Voiced palatal stop

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Voiced palatal stop#Palatal or alveolo-palatal
ɟ
IPA number 108
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɟ
Unicode (hex) U+025F
X-SAMPA J\
Kirshenbaum J
Braille ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35) ⠚ (braille pattern dots-245)
Sound

The voiced palatal stop or voiced palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some vocal languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɟ⟩, a barred dotless ⟨j⟩ that was initially created by turning the type for a lowercase letter ⟨f⟩. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is J\.

If the distinction is necessary, the voiced alveolo-palatal stop may be transcribed ⟨ɟ̟⟩, ⟨ɟ˖⟩ (both symbols denote an advancedɟ⟩) or ⟨d̠ʲ⟩ (retracted and palatalizedd⟩), but they are essentially equivalent since the contact includes both the blade and body (but not the tip) of the tongue. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are J\_+ and d_-' or d_-_j, respectively. There is also a non-IPA letter ⟨ȡ⟩ ("d" with the curl found in the symbols for alveolo-palatal sibilant fricatives ⟨ɕ, ʑ⟩), used especially in Sinological circles.

The sound does not exist as a phoneme in English, but it is perhaps most similar to a voiced postalveolar affricate [d͡ʒ], as in English jump. Because it is difficult to get the tongue to touch just the hard palate without also touching the back part of the alveolar ridge,[1] [ɟ] is a less common sound worldwide than [d͡ʒ]. It is also common for the symbol ⟨ɟ⟩ to be used to represent a palatalized voiced velar stop or palato-alveolar/alveolo-palatal affricates, as in Indic languages. That may be considered appropriate when the place of articulation needs to be specified, and the distinction between stop and affricate is not contrastive.

There is also the voiced post-palatal stop[2] in some languages, which is articulated slightly more back than the place of articulation of the prototypical voiced palatal stop but not as back as the prototypical voiced velar stop. The IPA does not have a separate symbol, which can be transcribed as ⟨ɟ̠⟩, ⟨ɟ˗⟩ (both symbols denote a retracted ⟨ɟ⟩), ⟨ɡ̟⟩ or ⟨ɡ˖⟩ (both symbols denote an advanced ⟨ɡ⟩). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are J\_- and g_+, respectively.

Especially in broad transcription, the voiced post-palatal stop may be transcribed as a palatalized voiced velar stop (⟨ɡʲ⟩ in the IPA, g' or g_j in X-SAMPA).

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced palatal stop:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a stop.
  • Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate. The otherwise identical post-palatal variant is articulated slightly behind the hard palate, making it sound slightly closer to the velar [ɡ].
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Palatal or alveolo-palatal[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Albanian[3] gjuha [ˈɟuha] 'tongue' Merged with [d͡ʒ] in Gheg Albanian and some speakers of Tosk Albanian.[4]
Arabic Some Northern Yemeni dialects[5] جمل [ˈɟamal] 'camel' Corresponds to [d͡ʒ ~ ʒ ~ ɡ] in other varieties. See Arabic phonology
Some Sudanese speakers[5]
Upper Egypt[5]
Basque anddere [äɲɟe̞ɾe̞] 'doll'
Catalan Majorcan[6] guix [ˈɟi̞ɕ] 'chalk' Corresponds to /ɡ/ in other varieties. See Catalan phonology
Chinese Taiwanese Hokkien 攑手 / gia̍h-tshiú [ɟiaʔ˧ʔ t͡ɕʰiu˥˩] '(to) raise a hand'
Taizhou dialect [ɟyoŋ] 'together'
Corsican fighjulà [viɟɟuˈla] 'to watch'
Czech dělám [ˈɟɛlaːm] 'I do' See Czech phonology
Dinka jir [ɟir] 'blunt'
Ega[7] [ɟé] 'become numerous'
French[8] gui [ɟi] 'mistletoe' Ranges from alveolar to palatal with more than one closure point. See French phonology
Friulian gjat [ɟat] 'cat'
Ganda jjajja [ɟːaɟːa] 'grandfather'
Hungarian[9] gyám [ɟäːm] 'guardian' See Hungarian phonology
Irish Gaeilge [ˈɡeːlʲɟə] 'Irish language' See Irish phonology
Latvian ģimene About this sound [ˈɟime̞ne̞]  'family' See Latvian phonology
Macedonian раѓање [ˈraɟaɲɛ] 'birth' See Macedonian phonology
Norwegian Central[10] fadder [fɑɟːeɾ] 'godparent' See Norwegian phonology
Northern[10]
Occitan Auvergnat diguèt [ɟiˈɡɛ] 'said' (3rd pers. sing.) See Occitan phonology
Limousin dissèt [ɟiˈʃɛ]
Portuguese Some Brazilian speakers pedinte [piˈɟ̟ĩc̟i̥] 'beggar' Corresponds to affricate allophone of /d/ before /i/ that is common in Brazil.[11] See Portuguese phonology
Slovak[12] ďaleký [ˈɟ̟äɫe̞kiː] 'far' Alveolo-palatal.[12] See Slovak phonology
Turkish güneş [ɟyˈne̞ʃ] 'sun' See Turkish phonology
Vietnamese North-central dialect da [ɟa˧] 'skin' See Vietnamese phonology

