Fedora (operating system)
|Developer||Fedora Project (sponsored by Red Hat)|
|OS family||Linux (RPM-based)|
|Source model||Open source|
|Initial release||6 November 2003|
|Latest release||30 / 29 April 2019|
|Latest preview||31 / 17 September 2019|
|Marketing target||Desktop, server, cloud|
|Kernel type||Monolithic (Linux)|
|Userland||GNU Core Utilities|
|Default user interface||GNOME Shell|
|License||Various free software licenses, plus proprietary firmware files|
Fedora or Fedora Linux is a Linux distribution developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and sponsored primarily by Red Hat. Fedora contains software distributed under various free and open-source licenses and aims to be on the leading edge of such technologies. Fedora is the upstream source of the commercial Red Hat Enterprise Linux distribution.
Since the release of Fedora 30, five different editions are currently available: Workstation, focused on the personal computer, Server for servers, CoreOS, focused on cloud computing, Silverblue, focused on an immutable desktop specialized to container-based workflows and IoT, focused on IoT devices
Fedora has a reputation for focusing on innovation, integrating new technologies early on and working closely with upstream Linux communities. Making changes upstream instead of specifically for Fedora ensures that the changes are available to all Linux distributions.
Fedora has a relatively short life cycle: each version is usually supported for at least 13 months, where version X is supported only until 1 month after version X+2 is released and with approximately 6 months between most versions. Fedora users can upgrade from version to version without reinstalling.
The default desktop environment in Fedora is GNOME and the default user interface is the GNOME Shell. Other desktop environments, including KDE Plasma, Xfce, LXDE, MATE, Deepin and Cinnamon, are available and can be installed.
Most Fedora editions use the RPM package management system, using DNF as a tool to manage the RPM packages. DNF uses libsolv, an external dependency resolver. Flatpak is also supported by default, and support for Ubuntu's snaps can also be added. Fedora uses Delta RPM when updating installed packages to provide Delta update. A Delta RPM contains the difference between an old and new version of a package. This means that only the changes between the installed package and the new one are downloaded reducing network traffic and bandwidth consumption.
The Fedora CoreOS and Silverblue editions use rpm-ostree, a hybrid transactional image/package system to manage the host. Traditional DNF (or other systems) should be used in containers.
Fedora uses Security-Enhanced Linux by default, which implements a variety of security policies, including mandatory access controls, which Fedora adopted early on. Fedora provides hardening wrapper, and does hardening for all of its packages by using compiler features such as position-independent executable (PIE).
Fedora comes preinstalled with a wide range of software such as LibreOffice and Firefox. Additional software is available from the software repositories and can be installed using the DNF package manager or GNOME Software.
Additionally, extra repositories can be added to the system, so that software not available in Fedora can be installed easily. Software that is not available via official Fedora repositories, either because it doesn't meet Fedora's definition of free software or because its distribution may violate US law, can be installed using third-party repositories. Popular third-party repositories include RPM Fusion free and non-free repositories. Fedora also provides users with an easy-to-use build system for creating their own repositories called Copr.
Beginning with Fedora version 30, it is available as five editions:
- Fedora Workstation – It targets users who want a reliable, user-friendly, and powerful operating system for their laptop or desktop computer. It comes with GNOME by default but other desktops can be installed or can be directly installed as Spins.
- Fedora Server – Its target usage is for servers. It includes the latest data center technologies. This edition doesn't come with a desktop environment, but one can be installed. From Fedora 28, Server Edition will deliver Fedora Modularity, adding support for alternative update streams for popular software such as Node.js and Golang.
- Fedora CoreOS – It provides a minimal image of Fedora which includes just the bare essentials. It is meant for deployment in cloud computing. It provides Fedora CoreOS images which are optimized minimal images for deploying containers.
- Fedora IoT – Images of Fedora tailored to running on Internet of Things devices.
- Fedora Silverblue – It targets users who want an immutable desktop and developers who use container based workflows.
Similar to Debian blends, the Fedora Project also distributes custom variations of Fedora called Fedora Labs. These are built with specific sets of software packages, targeting specific interests such as gaming, security, design, robotics, and scientific computing (that includes SciPy, Octave, Kile, Xfig and Inkscape).
The Fedora AOS (Appliance Operating System) was a specialized spin of Fedora with reduced memory footprint for use in software appliances. Appliances are pre-installed, pre-configured, system images. This spin was intended to make it easier for anyone (developers, independent software vendors (ISV), original equipment manufacturers (OEM), etc.) to create and deploy virtual appliances.
