaddy Kingdom Myanmar 1363 1369 moved to Pegu
Pegu (Bago) Hanthawaddy Kingdom Myanmar 1369 1538 Captured by Toungoo forces
Pegu (Bago) Hanthawaddy Kingdom Myanmar 1550 1552 Recaptured by Toungoo
Myinsaing, Mekkhaya and Pinle Myinsaing Kingdom Myanmar 1297 1313 moved to Pinya
Pinya Pinya Kingdom Myanmar 1313 1365 moved to Ava
Sagaing Sagaing Kingdom Myanmar 1315 1365
Ava (Inwa) Ava Kingdom Myanmar 1365 1555 moved to Pegu
Launggyet Arakan, Kingdom of Myanmar 1429 1430 moved to Mrauk-U
Mrauk-U Arakan, Kingdom of Myanmar 1430 1785 Captured by Konbaung forces
Toungoo (Taungoo) Toungoo dynasty Myanmar 1510 1539 moved to Pegu
Pegu Toungoo dynasty Myanmar 1539 1599 moved to Ava
Ava Toungoo dynasty Myanmar 1599 1613 moved to Pegu
Pegu Toungoo dynasty Myanmar 1613 1635 moved to Ava
Ava Toungoo dynasty Myanmar 1635 1752 moved to Shwebo
Shwebo Konbaung dynasty Myanmar 1752 1760 moved to Sagaing
Sagaing Konbaung dynasty Myanmar 1760 1765 moved to Ava
Ava Konbaung dynasty Myanmar 1765 1783 moved to Amarapura
Amarapura Konbaung dynasty Myanmar 1783 1821 moved to Ava
Ava Konbaung dynasty Myanmar 1821 1842 moved to Amarapura
Amarapura Konbaung dynasty Myanmar 1842 1859 moved to Mandalay
Mandalay Konbaung dynasty Myanmar 1859 1885 moved to Rangoon (Yangon)
Rangoon (Yangon) Burma (Myanmar) Myanmar 1885 1989 country renamed to Myanmar; city renamed to Yangon
Yangon Myanmar Myanmar 1989 2005 moved to Naypyidaw
Marawi Maguindanao Sultanate Philippines c. 1205 1888 Annexed into the Spanish East Indies
Bacolod Negros, Cantonal Republic of Philippines 1898 1899 Unrecognised state absorbed by the Philippines under American control.
Malolos Philippine Republic, First Philippines 1898 1899 Headquarters of the Revolutionary movement (Note: Several other towns became capitals at a succeeding rate, namely San Isidro, Cabanatuan, Bamban, Tarlac, Bayambang and Palanan, to avoid capture from the Americans). Moved back to Manila after capture of Aguinaldo on 1901.
Manila Philippine Republic, Second Philippines 1943 1945 Liberation of the Philippines from the Japanese
Manila Philippines, Commonwealth of the Philippines 1934 1941 Japanese occupation. Moved back to Manila in 1945 after the liberation of the Philippines
Baguio Philippines Philippines 1946 1976 Summer Capital, moved back to Manila via Presidential Decree No. 940.
Quezon City Philippines Philippines 1948 1976 Moved back to Manila via Presidential Decree No. 940. Quezon City, with Manila, became parts of Metro Manila. Several government offices remained in Quezon City, including the Batasang Pambansa, and ultimately the House of Representatives. Manila is the current capital.
Cebu Spanish East Indies Philippines 1562 c. 1578 First Spanish settlement in the country. Moved to Manila (Formerly Maynilad) after capture.
Manila Spanish East Indies Philippines c. 1578 1762 Captured by the British during the Seven Years' War, returned to Spain after the Treaty of Paris.
Bacolor Spanish East Indies Philippines 1762 1764 Capital of the exiled government Governor-general Simon de Anda during the Seven Years' War. Moved back to Manila
Manila Spanish East Indies Philippines 1764 1901 Ceded to the United States via Treaty of Paris
Jolo Sulu Sultanate Philippines c. 1450 1899 Annexed by the United States
Chiang Mai Lan Na Thailand 1259 1775 Annexed by Burma
Chiang Mai Rattanatingsa Thailand 1802 1899 Annexed by Siam
Sukhothai Sukhothai Kingdom Thailand 1238 1347
Phitsanulok Sukhothai Kingdom Thailand 1347 1583 moved to Ayutthaya after sacked by Ayutthaya
Ayutthaya Ayutthaya Kingdom Thailand 1351 1666
Phitsanulok Ayutthaya Kingdom Thailand 1463 1488
Lopburi Ayutthaya Kingdom Thailand 1666 1688
Ayutthaya Ayutthaya Kingdom Thailand 1688 1767 moved to Thonburi after the Burmese destroyed the city
Thonburi Thonburi Kingdom Thailand 1767 1782 moved to Bangkok after King Taksin was declared mad
Phong Châu, Phú Thọ Văn Lang (Hồng Bàng dynasty) Vietnam 2879 BC 258 BC annexed by Thục dynasty
Phong Châu, Phú Thọ Vạn Xuân (Hậu Lý Nam Đế) Vietnam 571 602 Third Chinese domination
Cổ Loa (Hanoi) Âu Lạc (Thục dynasty) Vietnam 257 BC 207 BC First Chinese domination
Cổ Loa (Hanoi) (Ngô dynasty) Vietnam 938 967 the upheavals of Twelve warlords
Đại La (Hanoi) An Nam (Phùng Hưng) Vietnam 8th century ? Annexed by Tang dynasty
Đại La (Hanoi) An Nam (Khúc clan) Vietnam 905 930 Dương Dinh Nghe was killed by his legion commander Kiều Công Tiễn and thus ending Khúc rule.
Đại La (Hanoi) An Nam (Dương Đình Nghệ and Kiều Công Tiễn) Vietnam 931 937 Ngô Quyền defeated Southern Han dynasty
Đông Đô (Hanoi) Đại Việt (Later Lê dynasty and Mạc dynasty) Vietnam 1428 1788
Mê Linh (Hanoi) Trưng Sisters Vietnam 40 43 Second Chinese domination
Long Biên (Hanoi) Vạn Xuân (Anterior Lý dynasty and Triệu Việt Vương) Vietnam 544 571 moved to Phong Châu
Hoa Lư (Ninh Bình) Đại Cồ Việt (Đinh dynasty) Vietnam 968 980
Hoa Lư (Ninh Bình) Đại Cồ Việt (Early Lê dynasty) Vietnam 980 1009 moved to Đại La, then renamed into Thăng Long
Tây Đô, Thanh Hóa Đại Ngu (Hồ dynasty) Vietnam 1400 1407 Fourth Chinese domination; it was the first capital of Hồ dynasty
Tây Đô, Thanh Hóa Đại Việt-Nam Triều (Restored Lê dynasty) Vietnam 1533 1592 moved to Thăng Long after defeating Mạc dynasty
Phú Xuân (Huế) Đại Việt-Đàng Trong (Nguyễn lords) Vietnam 1558 1777 Tây Sơn dynasty unified Đại Việt
Phú Xuân (Huế) Đại Việt (Tây Sơn dynasty) Vietnam 1788 1802 Defeated by Nguyễn Ánh (Nguyễn dynasty)
Phú Xuân (Huế) Đại Nam (Nguyễn dynasty) Vietnam 1802 1945 moved to Hanoi after the abdication of Emperor Bảo Đại
Phú Xuân (Huế) Empire of Vietnam Vietnam 1945 1945 August Revolution
Huế An Nam (Nguyễn dynasty) Vietnam 1874 1955 annexed by France, Geneva Conference (1954) led to the Partition of Vietnam
Saigon (Ho Chi Minh City) French Indochina Vietnam 1887 1901 moved to Hanoi
Saigon (Ho Chi Minh City) Vietnam, State of Vietnam 1949 1955 Geneva Conference (1954) led to the Partition of Vietnam; Saigon was renamed Ho Chi Minh City in 1976.
Saigon (Ho Chi Minh City) Vietnam, South Vietnam 1954 1975 Hanoi, country ceased to exist after unification of Vietnam
Thăng Long (Hanoi) Đại Việt ( & Trần dynasties) Vietnam 1010 1400 Trần dynasty renovated Thăng Long and renamed to Long Phượng
Thăng Long (Hanoi) Đại Việt (Later Lê dynasty) Vietnam 1428 1527 Southern and Northern Dynasties of Vietnam
Thăng Long (Hanoi) Đại Việt-Bắc Triều (Mạc dynasty) Vietnam 1533 1592 defeated by Trịnh lords; renamed again to Đông Đô
Thăng Long (Hanoi) Đại Việt-Đàng Ngoài (Later Lê dynasty - Trịnh lords) Vietnam 1593 1788 Thăng Long was destroyed by Qing dynasty and Tây Sơn dynasty unified Đại Việt, then moved to Phú Xuân; renamed to Bắc Thành; renamed to Hanoi in 1831.
Hanoi French Indochina Vietnam 1902 1953 Geneva Conference (1954) led to the Partition of Vietnam; in 1831, Emperor Minh Mạng renamed Thăng Long to Hanoi (Hà Nội)
Hanoi Vietnam, North Vietnam 1954 1976 Unification with South Vietnam to become the capital of unified Vietnam

