Near-open central vowel

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Near-open central unrounded vowel
ɐ
æ̈
ɜ̞
IPA number 324
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɐ
Unicode (hex) U+0250
X-SAMPA 6
Kirshenbaum &"
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1)
Sound

The near-open central vowel, or near-low central vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɐ⟩, a rotated lowercase letter a.

While the IPA does not specify the rounding of [ɐ],[1] its rounded variant has been reported to occur as a phoneme only in Sabiny, which contrasts overshort unrounded and overshort rounded near-open central vowels.[2][3]

In some languages (such as Bengali, Cantonese or Cypriot Greek)[4][5][6] it is the only open vowel, in place of the more common open central unrounded vowel.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Near-open central unrounded vowel[edit]

The near-open central unrounded vowel is the most common type of the near-open central vowel, and is thus typically transcribed simply as ⟨ɐ⟩, which is the convention used in this article. If its unroundedness needs to be specified, it can be done by adding the less rounded diacritic to the near-open central vowel symbol: ⟨ɐ̜⟩, by combining the lowered diacritic with the open-mid central unrounded vowel symbol: ⟨ɜ̞⟩, by combining the centralized diacritic with the near-open front unrounded vowel symbol: ⟨æ̈⟩, or by combining the mid-centralized diacritic with either the open front unrounded vowel symbol: ⟨⟩, or with the open back unrounded vowel: ⟨ɑ̽⟩. The last two symbols are equivalent to the more complex symbols ⟨ä̝⟩ and ⟨ɑ̝̈⟩, respectively.