The Fedora project distributes different variations called "Fedora Spins" which are Fedora with different Desktop Environments (GNOME is the default desktop environment). The current spins, as of Fedora 28, that are featured on the official Fedora site are Fedora KDE, Fedora XFCE, Fedora LXQT, Fedora Mate-Compiz, Fedora Cinnamon, Fedora LXDE, and Fedora SOAS.
x86-32, x86-64 and ARM-hfp are the primary architectures supported by Fedora. Pidora and FedBerry are specialized Fedora distributions for the Raspberry Pi, which support the Raspberry Pi as well as other ARM and SBC devices. As of release 26, Fedora also supports ARM AArch64, IBM Power64, IBM Power64le, IBM Z ("s390x"), MIPS-64el, MIPS-el, RISC-V as secondary architectures.
The Fedora Project also distributes several other versions with less use cases than mentioned above, like network installers and minimal installation images. They are intended for special cases and/or expert users that want to have custom installations or configuring Fedora from scratch. In addition, all acceptable licenses for Fedora (including copyright, trademark, and patent licenses) must be applicable not only to Red Hat or Fedora, but also to all recipients downstream. This means that any "Fedora-only" licenses, or licenses with specific terms that Red Hat or Fedora meets but that other recipients would not are not acceptable (and almost certainly non-free, as a result).
The name of Fedora derives from Fedora Linux, a volunteer project that provided extra software for the Red Hat Linux distribution, and from the characteristic fedora hat used in Red Hat's "Shadowman" logo. Warren Togami began Fedora Linux in 2002 as an undergraduate project at the University of Hawaii, intended to provide a single repository for well-tested third-party software packages so that non-Red Hat software would be easier to find, develop, and use. The key of Fedora Linux and Red Hat Linux was that Fedora's repository development would be collaborative with the global volunteer community. Fedora Linux was eventually absorbed into the Fedora Project, carrying with it this collaborative approach.
Fedora Linux was launched in 2003, when Red Hat Linux was discontinued. Red Hat Enterprise Linux was to be Red Hat's only officially supported Linux distribution, while Fedora was to be a community distribution. Red Hat Enterprise Linux branches its releases from versions of Fedora.
Before Fedora 7, Fedora was called Fedora Core after the name of one of the two main software repositories - Core and Extras. Fedora Core contained all the base packages that were required by the operating system, as well as other packages that were distributed along with the installation CD/DVDs, and was maintained only by Red Hat developers. Fedora Extras, the secondary repository that had been included since Fedora Core 3, was community-maintained and not distributed along with the installation CD/DVDs. Upon the release of Fedora 7, the distinction between Fedora Core and Fedora Extras was eliminated.
Since the release of Fedora 21, as an effort to modularize the Fedora distribution and make development more agile, three different versions are available: Workstation, focused on the personal computer, Server and Atomic for servers, Atomic being the version meant for cloud computing.
Fedora is a trademark of Red Hat, Inc. Red Hat's application for trademark status for the name "Fedora" was disputed by Cornell University and the University of Virginia Library, creators of the unrelated Fedora Commons digital repository management software. The issue was resolved and the parties settled on a co-existence agreement that stated that the Cornell-UVA project could use the name when clearly associated with open source software for digital object repository systems and that Red Hat could use the name when it was clearly associated with open source computer operating systems.
Development and Community
Development of the operating system and supporting programs is headed by the Fedora Project, which is composed of a community of developers and volunteers, and also Red Hat employees. The Council is the top-level community leadership and governance body. Other bodies include the Fedora Engineering Steering Committee, responsible for the technical decisions behind the development of Fedora, and Fedora Mindshare Committee which coordinates outreach and non-technical activities, including representation of Fedora Worldwide e.g.: Ambassadors Program, CommOps team and Marketing, Design and Websites Team.
Fedora has a relatively short life cycle: version X is supported only until 1 month after version X+2 is released and with approximately 6 months between most versions, meaning a version of Fedora is usually supported for at least 13 months, possibly longer. Fedora users can upgrade from version to version without reinstalling.