Southern Asia

Old capital city Country Today a part of From Until Change, reason
Madurai Pandya Empire India c. 6th century 1335 Capital moved to Tenkasi
Thanjavur Chola Empire India c. 9th century 1279 Chola Empire is disestablished
Dacca (legislative) Pakistan Bangladesh 1962 1971 Country's constituent assembly should meet in East Pakistan due to the region's high population.[2]
Mujibnagar Provisional Government of Bangladesh Bangladesh 1971 1972 A provisional government was established and the leaders of Bangladesh swore their oaths in this town known as Baiydanathtala or Bhoborpara. This was later renamed to Mujibnagar in honour of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman[3]
Hazrat Pandua Bengal Sultanate India 1352 1450 First and longest capital of the Bengal Sultanate.
Sonargaon Bengal Sultanate Bangladesh 1390 1411 Capital moved to Gaur
Gaur/Lakhnauti Bengal Sultanate Bangladesh 1450 1565 Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah changed the capital from Pandua to nearby Gaur, probably due to change in river course.
Tanda Bengal Sultanate India 1565 1576 Bengal Sultanate was defeated by the Mughal Empire in 1576, but Tanda remained as Bengal's provincial capital until the 1590s.
Daulatabad Tughlaq dynasty India 1327 1329 Forcibly moved the entire population of Delhi to Daulatabad for a more centrally located capital. The decision was revoked and was moved back to Delhi within two years, due to lack of water.
Agra Mughal Empire India 1504 1653 moved to Aurangabad, was moved to Delhi during the reign of Shah Jahan and to Fatehpur Sikri during 1571–1585, during part of Akbar's reign.
Fatehpur Sikri Mughal Empire India 1571 1585 moved to Agra
Pune Maratha Empire India 1679 1818 British captured the city and controlled from Calcutta
Calcutta British Raj India 1772 1911 moved to Delhi
Delhi British Raj India 1911 1931 moved to New Delhi, inaugurated 1931
New Delhi British Raj India 1931 1947 became capital of independent Dominion of India in 1947, and later of Republic of India in 1950
Simla British Raj India fl. 1850 1947 Summer capital
Mysore Kingdom of Mysore India 1524 1947 Moved to New Delhi, Kingdom of Mysore dissolved- the capital of the state was moved temporarily to Bangalore 1831 to 1881 by Mark Cubbon.
Padmanabhapuram Kingdom of Travancore India 1601 1795 Moved to Thiruvanathapuram by Maharajah Karthika Thirunal Rama Varma I.
Trivandrum Kingdom of Travancore India 1795 1947 Moved to New Delhi as Travancore joined Dominion of India.
Hyderabad Hyderabad State India 1769 1948 Moved to New Delhi in September 1948, after the launch of a military operation by the Dominion of India known as Operation Polo. Hyderabad continues to remain the capital of the Indian states Telangana and, provisionally, Andhra Pradesh.
Gorkha Gorkha Kingdom Nepal 1559 1769 moved to Kathmandu after unification of Nepal
Kantipur Kantipur, Kingdom of Nepal 1560 1826 Became/Renamed as Kathmandu after Unification of Nepal.
Karachi Pakistan Pakistan 1947 1959 moved to Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi Pakistan Pakistan 1959 1967 moved to Islamabad
Lahore Sikh Empire Pakistan 1799 1849 Annexation of the Punjab by the East India Company.
Anuradhapura Lanka Sri Lanka c. 382 BC 1018 Capital moved to possibly Polonnaruwa
Polonnaruwa Kingdom of Polonnaruwa Sri Lanka c. 1055 1284 Capital moved to Dambadeniya
Kotte Kotte, Kingdom of Sri Lanka c. 1415 c. 1565 Capital moved to Kandy
Kandy Kandy, Kingdom of Sri Lanka 1592 1815 Capital moved to Colombo
Colombo British Ceylon Sri Lanka 1815 1948 colony acquired dominion status
Colombo Ceylon, Dominion of Sri Lanka 1948 1972 Dominion became republic
Colombo Sri Lanka Sri Lanka 1972 1982 Capital moved to Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte