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
i • y
ɨ • ʉ
ɯ • u
ɪ • ʏ
ɪ̈ • ʊ̈
ɯ̽ • ʊ
e • ø
ɘ • ɵ
ɤ • o
 • ø̞
ə • ɵ̞
ɤ̞ • 
ɛ • œ
ɜ • ɞ
ʌ • ɔ
æ • 
ɐ • ɞ̞
a • ɶ
ä • ɒ̈
ɑ • ɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Afrikaans[7][8][9] dak [dɐk] 'roof' See Afrikaans phonology
Arabic[10] قطة [ˈqɪtˤ.tˤɐ] 'cat' Allophone of short /a/ in unstressed syllables for Persian Gulf speakers. See Arabic phonology
Bengali[4] পা / pa [pɐ] 'leg' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨a⟩. See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian[11] пара [pɐˈra] 'coin' Unstressed allophone of /ɤ/ and /a/.[11] See Bulgarian phonology
Burmese[12] [orthographic
form needed
]
[mɐʔ] 'vertical' Allophone of /a/ in syllables closed by a glottal stop and when nasalized; realized as fully open [ä] in open oral syllables.[13]
Catalan Barcelona
metropolitan area
[14][15]
emmagatzemar [ɐm(ː)ɐɰɐd͡z̺ɐˈmä] 'to store' Corresponds to [ə] in other dialects. See Catalan phonology
Chinese Cantonese[5] / saa1 [sɐː˥] 'sand' Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨⟩; the Cantonese vowel that is most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɐ⟩ is actually open-mid [ɜ].[5] See Cantonese phonology
Shanghainese[16] [kɐʔ4] "to cut"
Cipu Tirisino dialect[17] pata! [pɐ̀tɐ́] "beg!" Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨a⟩.[17]
Czech Bohemian[18] prach [prɐx] 'dust' Possible realization of /a/.[18] See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[19] fatter [ˈfæd̥ɐ] 'understands' May be realized as [ɒ̜̽] or [ə̠] instead.[19] See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard Netherlandic[20] hart [ɦɐrt] 'hart' Allophone of /ɑ/ before /r/; usually realized as a diphthong [ɐə̯] instead.[20] See Dutch phonology
Randstad[20]
English California[21] nut [nɐt] 'nut' ʌ⟩ may be used to transcribe this vowel. In New Zealand it may be fronted [ɐ̟] or somewhat lower [ä].[22] See Australian English phonology, English phonology and New Zealand English phonology
New Zealand[22][23]
Received Pronunciation[24]
Older Cultivated South African[25] nurse [nɐːs] 'nurse' Possible realization of the NURSE vowel /ɜː/.[25][26] See South African English phonology
Older Received Pronunciation[26]
Scottish[27] stack [stɐ̟k] 'stack' Fronted; corresponds to [æ] in other dialects, and also [ɑː] in some other dialects.
Cockney[28][29] stuck 'stuck' Fronted; may be [a] instead.
Inland Northern American[30] bet [bɐt] 'bet' Variation of /ɛ/ used in some places whose accents have undergone the Northern cities vowel shift.
Galician[31][32] hora [ˈɔɾɐ] 'hour' Unstressed allophone of /a/.[31][32] See Galician phonology
German Standard[33] oder About this sound [ˈʔoːdɐ]  'or' Allophone of /ər/ used in many dialects. See German phonology
Greek Cypriot[6] πάννα / panna [ˈpɐnːɐ] 'nappy' Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨a⟩.
Modern Standard[34] ακακία / akaa [ɐkɐˈci.ɐ] 'acacia' Also described as open [ä];[35] most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨a⟩. See Modern Greek phonology
Hausa[36] [example needed] Possible allophone of /a/, which can be as close as [ə] and as open as [ä].[36]
Hindustani[37] दस/دَس [ˈd̪ɐs] 'ten' Common realization of /ə/.[37] See Hindustani phonology
Ibibio[38] [dɐ́] 'stand' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨a⟩.[38]
Kaingang[39] [ˈᵑɡɐ] 'terra' Varies between central [ɐ] and back [ɑ].[40]
Korean[41] /bal [pɐl] 'foot' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨a⟩. See Korean phonology
Luxembourgish[42][43] Mauer [ˈmɑ̝ʊ̯ɐ] 'wall' Allophone of unstressed word-final /eʀ/ and non-prevocalic coda /ʀ/. In the latter case, it may be realized as mid [ə] instead.[43] See Luxembourgish phonology
Mapudungun[44] ka [ˈkɐ̝ʐɘ̝] 'green' Somewhat raised.[44]
Mono[45] da [dɐ] 'slap' May be transcribed in IPA with ⟨a⟩.[45]
Northern Paiute Mono Lake dialect[46] paa [pɐʔɐ] 'high' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨a⟩.[46]
Norwegian Sandnes-mål[47] baden [ˈbɐːdən] 'child'
Portuguese General Brazilian[48] aranha-marrom [aˈɾɐ̃ɲɐ maˈʁõ] 'recluse spider' In complementary distribution with [a];[48] corresponds to [ə] in European Portuguese.[49] See Portuguese phonology
Romanian Moldavian dialects[50] bărbat [bɐrˈbat] 'man' Corresponds to [ə] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Russian Standard Moscow[51] голова About this sound [ɡəɫ̪ɐˈvä]  'head' Corresponds to [ʌ] in standard Saint Petersburg pronunciation;[51] occurs mostly immediately before stressed syllables. See Russian phonology
Sabiny[2] [example needed] Contrasts overshort unrounded and overshort rounded near-open central vowels.[3]
Sandawe[52] dtane [tɐ́né] 'pull' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨a⟩.[52]
Sema[53] ala [ɐ̀lɐ̀] 'path' Also described as open [ä].[54]
Shipibo[55]  ? [ˈkɐni̞] 'went' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨a⟩.
Slovak[56] a [ɐ] 'and' Possible realization of /a/; most commonly realized as open [ä] instead.[57] See Slovak phonology
Slovene Standard[58][59] brat [bɾɐ́t̪] 'brother' Corresponds to short /a/ in traditional pronunciation.[59] See Slovene phonology
Tamambo[60] calo [xɐlo] 'to fence' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨a⟩.[60]
Temne[61] pam [pɐ̀m] 'contest' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨a⟩.[61]
Upper Sorbian[62] pja [ˈpʲɐst͡ʃ] 'fist' Allophone of /a/ after soft consonants.[62] See Upper Sorbian phonology
Vietnamese[63] chếch [cɐ̆jk̚] 'askance' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ə̆⟩. See Vietnamese phonology
Xumi Lower[64] [Htsʰɐ] 'salt'
Upper[65] [Htsɐ] 'sinew'
Yine[66] [sɐnɐ] 'field' Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨a⟩.

