In Islam, a Maturidi (Arabic: ماتريدي) is one who follows Abu Mansur Al Maturidi's systematic theology (kalam), which is the most popular school of theology within Sunni Islam. The school is known as Maturidism or Maturidiyyah. It is considered one of the orthodox kalam creeds alongside the Ash'ari school. Māturīdism has been the predominant theological orientation among Hanafis and the Ahl al-Ray (people of reason) and enjoyed a preeminent status in the Ottoman Empire and Mughal India. Outside of the the old Ottoman and Mughal empires, many Turkic tribes and Asian Muslims also believe in Maturidi theology.
Points about which the Maturidis differ from the Ash'aris are, among others, the relationship between belief and sin, the ability of reason to uncover truth, and free will.
The Maturidis state that iman (faith) does not increase nor decrease depending on one's deeds; it is rather taqwa (piety) which increases and decreases. The Ash'aris say that faith itself increases or decreases according to one's actions.
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Regarding the increased emphasis placed on the role of human reason, the Maturidis say that the unaided human mind is able to find out that the more major sins such as alcohol or murder are immoral and evil without the aid of revelation. The Ash'aris disagree, and conclude that the unaided human mind is unable to determine if something is good or evil, lawful or unlawful, moral or immoral.
Regarding free will, the Maturidis uphold the concept of occasionalism. Under the Maturidi understanding of occasionalism, God gives humanity the power to make choices and decisions for themselves (taqdir), but still maintains the ability to control all creation.
- Early Islamic philosophy
- Islamic philosophy
- Islamization of knowledge
- Islamic schools and branches
- An article from a Turkish site
- (in French) Biography of Imâm Al Mâturîdî (by at-tawhid.net)
- The Place of Reason in the Theologies of al-Maturidi and al-Ash'ari (Dissertation)
- "Maturidiyah". Britanicca. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
- Article "Kalam" in The Encyclopedia of Islam, 1st edition.