Western Asia

Old capital city Country Today a part of From Until Change, reason
Assur Assyria Iraq fl. 2600 BC 9th century BC moved to Calah
Calah (Nimrud) Assyria Iraq 13th century BC 710 BC Moved to Nineveh
Nineveh Assyria Iraq 1800 BC 600 BC Destroyed by Babylonians
Babylon Babylonia Iraq 24th century BC 141 BC Conquered by Assyrians, Persians, Parthians, Alexander the Great, later abandoned completely
Mtskheta Iberia, Kingdom of Georgia 3rd century BC 5th century Capital moved to Tbilisi by Dachi of Iberia
Susa, Anshan (Persia) Proto-Elamite, Elam Iran 3200 BC 850 BC Conquered by Mannaeans
Zirta (Izirtu) Mannaeans Iran 850 BC 728 BC Conquered by Median Empire
Ecbatana Median Empire Iran 728 BC 550 BC captured by Cyrus the Great
Pasargadae Persian Empire Iran 559 BC 538 BC Capital moved to Susa by Cambyses II
Susa Persian Empire Iran 538 BC 515 BC Capital moved to Persepolis by Darius
Persepolis Persian Empire Iran 515 BC 331 BC captured by Alexander the Great and incorporated into Macedonian Empire
Seleucia Seleucid Empire Iran 305 BC 240 BC moved to Antioch
Antioch Seleucid Empire Iran 240 BC 64 BC conquered by Roman Republic
Ctesiphon, Hecatompylos, Mithridatkird-Nisa, Asaak Parthian Empire Iran 240 BC 224 conquered by Sassanid Empire
Firouzabad, Ctesiphon, Damghan Sassanid Empire Iran 224 637 fell in Islamic conquest of Persia
Nishapur Tahirid dynasty Iran 821 873 conquered by Saffarid dynasty
Zaranj, Amol Saffarid dynasty, Alavids Iran 861 900 conquered by Samanid
Bukhara, Balkh, Samarkand, Herat Samanid dynasty Iran 875 999 conquered by Ghaznavids
Ghazni Ghaznavids, Ghurids Iran 963 1212 conquered by Seljuq dynasty
Nishapur, Rey, Konye-Urgench Seljuq dynasty, Khwarezmid dynasty Iran 1037 1231 conquered by Ilkhanate
Maragheh Ilkhanate Iran 1256 1265 Capital moved to Tabriz.
Tabriz Ilkhanate Iran 1265 1306 Capital moved to Soltaniyeh.
Soltaniyeh Ilkhanate Iran 1306 1335 After Abu Sa'id's death in 1335, the Ilkhanate began to disintegrate rapidly and split up into several rival successor states.
Tabriz Safavid dynasty Iran 1501 1548 moved to Qazvin
Qazvin Safavid dynasty Iran 1548 1598 moved to Isfahan
Isfahan Safavid dynasty Iran 1598 1736 moved to Mashhad
Mashhad Afsharid dynasty Iran 1736 1750 moved to Shiraz
Shiraz Zand dynasty Iran 1750 1782 moved to Sari
Sari Qajar dynasty Iran 1782 1795 moved to Tehran
Gibeah Israel, Kingdom of Israel c. 1030 BC c. 1010 BC moved to Mahanaim
Mahanaim Israel, Kingdom of Jordan c. 1010 BC c. 1007 BC moved to Hebron
Hebron Israel, Kingdom of West Bank c. 1007 BC c. 1000 BC moved to Jerusalem; after the kingdom had been reunited by King David, he is said to have conquered the city from a Canaanite tribe
Jerusalem Israel, Kingdom of Israel c. 1000 BC c. 930 BC country split in two
Jerusalem Judah, Kingdom of (southern part) Israel c. 930 BC 586 BC Kingdom ceased to exist (Jerusalem destroyed; Babylonian exile 586 BC - 538 BC)
Shechem Israel, Kingdom of (northern part) West Bank c. 930 BC c. 930 BC moved to Penuel
Penuel Israel, Kingdom of (northern part) Jordan c. 930 BC c. 909 BC moved to Tirzah
Tirzah Israel, Kingdom of (northern part) West Bank c. 909 BC c. 880 BC moved to Samaria
Samaria Israel, Kingdom of (northern part) West Bank c. 880 BC c. 720 BC Kingdom ceased to exist (much of its population was taken into captivity and deported by Assyrian empire)
Tel Aviv Israel, State of Israel May 6, 1948 December 30, 1948 interim de facto capital, moved to Jerusalem after captured from Jordanian forces in 1948 Arab–Israeli War
Jerusalem Jerusalem, Kingdom of Israel 1099 1187 moved to Acre (Jerusalem captured by Saladin)
Acre Jerusalem, Kingdom of Israel 1187 1291 Kingdom ceased to exist
Salalah Oman, Imamate of Oman 1932 1970 moved to Musqat
Diriyah Diriyah, Emirate of Saudi Arabia 1744 1818 moved to Riyadh after the Turks destroyed the city.
Aden South Yemen Yemen 1967 1990 San'a, country ceased to exist after unification of Yemen
Damascus Umayyad Caliphate Syria 661 744 Moved to Harran.
Harran Umayyad Caliphate Turkey 744 750 Moved to Córdoba.
Ganja Azerbaijan Democratic Republic Azerbaijan May 1918 September 1918 Moved to Baku.



Central Europe

Old capital city Country Today a part of From Until Change, reason
Prague Czechoslovakia Czech Republic 1918 1993 became capital in Czech Republic
Székesfehérvár and Esztergom Hungary, Kingdom of Hungary 972 (or 973) 1256 The capital moved from Esztergom to Buda after most of the city was destroyed by the Mongols in 1242
Buda Hungary, Kingdom of Hungary 1361 1536 moved to Pressburg (Pozsony) after part of the nation captured by Ottoman Empire
Hungary, Royal Slovakia 1536 1784 The Capital was here because Turks captured Buda, in 1784 it was moved back to Buda
Buda Hungary, Kingdom of Hungary 1784 1849 Became part of Austrian Empire, capital in Vienna.
Buda Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen (under Austria-Hungary) Hungary 1867 1873 united with Óbuda and Pest to become Budapest
Płock Masovia (under Miecław) Poland c. 1038 1047 Masovia reincorporated into Poland
Płock Masovia, Duchy of Poland 1138 1313 moved to Czersk
Czersk Masovia, Duchy of Poland 1313 1413 moved to Warsaw
Warsaw Masovia, Duchy of Poland 1413 1526 Masovia reincorporated into Poland
Gniezno Poland, Kingdom of Poland 10th century 1038 moved to Kraków
Poznań Poland, Kingdom of Poland 10th century 1038 moved to Kraków
Kraków Poland, Kingdom of Poland 1038 1079 moved to Płock
Płock Poland, Kingdom of Poland 1079 1138 moved to Kraków
Kraków Poland, Kingdom of Poland 1138 1290 moved to Poznań
Poznań Poland, Kingdom of Poland 1290 1296 moved to Kraków
Kraków Poland, Kingdom of Poland 1296 1795 informally moved in 1596 to Warsaw
Lublin Polish Committee of National Liberation Poland 1944 1945 de facto capital
Łódź Polish People's Republic Poland 1945 1947 de facto capital

