List of Nobel laureates affiliated with Johns Hopkins University

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The Nobel Prizes are awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, the Karolinska Institute, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee to individuals who make outstanding contributions in the fields of chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.[1] They were established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel, which dictates that the awards should be administered by the Nobel Foundation. Another prize, the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, was established in 1968 by the Sveriges Riksbank, the central bank of Sweden, for contributors to the field of economics.[2] Each prize is awarded by a separate committee: the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awards the Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, and Economics, the Karolinska Institute awards the Prize in Physiology or Medicine, and the Norwegian Nobel Committee awards the Prize in Peace.[3] Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a cash prize that has varied throughout the years.[2] In 1901, the winners of the first Nobel Prizes were given 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2007. In 2008, the winners were awarded a prize amount of 10,000,000 SEK.[4] The awards are presented in Stockholm in an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.[5]

As of 2011, there have been 34 Nobel laureates affiliated with Johns Hopkins University. Johns Hopkins considers laureates who attended the university as undergraduate students, graduate students or were members of the faculty as affiliated laureates.[6] Woodrow Wilson, who received his Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins in 1886, was the first Johns Hopkins-affiliated laureate, winning the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919.[6][7] Four Nobel Prizes were shared by Johns Hopkins laureates: George Minot and George Whipple won the 1934 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine,[8] Joseph Erlanger and Herbert Spencer Gasser won the 1944 Nobel Prize in Physiology in Medicine,[9] Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith won the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine,[10] and David H. Hubel and Torsten N. Wiesel won the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.[11] Eighteen Johns Hopkins laureates have won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, more than any other category.[6] Twenty-four laureates were members of the Johns Hopkins faculty, five laureates received their Ph.D. at Johns Hopkins, eight laureates received their M.D. at Johns Hopkins, and two laureates, Francis Peyton Rous and Martin Rodbell, received their undergraduate degrees at Johns Hopkins.

Laureates[edit]