Post-palatal[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan[13] guix [ˈɡ̟i̞ɕ] 'chalk' Allophone of /ɡ/ before front vowels.[13] See Catalan phonology
Greek[14] μετάγγιση / metággisi [me̞ˈtɐŋ̟ɟ̠is̠i] 'transfusion' Post-palatal.[14] See Modern Greek phonology
Italian Standard[15] ghianda [ˈɡ̟jän̪ːd̪ä] 'acorn' Post-palatal; allophone of /ɡ/ before /i, e, ɛ, j/.[15] See Italian phonology
Portuguese amiguinho [ɐmiˈɡ̟ĩɲu] 'little buddy' Allophone of /ɡ/ before front vowels. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian[16] ghimpe [ˈɡ̟impe̞] 'thorn' Both an allophone of /ɡ/ before /i, e, j/ and the phonetic realization of /ɡʲ/.[16] See Romanian phonology
Russian Standard[17] герб / gerb [ɡ̟e̞rp] 'coat of arms' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɡʲ⟩. See Russian phonology
Spanish[18] guía [ˈɡ̟i.ä] 'guidebook' Allophone of /ɡ/ before front vowels.[18] See Spanish phonology
Yanyuwa[19] [ɡ̠uɡ̟uɭu] 'sacred' Post-palatal.[19] Contrasts plain and prenasalized versions.

Variable[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English[20][21] geese [ɡ̟iːs] 'geese' Allophone of /ɡ/ before front vowels and /j/. Varies between post-palatal and palatal.[20][21] See English phonology

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 162.
  2. ^ Instead of "post-palatal", it can be called "retracted palatal", "backed palatal", "palato-velar", "pre-velar", "advanced velar", "fronted velar" or "front-velar". For simplicity, this article uses only the term "post-palatal".
  3. ^ Newmark, Hubbard & Prifti (1982), p. 10.
  4. ^ Kolgjini (2004).
  5. ^ a b c Watson (2002), p. 16.
  6. ^ Recasens & Espinosa (2005), p. 1.
  7. ^ Connell, Ahoua & Gibbon (2002), p. 100.
  8. ^ Recasens (2013), pp. 11–13.
  9. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 164.
  10. ^ a b Skjekkeland (1997), pp. 105–107.
  11. ^ Palatalization in Brazilian Portuguese revisited
  12. ^ a b Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 374.
  13. ^ a b Rafel (1999), p. 14.
  14. ^ a b Arvaniti (2007), p. 20.
  15. ^ a b Canepari (1992), p. 62.
  16. ^ a b Sarlin (2014), p. 17.
  17. ^ Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015), p. 223.
  18. ^ a b Canellada & Madsen (1987), p. 20.
  19. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), pp. 34-35.
  20. ^ a b Gimson (2014), p. 181.
  21. ^ a b Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).

Bibliography[edit]