Eastern Europe

Old capital city Country Today a part of From Until Change, reason
Novgorod Kievan Rus' Russia 862 882 moved to Kiev
Kiev (Kyiv) Kievan Rus' Ukraine 882 1169 state broke up, moved to Vladimir, Halych and Novgorod
Vladimir Grand Duchy of Vladimir Russia 1169 1327 moved to Moscow
Bolghar Volga Bulgaria Russia 8th century 1240s Volga Bulgaria lost sovereignty
Kazan Kazan Khanate Russia 1438 1552 Kazan Khanate lost sovereignty
Moscow Moscow, Grand Duchy of Russia 1327 1547
Moscow Russia, Tsardom of Russia 1547 1712 moved to Saint Petersburg
Yaroslavl Russia, Tsardom of Russia 1611 1612 de facto
Saint Petersburg Russia, Tsardom of Russia 1712 1721 The Russian Tsardom became the Russian Empire.
Saint Petersburg Russian Empire Russia 1721 1727 Empire was officially proclaimed by Tsar Peter I, following the Treaty of Nystad (1721).
Moscow Russian Empire Russia 1727 1731 moved to Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg Russian Empire Russia 1731 1914 City renamed Petrograd.
Petrograd (Saint Petersburg) Russian Empire Russia 1914 1918 moved to Moscow
Moscow Soviet Union Russia 1922 1991 State union dissolved, Became capital of Russia
Volodymyr Galicia–Volhynia, Kingdom of Ukraine 1199 1238 moved to Halych
Halych Galicia–Volhynia, Kingdom of Ukraine 1238 1241 moved to Kholm (Chełm)
Kholm (Chełm) Galicia–Volhynia, Kingdom of Poland 1241 1272 moved to Lev (Lviv)
Lev (Lviv) Galicia–Volhynia, Kingdom of Ukraine 1272 1349 Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia lost its sovereignty
Chyhyryn Cossack Hetmanate Ukraine 1648 1669 moved to Baturyn
Baturyn Cossack Hetmanate Ukraine 1669 1708 moved to Hlukhiv after demolition of the city by Russian forces
Hlukhiv Cossack Hetmanate Ukraine 1708 1722 Cossack Hetmanate lost its sovereignty
Hlukhiv Cossack Hetmanate Ukraine 1727 1734 Cossack Hetmanate lost its sovereignty
Baturyn Cossack Hetmanate Ukraine 1750 1764 Cossack Hetmanate lost its sovereignty
Kiev (Kyiv) Ukrainian People's Republic Ukraine 1917 1920 Ukrainian People's Republic lost its sovereignty
Lviv West Ukrainian People's Republic Ukraine 1918 1918 Polish forces captured the city
Ternopil West Ukrainian People's Republic Ukraine 1918 1919
Stanislaviv (Ivano-Frankivsk) West Ukrainian People's Republic Ukraine 1919 1919
Kharkov (Kharkiv) Ukrainian SSR Ukraine 1919 1934 moved to Kiev (Kyiv)
Uzhhorod Carpatho-Ukraine Ukraine 1938 1938 Parts of the territory including Uzhhorod were transferred to the Kingdom of Hungary as a result of First Vienna Award. Capital moved to Khust.
Khust Carpatho-Ukraine Ukraine 1938 1939 Carpatho-Ukraine lost its sovereignty.

Northern Europe

Old capital city Country Today a part of From Until Change, reason
Roskilde Denmark Denmark c. 1020 1443 moved to Copenhagen
Ribe North Sea Empire Denmark 1016 1035 Empire collapsed with the death of Cnut the Great.
Copenhagen Kalmar Union Denmark 1443 1524
Copenhagen Denmark–Norway Denmark 1524 1814
Turku Finland, Grand Duchy of Finland 1809 1812 moved to Helsinki
Vaasa Finland, Republic of Finland 1918 1918 Temporary capital during the Civil War
Ferns Laighin (Leinster) (under Dermot MacMurrough) Ireland 6th century 12th century Ireland invaded by Normans
Cashel Munster, Kingdom of Ireland 1st century BC 1118 Division of Munster into Desmond and Thomond
Kilkenny Ireland, Confederate Ireland 1642 1651 Cromwellian conquest of Ireland
Kernavė Lithuania, Grand Duchy of Lithuania 1279 1321 moved to Trakai
Trakai Lithuania, Grand Duchy of Lithuania c. 1321 c. 1323 moved to Vilnius
Kaunas Lithuania, Republic of (details) Lithuania 1922 1940 moved back to Vilnius
Nidaros (Trondheim) Kingdom of Norway (872–1397) Norway 997 1217 moved to Bergen
Bjørgvin (Bergen) Kingdom of Norway (872–1397) Norway 1217 1299 moved to Oslo
Christiania (Oslo) Norway Norway 1905 1925 (also written Kristiania from ca. 1877), renamed Oslo
Gamla Uppsala Sweden Sweden 9th century 1273 moved to Uppsala
Uppsala Sweden Sweden 1273 1436 moved to Stockholm
Din Guardi (Bamburgh Castle) Bryneich United Kingdom 420 547 conquering of the Kingdom
Chelmsford Essex United Kingdom 1 July 1381 6 July 1381 Briefly moved from London due to Peasants' Revolt
Bebbanburgh (Bamburgh) Bernicia United Kingdom 547 634 merged with Deira to become Northumbria
Ebrauc (York) Deira United Kingdom 5th century 866 merged with Bernicia to become Northumbria
Lisnaskea Fermanagh Northern Ireland, United Kingdom 10th century 1607 Disestablished alongside the kingdom following the Flight of the Earls
York Northumbria United Kingdom 834 866 fall of the Kingdom
Dorchester on Thames Wessex United Kingdom 634 686 moved to Winchester
Rendlesham East Anglia, Kingdom of United Kingdom 6th century 1017 absorbed into England
Winchester Wessex United Kingdom 686 927 formation of England
Winchester England, Kingdom of United Kingdom 927 1066 moved to London
Castletown Man, Isle of United Kingdom 1090 1874 moved to Douglas
Tamworth Mercia United Kingdom 7th century 927 fall of Kingdom, superseded by Winchester
Dumbarton Strathclyde, Kingdom of Scotland, United Kingdom c 5th Century 870 Moved to Govan, now part of Glasgow, following 4 months of Viking military assault in 870.
Govan Strathclyde, Kingdom of Scotland, United Kingdom 870 c 1034 Conquered by Duncan II, and became part of Scotland.
Kirkjuvagr Norðreyjar, Territory of the Norwegian Realm Scotland, United Kingdom c 872 1472 Absorbed into Scotland.
Scone, near Perth Scotland, Kingdom of United Kingdom 846 1452 moved to Edinburgh
Edinburgh Scotland, Kingdom of United Kingdom 1452 1707 Scotland was united with England under one monarch in 1603. Edinburgh remains the capital of Scotland within the United Kingdom.
Machynlleth Wales, Principality of United Kingdom 1404 1416 seat of Owain Glyndŵr's self-proclaimed parliament. Capital declared to be Cardiff in 1955
York Scandinavian York United Kingdom 875 954 fall of kingdom
Camulodunum (Colchester) Roman Britain United Kingdom 43 61 moved to Londinium (London) after being destroyed by Boudica.