Year Image Laureate Relation Category Rationale
1919 President Woodrow Wilson portrait December 2 1912.jpg Wilson, WoodrowWoodrow Wilson Ph.D., 1886 Peace "President of United States of America; Founder of the League of Nations"[7]
1925 Franck, JamesJames Franck
(shared with Gustav Ludwig Hertz)
Professor of Physics, 1935–38 Physics "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"[12]
1931 Butler, Nicholas MurrayNicholas Murray Butler
(shared with Jane Addams)
Lecturer, 1890–91 Peace "President, Columbia University; Promoter of Briand Kellogg Pact"[13]
1933 Morgan, Thomas HuntThomas Hunt Morgan Ph.D., 1890; LL.D., 1915 Physiology or Medicine "for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"[14]
1934 Urey, HaroldHarold Urey Associate in Chemistry, 1924–28 Chemistry "for his discovery of heavy hydrogen"[15]
1934 Minot, GeorgeGeorge Minot
(shared with George Whipple and William P. Murphy)
Assistant in Medicine, 1914–15 Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"[8]
1934 Whipple, GeorgeGeorge Whipple
(shared with George Minot and William P. Murphy)
M.D., 1905; Associate Professor in Pathology, 1910–14 Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"[8]
1944 Erlanger, JosephJoseph Erlanger
(shared with Herbert Spencer Gasser)
M.D., 1899; Assistant in Physiology, 1900–01; Instructor, 1901–03; Associate, 1903–04; Associate Professor, 1904–06; LL.D., 1947 Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"[9]
1944 Gasser, Herbert SpencerHerbert Spencer Gasser
(shared with Joseph Erlanger)
M.D., 1915 Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"[9]
1955 du Vigneaud, VincentVincent du Vigneaud
(shared with Cyril Norman Hinshelwood and Nikolay Semenov)
National Research Fellow, Pharmacology 1927–28 Chemistry "for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone"[16]
1963 Goeppert-Mayer, MariaMaria Goeppert-Mayer
(shared with Eugene Wigner and J. Hans D. Jensen)
Assistant in Physics, 1930–32; Associate, 1932–36 Physics "for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"[17]
1966 Rous, Francis PeytonFrancis Peyton Rous
(shared with Charles Brenton Huggins)
A.B., 1900; M.D., 1905 Physiology or Medicine "for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses"[18]
1967 Hartline, Haldan KefferHaldan Keffer Hartline
(shared with Ragnar Granit and George Wald)
M.D. 1927; Professor of Biophysics, 1949–54 Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"[19]
1968 Onsager, LarsLars Onsager Associate in Chemistry, 1927–28 Chemistry "for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes"[20]
1971 Kuznets, SimonSimon Kuznets Professor of Political Economy, 1954–60 Economics "for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development"[21]
1972 Christian B. Anfinsen, NIH portrait, 1969.jpg Anfinsen, Christian B.Christian B. Anfinsen
(shared with Stanford Moore and William Howard Stein)
Professor of Biology, 1982–1995 Chemistry "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"[22]
1978 Nathans, DanielDaniel Nathans
(shared with Werner Arber and Hamilton O. Smith)
Assistant Professor, 1962–65; Associate Professor, 1965–67; Professor of Molecular Biology and Genetics, 1967–1999; Interim President, 1995–96 Physiology or Medicine "for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"[10]
1978 Hamilton Smith.jpg Smith, Hamilton O.Hamilton O. Smith
(shared with Werner Arber and Daniel Nathans)
M.D., 1956; Assistant Professor of Microbiology, 1967–69; Associate Professor, 1969–1973; Professor, 1973–1998; Professor Emeritus 1998–present Physiology or Medicine "for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"[10]
1981 Hubel, David H.David H. Hubel
(shared with Torsten N. Wiesel)
Assistant Resident, Neurology, 1954–55; Fellow, Neuroscience, 1958–59 Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"[11]
1981 Wiesel, Torsten N.Torsten N. Wiesel
(shared with David H. Hubel)
Fellow, Ophthalmology, 1955–58; Assistant Professor, 1958–59 Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"[11]
1984 Stone, RichardRichard Stone Visiting Professor, Political Economy 1953–54 Economics "for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis"[23]
1990 Miller, MertonMerton Miller
(shared with Harry Markowitz and William Forsyth Sharpe)
Ph.D., 1952; Honorary doctorate, 1993 Economics "for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics"[24]
1993 Fogel, RobertRobert Fogel
(shared with Douglass North)
Ph.D., 1963 Economics "for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"[25]
1994 Rodbell, MartinMartin Rodbell
(shared with Alfred G. Gilman)
B.A., 1949 Physiology or Medicine "for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"[26]
1997 JodyWilliams1.jpg Williams, JodyJody Williams
(shared with the International Campaign to Ban Landmines)
M.A., 1984 Peace "for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines"[27]
1999 Rmundell.jpg Mundell, RobertRobert Mundell Visiting faculty at SAIS Bologna Center, 2000–2001; AGIP Chair in International Economics at the center, 1997–98; also was on the center's faculty, 1959–61 Economics "for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas"[28]
2000 Greengard, PaulPaul Greengard
(shared with Arvid Carlsson and Eric Kandel)
Ph.D., 1953 Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"[29]
2002 Giacconi, RiccardoRiccardo Giacconi
(shared with Raymond Davis, Jr. and Masatoshi Koshiba)
Professor of Physics and Astronomy, 1982–1997; Research Professor of Physics and Astronomy 1998–present Physics "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"[30]
2003 Agre, PeterPeter Agre
(shared with Roderick MacKinnon)
M.D., 1974; Postdoctoral fellow, Department of Pharmacology, 1974–75; Research Associate/Instructor, Cell Biology and Anatomy, and Medicine, 1981–83; Assistant Professor, 1984–88; Associate Professor, 1988–93; Professor of Biological Chemistry and Medicine, 1993–2005 Chemistry "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for the discovery of water channels"[31]
2003 J.M. Coetzee.JPG Coetzee, J. M.J. M. Coetzee Hinkley Visiting Professor in the Writing Seminars, January 1, 1989 to June 30, 1989 Literature "who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider"[32]
2004 Axel, RichardRichard Axel
(shared with Linda B. Buck)
M.D., 1971 Physiology or Medicine "for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"[33]
2006 Fire, AndrewAndrew Fire
(shared with Craig Mello)
Adjunct professor of biology, 1989–present Physiology or Medicine "for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"[34]
2009 Greider, CarolCarol Greider
(shared with Elizabeth H. Blackburn and Jack W. Szostak)
Daniel Nathans Professor and the Director of Molecular Biology and Genetics at the Johns Hopkins Institute of Basic Biomedical Sciences Physiology or Medicine "for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"[35]
2011 Riess, AdamAdam Riess
(shared with Brian Schmidt and Saul Perlmutter)
Krieger-Eisenhower Professor in Physics and Astronomy, Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts & Sciences Physics "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae."[36]

References[edit]

General
Specific
  1. ^ "Alfred Nobel – The Man Behind the Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-18. 
  2. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-18. 
  3. ^ "The Nobel Prize Awarders". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-18. 
  4. ^ "The Nobel Prize Amounts". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-07-31. Retrieved 2008-10-18. 
  5. ^ "The Nobel Prize Award Ceremonies". Nobel Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2008-10-18. 
  6. ^ a b c "Nobel Prize Winners". Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  7. ^ a b "Nobel Peace Prize 1919". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  8. ^ a b c "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  9. ^ a b c "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  10. ^ a b c "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  11. ^ a b c "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  12. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  13. ^ "Nobel Peace Prize 1931". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  14. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  15. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1934". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  16. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1955". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  17. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  18. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  19. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  20. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1968". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  21. ^ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1971". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  22. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  23. ^ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1984". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  24. ^ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1990". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  25. ^ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1993". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  26. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  27. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1997". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  28. ^ "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1999". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  29. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  30. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-01-24. 
  31. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  32. ^ "Nobel Prize in Literature 2003". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  33. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  34. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  35. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2010-01-26. 
  36. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-14. 

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