The current release is Fedora 30, which was released on 30 April 2019.
|Version (Code name)||Release||End-of-life||Kernel[a]||GNOME|
|Old version, no longer supported: 1 (Yarrow)||2003-11-05||2004-09-20||2.4.22||2.4|
|Old version, no longer supported: 2 (Tettnang)||2004-05-18||2005-04-11||2.6.5||2.6|
|Old version, no longer supported: 3 (Heidelberg)||2004-11-08||2006-01-16||2.6.9||2.8|
|Old version, no longer supported: 4 (Stentz)||2005-06-13||2006-08-07||2.6.11||2.10|
|Old version, no longer supported: 5 (Bordeaux)||2006-03-20||2007-07-02||2.6.15||2.14|
|Old version, no longer supported: 6 (Zod)||2006-10-24||2007-12-07||2.6.18||2.16|
|Old version, no longer supported: 7 (Moonshine)||2007-05-31||2008-06-13||2.6.21||2.18|
|Old version, no longer supported: 8 (Werewolf)||2007-11-08||2009-01-07||2.6.23||2.20|
|Old version, no longer supported: 9 (Sulphur)||2008-05-13||2009-07-10||2.6.25||2.22|
|Old version, no longer supported: 10 (Cambridge)||2008-11-25||2009-12-18||2.6.27||2.24|
|Old version, no longer supported: 11 (Leonidas)||2009-06-09||2010-06-25||2.6.29||2.26|
|Old version, no longer supported: 12 (Constantine)||2009-11-17||2010-12-02||2.6.31||2.28|
|Old version, no longer supported: 13 (Goddard)||2010-05-25||2011-06-24||2.6.33||2.30|
|Old version, no longer supported: 14 (Laughlin)||2010-11-02||2011-12-08||2.6.35||2.32|
|Old version, no longer supported: 15 (Lovelock)||2011-05-24||2012-06-26||2.6.38||3.0|
|Old version, no longer supported: 16 (Verne)||2011-11-08||2013-02-12||3.1||3.2|
|Old version, no longer supported: 17 (Beefy Miracle)||2012-05-29||2013-07-30||3.3||3.4|
|Old version, no longer supported: 18 (Spherical Cow)||2013-01-15||2014-01-14||3.6||3.6|
|Old version, no longer supported: 19 (Schrödinger's Cat)||2013-07-02||2015-01-06||3.9||3.8|
|Old version, no longer supported: 20 (Heisenbug)||2013-12-17||2015-06-23||3.11||3.10|
|Old version, no longer supported: 21||2014-12-09||2015-12-01||3.17||3.14|
|Old version, no longer supported: 22||2015-05-26||2016-07-19||4.0||3.16|
|Old version, no longer supported: 23||2015-11-03||2016-12-20||4.2||3.18|
|Old version, no longer supported: 24||2016-06-21||2017-08-08||4.5||3.20|
|Old version, no longer supported: 25||2016-11-22||2017-12-12||4.8||3.22|
|Old version, no longer supported: 26||2017-07-11||2018-05-29||4.11||3.24|
|Old version, no longer supported: 27||2017-11-14||2018-11-30||4.13||3.26|
|Old version, no longer supported: 28||2018-05-01||2019-05-28||4.16||3.28|
|Older version, yet still supported: 29||2018-10-30||4.18||3.30|
|Current stable version: 30||2019-04-30||5.0||3.32|
|Future release: 31||2019-10-22||5.3||3.34|
- At the time of release. Supported releases are often updated to the latest stable version of the Linux kernel.
Rawhide is the development tree for Fedora. This is a copy of a complete Fedora distribution where new software is added and tested, before inclusion in a later stable release. As such, Rawhide is often more feature rich than the current stable release. In many cases, the software is made of CVS, Subversion or Git source code snapshots which are often actively developed by programmers. Although Rawhide is targeted at advanced users, testers, and package maintainers, it is capable of being a primary operating system. Users interested in the Rawhide branch often update on a daily basis and help troubleshoot problems. Rawhide users do not have to upgrade between different versions as it follows a rolling release update model.
- Nottingham, Bill (6 November 2003). "Announcing Fedora Core 1". Fedora Project announce (Mailing list). Retrieved 18 May 2014.
- "Announcing the release of Fedora 30". fedoramagazine.org. 29 April 2019.
- "Announcing the release of Fedora 31 Beta". fedoramagazine.org. 17 September 2019.
- "Architectures". Fedora Project. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
- "alt architectures". Retrieved 22 March 2018.
- "DiscontinuePPC64 - Fedora Project Wiki". Retrieved 30 October 2018.
- "Frequently Asked Questions about Fedora Licensing". Fedora Project. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "Fedora Sponsors". Retrieved 23 July 2017.
- Spevack, Max (18 August 2006). "Fedora Project Leader Max Spevack Responds". Slashdot. Retrieved 17 December 2006.
- "Objectives". Fedora Project. Retrieved 12 February 2007.
- Yegulalp, Serdar (22 November 2016). "Fedora 25 stakes out leading edge, not bleeding edge". Retrieved 23 July 2017.
- "Red Hat + CentOS". Red Hat. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "Fedora". Retrieved 17 September 2019.