Southern Europe


South-central Europe

Old capital city Country Today a part of From Until Change, reason
Corte Corsica, Republic of France 1755 1769 Corsican Republic annexed by France
Corte Anglo-Corsican Kingdom France 1794 1795 moved to Bastia
Bastia Anglo-Corsican Kingdom France 1795 1796 Corsican Kingdom annexed by France
Chambéry Savoy, Duchy of France 1416 1562 moved to Turin
Tharros Arborea, Giudicato of Italy 9th century 1070 moved to Oristano
Oristano Arborea, Giudicato of Italy 1070 1410 moved to Sassari
Sassari Arborea, Giudicato of Italy 1410 1420 remaining territories sold to the Kingdom of Sardinia
Santa Igia Cagliari, Giudicato of Italy 9th century 1258 country dissolved, territories annexed by Arborea, Gallura, Pisa and Gherardesca
Milan Cisalpine Republic Italy 1797 1802 became the Italian Republic
Florence Etruria, Kingdom of Italy 1801 1807 Kingdom of Etruria annexed by France
Ferrara Ferrara, Duchy of Italy 1471 1597 annexed by the papacy
Florence Florence, Duchy of Italy 1532 1569 became Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Florence Florence, Republic of Italy 1115 1532 became Duchy of Florence
Olbia Gallura, Giudicato of Italy 9th century 1296 country dissolved, territories annexed by Pisa and Arborea
Genoa Genoa, Republic of Italy 11th century 1805 annexed by France
Milan Italian Republic Italy 1802 1805 Became the Kingdom of Italy
Salò Italian Social Republic Italy 1943 1945 Republic ceased to exist
Milan Italy, Kingdom of (Napoleonic) Italy 1805 1814 Kingdom ceased to exist
Turin Italy, Kingdom of (Sardinian) Italy 1861 1865 moved to Florence
Florence Italy, Kingdom of (Sardinian) Italy 1865 1871 moved to Rome
Rome Italy, Kingdom of (Sardinian) Italy 1871 1946 Kingdom became Republic
Milan Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom Italy 1815 1859 Milan ceded to Kingdom of Sardinia
Venice Lombardo-Venetian Kingdom Italy 1859 1866 Kingdom annexed by Kingdom of Italy
Lucca Lucca, Duchy of Italy 1815 1847 Duchy annexed by Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Lucca Lucca, Republic of Italy 1288 1805 Republic annexed by France
Mantua Mantua, Duchy of Italy 1433 1708 attached to the Duchy of Milan
Milan Milan, Duchy of Italy 1395 1797 became part of the Cisalpine Republic
Modena Modena, Duchy of Italy 1452 1860 became part of united Italy
Naples Naples, Kingdom of Italy 1282 1816 Kingdom of Naples merged into the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Piacenza Parma, Duchy of Italy 1545 1547 moved to Parma, following the assassination of the Duke Pierluigi Farnese
Parma Parma (and Piacenza), Duchy of Italy 1547 1860 Became part of united Italy
Cagliari Sardinia, Kingdom of Italy 1324 1720 moved to Turin
Turin Sardinia, Kingdom of Italy 1720 1861 Became part of unified Italy
Sassari Sassari, Republic of Italy 1294 1323 Became part of Kingdom of Sardinia
Turin Savoy, Duchy of Italy 1562 1720 Became part of Kingdom of Sardinia
Palermo Sicily, Kingdom of Italy 1130 1816 Kingdom merged into the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Catania Trinacria, Kingdom of Italy 1282 1401 Capital moved to Palermo. After 1302 the Kingdom of Sicily was sometimes called the Kingdom of Trinacria.
Porto Torres Torres, Giudicato of Italy 9th century 11th century moved to Ardara
Ardara Torres, Giudicato of Italy 11th century 1272 moved to Sassari
Sassari Torres, Giudicato of Italy 1272 1280 country dissolved, territories annexed by Malaspina, Doria, Pisa and Arborea
Trieste Trieste, Free Territory of Italy 1947 1954 Territory dissolved, integrated into Italy and Yugoslavia
Florence Tuscany, Grand Duchy of Italy 1569 1860 became part of unified Italy
Siena Siena, Republic of Italy 1125 1555 Conquered by Florence
Naples Two Sicilies, Kingdom of the Italy 1816 1861 became part of unified Italy
Urbino Urbino, Duchy of Italy 1443 1523 moved to Pesaro
Pesaro Urbino, Duchy of Italy 1523 1625 annexed by the papacy
Venice Venice, Republic of Italy fl. 9th century 1797 annexed by Austria
Rabat Gozitan Nation Malta 1798 1801 became part of the British Protectorate of Malta
Mdina Part of Kingdom of Sicily Malta 700 BC 1530 moved to Birgu upon arrival of the Order of Saint John
Birgu History of Malta under the Order of Saint John Malta 1530 1571 moved to Valletta

South-eastern Europe

Old capital city Country Today a part of From Until Change, reason
Gjirokastër Arbanon, Principality of Albania 1190 1255
Durrës Albania, Kingdom of Albania 1272 1368
Durrës Albania, Principality of Albania 1368 1392
Krujë Gjirokastër, Principality of Albania 1286 1418
Berat Berat, Lordship of Albania 1335 1444 Berat became part of the League of Lezhë.
Lezhë Dukagjini, Principality of Albania 1387 1444 Dukagjini became part of the League of Lezhë.
Krujë Kastrioti, Principality of Albania 1389 1444 Kastrioti became part of the League of Lezhë
Lezhë Lezhë, League of Albania 1444 1450
Vlorë Albania, Independent Albania 1912 1914 moved to Durrës
Durrës Albania, Principality of Albania 1914 1920 moved to Tirana
Pliska Bulgarian Empire, First Bulgaria 681 AD 893 AD moved to Preslav
Preslav Bulgarian Empire, First Bulgaria 893 AD 972 AD capital of First Bulgarian Empire (moved to Skopie)
Skopje Bulgarian Empire, First North Macedonia 972 AD 992 AD capital of First Bulgarian Empire (moved to Ohrid), Macedonia
Ohrid Bulgarian Empire, First North Macedonia 992 AD 1018 capital of First Bulgarian Empire; Empire ceased to exist after Byzantine conquest
Tarnovo Bulgarian Empire, Second Bulgaria 1185 1393 moved to Vidin
Vidin Bulgarian Empire, Second Bulgaria 1393 1396 Empire ceased to exist after the Ottoman conquest
Tarnovo Principality of Bulgaria Bulgaria 1878 1879 moved to Sofia
Plovdiv Eastern Rumelia Bulgaria 1878 1885 annexed as part of the Unification of Bulgaria
Ragusa (Dubrovnik) Ragusa, Republic of Croatia 7th century 1808 annexed by France
Varaždin Croatia, Kingdom of Croatia 1756 1776 Moved back to Zagreb, when a fire destroyed most of the city.
Fiume (Rijeka) Fiume, Free State of Croatia 1920 1924 annexed by Kingdom of Italy
Chania Cretan State Greece 1898 1913 Cretan State united with Greece
Corfu Septinsular Republic Greece 1800 1815 Succeeded by the United States of the Ionian Islands, an amical protectorate of the United Kingdom, which had Corfu as its capital, too, until 1864, when the island country became part of the Kingdom of Greece.
Nafplio Hellenic Republic, First Greece 1821 1836 moved to Athens
Aegina Hellenic Republic, First Greece 1827 1829 moved back to Nafplio
Siret Moldavia, Principality of Romania 1354 1388 moved to Suceava
Suceava Moldavia, Principality of Romania 1388 1564 moved to Iași
Iași Moldavia, Principality of Romania 1564 1859 unified with Wallachia to form United Principalities of Romania
Iași Romanian United Principalities Romania 1859 1862 one of the two capitals of the United Principalities, then moved to Bucharest
Bucharest Romanian United Principalities Romania 1859 1916 moved to Iași after partial occupation of the Kingdom of Romania during World War I
Iași Romania, Kingdom of Romania 1916 1918 moved back to Bucharest
Curtea de Argeș Wallachia, Principality of Romania fl.13th century fl.15th century
Câmpulung Wallachia, Principality of Romania fl.13th century fl.15th century moved to Târgoviște
Târgoviște Wallachia, Principality of Romania 1418 1659 moved to Bucharest
Bucharest Wallachia, Principality of Romania 1659 1859 unified with Moldavia to form United Principalities of Romania
Constantinople (Istanbul) Byzantine Empire Turkey 330 AD 661 AD Emperor Constans II relocated his capital to Syracuse in Sicily.
Syracuse Byzantine Empire Italy 661 AD 668 AD Constans II was assassinated and the seat of Byzantine government was returned to Constantinople.
Constantinople (Istanbul) Byzantine Empire Turkey 668 AD 1204 The Fourth Crusade set out to replace the Greek Orthodox Byzantine Empire with a Latin version and there were several Byzantine successor states, the most memorable of which being the Empire of Nicaea.
Nicaea (İznik) Byzantine Empire Turkey 1204 1261 When the Empire of Nicaea recaptured Constantinople, they relocated the capital there as well
Constantinople (Istanbul) Byzantine Empire Turkey 1261 1453 Byzantine Empire Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire.
Bursa Ottoman Empire Turkey 1335 1365 moved to Edirne
Edirne Ottoman Empire Turkey 1365 1453 moved to Istanbul (Constantinople)
Istanbul Ottoman Empire Turkey 1453 1923 The Ottoman Empire became the Republic of Turkey. The capital moved to Ankara.
Cetinje Montenegro, Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro 1696 1852
Cetinje Montenegro, Principality of Montenegro 1852 1910
Cetinje Montenegro, Kingdom of Montenegro 1910 1918 Became part of Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Capital of SR Montenegro moved to Titograd (Podgorica) in 1946.
Stari Ras Serbia, Grand Principality of Serbia 950 AD 1234 capital of the Grand Principality of Serbia, and the historical region of Raška
Prapratna Duklja Montenegro ... 1042 moved to Skadar
Skadar (Shkodër) Duklja, Zeta Albania 1042 1385 moved to Ulcinj (Olcinium)
Debrc Serbia, Kingdom of Serbia 1276 1289 moved to Belgrade
Prizren Serbia, Kingdom of Serbia 1300 1345 moved to Skopje
Skoplje Serbian Empire North Macedonia 1345 1371 capital of Serbian Empire, now capital of North Macedonia
Kruševac Serbia, Moravian Serbia 1371 1405 capital of Serbia, moved to Belgrade
Ulcinj (Olcinium) Zeta Montenegro 1385 1403 moved to Bar (Antivari)
Bar (Antivari) Zeta Montenegro 1403 1408
Belgrade Serbian Despotate Serbia 1405 1427
Skadar (Shkodër) Zeta Montenegro 1408 1474 moved to Žabljak (Žabljak Crnojevića)
Smederevo Serbian Despotate Serbia 1430 1453
Žabljak Crnojevića Zeta Montenegro 1474 1475 moved to Obod
Obod Zeta Montenegro 1475 1482 moved to Cetinje
Subotica Jovan Nenad's Empire Serbia 1526 1527
Kragujevac Serbia, Principality of Serbia 1818 1841 moved to Belgrade
Belgrade Yugoslavia, Kingdom of Serbia 1918 1945
Belgrade Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Serbia 1945 1992
Belgrade Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of/ Serbia and Montenegro, State Union of Serbia 1992 2006 State union dissolved, became capital of Serbia