- Hoffman, Chris (26 February 2016). "Fedora project leader Matthew Miller reveals what's in store for Fedora in 2016". PC World. International Data Group. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
- "Interview with Linus Torvalds from Linux Format 163". TuxRadar. Linux Format. 29 November 2012. Archived from the original on 19 January 2014. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- Torvalds, Linus (30 December 2014). "The merge window being over, and things being calm made me think I should try upgrading to F21". Google+. Archived from the original on 9 August 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
- "Staying close to upstream projects". Fedora Project. Retrieved 24 May 2015.
- "Fedora Release Life Cycle". Fedora Project. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
- "FedUp". Fedora Project. Retrieved 25 March 2014.
- "Fedora 23 Release Notes: 3.2.4. System Upgrades with DNF". Fedora Project. Retrieved 1 October 2015.
- Linder, Brad (29 May 2012). "Fedora 17 now available for download". Liliputing. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
- Brodkin, Jon (15 January 2013). "How to install the MATE and Cinnamon desktops on Fedora 18". Ars Technica. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
- Mutai, Josphat (2 May 2019). "Install Deepin Desktop Environment on Fedora 30". Computing for Geeks. Retrieved 25 June 2019.
- Edge, Jake (15 January 2014). "DNF and Yum in Fedora". LWN.net. Retrieved 29 March 2015.
- Spenneberg, Ralf (August 2006). "Security Hardened - Mandatory Access Control with SELinux" (PDF). Linux Magazine, Issue 69. Linux New Media USA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 October 2007. Retrieved 7 October 2007.
- "Harden All Packages". Fedora Project. Retrieved 28 March 2017.
- "Adding, Enabling, and Disabling a DNF Repository". Fedora Project. Retrieved 29 July 2017.
- "Fedora Copr". Fedora Project. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- Staff, Ars (16 December 2016). "Fedora 25: With Wayland, Linux has never been easier (or more handsome)". Ars Technica. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
- "Fedora Modularity". Fedora Modularity.
- "Preparing Boot Media". Red Hat. Retrieved 30 July 2017.
- "Fedora Labs". Fedora Project. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- "Fedora Design Suite". Fedora Design Suite.
- "Fedora Robotics Edition". Fedora Project. Archived from the original on 28 March 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Fedora Robotics Wiki". Fedora Project. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "Fedora Scientific". Fedora Project.
- "Fedora Labs".
- "Pidora - Raspberry Pi Fedora Remix". pidora.ca. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- "FedBerry - Fedora Remix for Raspberry Pi 2/3". fedberry.org. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
- "Fedora ARM Supported Devices". Fedora ARM Supported Devices.
- "Fedora Alternative Downloads". Fedora Alternative Downloads.
- "Warren Togami". fedoraproject.org.
- Barr, Joe (1 October 2003). "Warren Togami on the new Fedora Project". Linux.com. Retrieved 9 February 2010.
- Togami, Warren (February 2006). "Why Fedora?". Archived from the original (ODP) on 31 August 2011. Retrieved 30 April 2011.
- Johnson, Michael K. (22 September 2003). "Fedora Project: Announcing New Direction". Fedora development (Mailing list). Retrieved 18 October 2007.
- Burke, Tim (August 2006). "The Fedora Project and Red Hat Enterprise Linux, part 4". Red Hat Magazine, Issue #22. Red Hat. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 18 October 2007.
- "Releases/7". Fedora Project. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
- Miller, Matthew (19 March 2014). "Fedora Present and Future: a Fedora.next 2014 Update (Part I, "Why?")". Fedora Magazine. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
- Corbet, Jonathan (16 March 2016). "Modularizing Fedora". LWN.net. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
- Becker, David (21 November 2003). "Red Hat, researchers in name tiff". CNET News. CBS Interactive Inc. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- "Fedora Repository Project History". Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 3 February 2014.
- "Overview - Fedora Project". Fedora Project wiki. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Leadership - Fedora Project". Fedora Project. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
- "Releases/HistoricalSchedules". Fedora Project. Retrieved 11 August 2015.
- "End of life". Fedora Project. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
- "Fedora". DistroWatch. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- "KernelRebases". Fedora Project. Retrieved 18 May 2014.
- Boyer, Josh (2 October 2013). "Release Name process ended". Fedora community advisory board mailing list. Retrieved 11 May 2014.
- "Releases/27/Schedule". Fedora Project. Retrieved 17 March 2017.
- "Releases/28/Schedule". Fedora Project. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "Releases/29/Schedule". Fedora Project. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
- "Releases/30/Schedule". Fedora Project. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
- "Releases/31/Schedule". Fedora Project. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
- "Releases/Rawhide". Fedora Project. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Fedora (operating system).|