South-western Europe

Old capital city Country Today a part of From Until Change, reason
Guimarães Portugal, Kingdom of Portugal 1128 1179 moved to Coimbra
Coimbra Portugal, Kingdom of Portugal 1179 1255 moved to Lisbon
Barcelona Visigothic Kingdom Spain 507 546 moved to Toledo
Barcelona County of Barcelona, Crown of Aragon, Principality of Catalonia and Catalan Republic Spain 801 1715 annexed by Spain and France
Barcelona Second Spanish Republic Spain 1937 1939 Government of the Second Spanish Republic in the Spanish Civil War
Córdoba Córdoba, Emirate of Spain 756 929 Succeeded by Caliphate of Córdoba.
Córdoba Córdoba, Caliphate of Spain 929 1031 country dissolved, became part of Taifa of Córdoba
Burgos Castile, Crown of Spain 11th century 15th century moved to Valladolid
Santiago Couto Mixto Spain 12th century 1864 Couto Mixto annexed by Spain and Portugal
Granada Granada, Emirate of Spain 1250 1492 Emirate ceased to exist after the Reconquista and incorporated into Castile
Toledo Castile, Crown of Spain 15th century 1469 moved to Valladolid
Valladolid Castile, Crown of Spain 1469 1561 moved to Madrid. Was briefly the Spanish capital again from 1601 to 1606.
Valencia Second Spanish Republic Spain 1936 1937 Government of the Second Spanish Republic in the Spanish Civil War

Western Europe

Old capital city Country Today a part of From Until Change, reason
Vienna Austrian Empire Austria 1806 1867 became capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire
Vienna Austro-Hungarian Empire Austria 1867 1918 became capital of the Republic of Austria after Empire collapsed
Tournai Francia Belgium 431 486 Under kings Childeric I and Clovis I, Tournai was the capital of the Frankish empire. In the year 486, Clovis moved the centre of power to Paris, as a result, the Low Countries region ceased to be the political centre of the Frankish empire.
Kelmis Neutral Moresnet Belgium 1816 1919 Moresnet annexed by Belgium
Vichy France, State of France 1940 1944 capital of Vichy France régime, defeated by Allies
Aachen Carolingian Empire Germany 800 814 became capital of Charlemagne as Imperator Augustus and Emperor of the Carolingian Empire
Karlsruhe Baden, Grand Duchy of Germany 1771 1918 Baden became part of the German Empire in 1871, and lost sovereignty fully in 1918. Karlsruhe remained the capital of the German state of Baden until 1945.
Munich Bavaria, Kingdom of Germany 14th century 1918 Bavaria became part of the German Empire in 1871, and lost sovereignty fully in 1918. Munich remains the capital of the German state of Bavaria.
Brunswick, Duchy of Germany 1815 1918 Brunswick became part of the German Empire in 1871, and lost sovereignty fully in 1918. Braunschweig remained the capital of the German Free State of Brunswick until 1946 when it became part of the German state of Lower Saxony.
Frankfurt Rhine, Confederation of the Germany 1806 1815 Confederation dissolved
Frankfurt German Confederation Germany 1815 1866 German Confederation dissolved
Berlin German Empire Germany 1871 1918
Berlin Germany (Weimar Republic) Germany 1919 1933
Berlin Germany (Nazi Germany) Germany 1933 1945 Separation of Germany into occupation zones for the Allied powers. Capital moved to Flensburg temporarily under control of then-president Karl Dönitz.
Flensburg Germany (Nazi Germany) Germany 1945 1945 Lost all of its jurisdictions after the Surrender of Germany, still operated until 23 May when cabinet members were arrested.
Bonn Germany, West Germany 1949 1990 Moved to Berlin after re-unification of Germany. Bonn retained as the German seat of government until 1999.
East Berlin Germany, East Germany 1949 1990 East Berlin and West Berlin merged to form reunified Berlin, country ceased to exist after reunification of Germany
Hanover Hanover, Kingdom of Germany 1814 1866 Hanover annexed by Prussia, became capital of the Prussian Province of Hanover, currently the capital of the German state of Lower Saxony
Darmstadt Hesse-Darmstadt, Landgraviate of, Hesse, Grand Duchy of Germany 1567 1918 Hesse-Darmstadt became part of the German Empire in 1871, and lost sovereignty fully in 1918. Darmstadt remained the capital of the German People's State of Hesse until 1945.
Kassel Hesse-Darmstadt, Landgraviate of, Hesse-Kassel, Landgraviate of, Hesse, Electorate of Germany 1277 1866 Hesse-Kassel annexed by Prussia in 1866; Kassel became capital of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau
Wiesbaden Nassau, Duchy of Germany 1816 1866 Nassau annexed by Prussia, currently the capital of the German state of Hesse
Oldenburg Oldenburg, Duchy of Germany 1180 1918 Oldenburg became part of the German Empire in 1871, and lost sovereignty fully in 1918. Oldenburg remained the capital of the German Free State of Oldenburg until 1946 when it became part of the German state of Lower Saxony.
Heidelberg Palatinate, Electorate of the Germany 14th century 1720 moved to Mannheim
Mannheim Palatinate, Electorate of the Germany 1720 1777 Palatinate inherited by the Electors of Bavaria.
Dresden Saxony, Kingdom of Germany 1485 1918 Saxony became part of the German Empire in 1871, and lost sovereignty fully in 1918. Dresden remained the capital of the German state of Saxony until Saxony itself lost its statehood in 1952 when it was part of East Germany. Dresden became again the capital of Saxony in 1990 following reunification.
Bückeburg Schaumburg-Lippe, Principality of Germany 1643 1918 Schaumburg-Lippe became part of the German Empire in 1871, and lost sovereignty fully in 1918. Bückeburg remained the capital of the German Free State of Schaumburg-Lippe until 1946 when it became part of the German state of Lower Saxony.
Kassel Westphalia, Kingdom of Germany 1807 1813 dissolved in 1813
Stuttgart Württemberg, Kingdom of Germany c. 1300 1918 Württemberg became part of the German Empire in 1871, and lost sovereignty fully in 1918. Stuttgart remained the capital of the German state of Württemberg until 1945 when it became the capital of newly established state of Württemberg-Baden, and then became capital of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
Zürich Old Swiss Confederacy Switzerland 1415 1530 Vorort of the Swiss diet, after 1530 partially replaced by Lucerne.[4]
Aarau Helvetic Republic Switzerland 1798 1798 moved to Lucerne
Lucerne Helvetic Republic Switzerland 1798 1803 Helvetic Republic abolished

North America

Old capital city Country, empire From Until Change, reason
James Town Barbados 1625 1628 moved to Bridgetown, purpose-built
St. George Bermuda 1612 1815 moved to Hamilton
Belize City British Honduras 1638 1970 moved to Belmopan because of the devastating effects of Hurricane Hattie in 1961 and Belize City earthquake in 1968
Chan Santa Cruz Chan Santa Cruz c. 1852 1901 became part of Mexico
Cartago Costa Rica 1562 1823 moved to San José
Santiago de Cuba Cuba 1522 1589 moved (after 1607 in Havana)
Santiago de los Caballeros Dominican Republic 1863 1865 Dominican Restoration War
Antigua Guatemala 1525 1776 New capital of Guatemala City founded after Antigua destroyed three times by major earthquakes.
Spanish Town Jamaica 1534 1872 moved to Kingston
Cap-Français Saint-Domingue 1711 1804 moved to Port-au-Prince
Quetzaltenango Los Altos 1838 1840 country ceased to exist
Granada and León Nicaragua 1821 1857 moved to Managua
St. John's Newfoundland 1855 1949 entered confederation within Canada and became the country's 10th province
Washington, D.C. Philippine Commonwealth May 1942 October 1944 returned to the Philippines subsequent to the end of the Japanese occupation of the Philippines in World War II
Old Road Town Saint Kitts 1623 1727 capital moved to Basseterre
San Jose de Oruña (Saint Joseph) British Trinidad 1592 1783 moved to Port of Spain
Caparra Puerto Rico 1508 1521 moved to San Juan
Port of Spain and Chaguaramas West Indies Federation 1958 1962 country ceased to exist
Mérida Republic of Yucatán 1840 1847 Yucatán annexed by Mexico
Comayagua, Comayagua Republic of Honduras 1540 1937 Tiburcio Carias Andino changed the capital because of its proximity to the San Juancito mines
St. John's British Leeward Islands 1671 and 1833 1816 and 1958


Old capital city Country Today a part of From Until Change, reason
Melbourne Australia Australia 1901–1908 1927 Melbourne was the de facto seat of Government from 1901 until 1927, when in 1908, it was decided that the planned city of Canberra be the capital city and seat of Government.[5][6][a]
Levuka Colony of Fiji Fiji 1874 1877 moved to Suva
Jabor, Jaluit Atoll Marshall Islands District Marshall Islands 1885 1978 moved to Majuro Atoll
Kolonia Federated States of Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia 1986 1989 moved to Palikir
Okiato (Russell) Colony of New Zealand New Zealand 1840 1841 moved to Auckland. Several Māori chiefs offered land at Tāmaki-makau-rau (Auckland) so a capital could be established there.[7]
Auckland Colony of New Zealand New Zealand 1841 1865 moved to Wellington. In 1863 it was proposed that the capital be moved somewhere on the shores of Cook Strait. An independent tribunal decided on the location. They visited a number of sites and chose Wellington.[8]
Koror Palau Palau 1994 2006 moved to Ngerulmud
Tulagi British Solomon Islands Solomon Islands 1896 1942 moved to Honiara
  1. ^ Melbourne is sometimes said to have been the inaugural capital of Australia, from 1901 until 1927, when Parliament House, Canberra was opened. This is not so. Section 125 of the Constitution of Australia states that the seat of government is to be within the state of New South Wales but not less than 100 miles (160 kilometres) from Sydney, and that until that place (Canberra) was built, the Parliament of Australia would meet at Melbourne. That made Melbourne the de facto (but not de jure) seat of government 1901–1927, but it did not amount to Melbourne being declared the capital, and it was never so described in contemporary documents.

South America

Old capital city Country Today a part of From Until Change, reason
Cuzco Inca Empire Peru fl. 13th century 1534 Inca Empire conquered and taken over by the Spanish, who designated Jauja as their administration site
Coro Venezuela, Captaincy General of Venezuela 1527 1578 moved to Caracas to prevent an invasion due to its large coastline.
Cidade do Acre (Porto Acre) Acre, Republic of Brazil 1899 1900 returned to Bolivia, then incorporated into Brazil
Jauja New Castile Governorate Peru 1534 1535 moved to Lima along the coastline in 1535
Perquenco Araucanía and Patagonia, Kingdom of Chile 1860 1862 incorporated to Chile and Argentina
Paraná Argentine Confederation Argentina 1853 1861 moved to Buenos Aires, after the secessionist State of Buenos Aires rejoined Argentina
Salvador da Bahia Colonial Brazil Brazil 1549 1763 moved to Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro Portugal, Kingdom of Brazil 1808 1815 became capital of Portugal when the Portuguese king John VI moved to the colony of Brazil during the war with Napoleonic France in 1808.
Rio de Janeiro Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves; Kingdom of Brazil 1815 1825 It came into being when the colony of Brazil was elevated to the rank of a Kingdom, and the Kingdoms of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarve were united as a single State by the title of The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarve by a Law issued on December 16, 1815.
Rio de Janeiro Brazil Brazil 1763 1960 moved to Brasília
Concepción Chile, Captaincy General of Chile 1565 1575 moved to Santiago
Concepción del Uruguay Entre Ríos, Republic of Argentina 1820 1821 country dissolved (and incorporated to Argentina) after the death of Francisco Ramírez
Laguna Juliana Republic Brazil 1836 1836 reincorporated into the Brazilian Empire after the Ragamuffin War
Purificación [es] (near Paysandú) Liga Federal Uruguay 1815 1820 country dissolved
Tacna Peru–Bolivian Confederation Peru 1837 1839 country ceased to exist
Piratini Riograndense Republic Brazil 1836 1845 reincorporated into the Brazilian Empire after the Ragamuffin War
Pasto Grenadine Confederation Colombia 1862 1862 country ceased to exist
Tunja United Provinces of New Granada Colombia 1811 1814 moved to Bogotá

See also



  1. ^ Nick Eberstadt (1999). The End of North Korea. Washington: American Enterprise Institute. pp. 26, 32. ISBN 978-0-8447-4087-4.
  2. ^ Pakistan Affairs. Information Division, Embassy of Pakistan. 1968. p. 19.
  3. ^ "Genesis of Bangladesh's Constitution". The Daily Star. 17 April 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  4. ^ Vorort in German, French and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland.
  5. ^ "Canberra, the Seat of Government". nca.gov.au. National Capital Authority. 25 August 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2021.
  6. ^ Article Chapter VII, Section 125 of the Constitution of Australia (19 July 1900; 1 January 1901)
  7. ^ "Capital city".
  8. ^ "Capital city".