Near-open central rounded vowel[edit]

Near-open central rounded vowel
ɐ̹
ɞ̞
ɔ̞̈

The near-open central rounded vowel is an extremely rare sound, reported to occur as a phoneme only in the Sabiny language.[2]

If its roundedness needs to be specified, it can be done by adding the more rounded diacritic to the near-open central vowel symbol: ⟨ɐ̹⟩, by combining the lowered diacritic with the open-mid central rounded vowel symbol: ⟨ɞ̞⟩, or by combining the mid-centralized diacritic with either the open front rounded vowel symbol: ⟨ɶ̽⟩, or with the open back rounded vowel: ⟨ɒ̽⟩. The last two symbols are equivalent to the more complex symbols ⟨ɶ̝̈⟩ and ⟨ɒ̝̈⟩, respectively.

Features[edit]


Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Sabiny[2] [example needed] Contrasts overshort unrounded and overshort rounded near-open central vowels.[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ International Phonetic Association (1999), p. 166.
  2. ^ a b c d "UPSID 4)S". Retrieved 27 January 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c "UPSID SEBEI". Retrieved 27 January 2016. 
  4. ^ a b Khan (2010), p. 222.
  5. ^ a b c Zee (1999), p. 59.
  6. ^ a b Arvaniti (1999), p. 4.
  7. ^ See the vowel chart in Le Roux & de Villiers Pienaar (1927:46).
  8. ^ Lass (1984), pp. 76, 93–94, 105.
  9. ^ Donaldson (1993), p. 18.
  10. ^ Thelwall (1990), p. 39.
  11. ^ a b Ternes & Vladimirova-Buhtz (1999), p. 56.
  12. ^ Watkins (2001), p. 293.
  13. ^ Watkins (2001), pp. 292–293.
  14. ^ Rafel (1999), p. 14.
  15. ^ Harrison (1997), pp. 2.
  16. ^ Chen & Gussenhoven (2015), p. 328.
  17. ^ a b McGill (2014), pp. 308–309.
  18. ^ a b Dankovičová (1999), p. 72.
  19. ^ a b Basbøll (2005), p. 58.
  20. ^ a b c Collins & Mees (2003), p. 130.
  21. ^ Ladefoged (1999), p. 42.
  22. ^ a b Bauer et al. (2007), p. 98.
  23. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).
  24. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 186.
  25. ^ a b Wells (1982b), p. 615.
  26. ^ a b Wells (1982a), p. 281.
  27. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  28. ^ Wells (1982a), p. 305.
  29. ^ Hughes & Trudgill (1979), p. 35.
  30. ^ Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (1997), A National Map of the Regional Dialects of American English, Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania, retrieved March 15, 2013 
  31. ^ a b Regueira (2010), pp. 13–14.
  32. ^ a b Freixeiro Mato (2006), p. 112.
  33. ^ Mangold (2005), p. 37.
  34. ^ Arvaniti (2007), p. 25.
  35. ^ Trudgill (2009), p. 81.
  36. ^ a b Schuh & Yalwa (1999), pp. 90–91.
  37. ^ a b Ohala (1999), p. 102.
  38. ^ a b Urua (2004), p. 106.
  39. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676–677, 682.
  40. ^ Jolkesky (2009), pp. 676, 682.
  41. ^ Lee (1999), p. 121.
  42. ^ Trouvain & Gilles (2009), p. 75.
  43. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 68, 70.
  44. ^ a b Sadowsky et al. (2013), p. 92.
  45. ^ a b Olson (2004), p. 235.
  46. ^ a b Babel, Houser & Toosarvandani (2012), p. 240.
  47. ^ Ims (2010), p. 14.
  48. ^ a b Barbosa & Albano (2004), p. 229.
  49. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  50. ^ Pop (1938), p. 29.
  51. ^ a b Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015), p. 225.
  52. ^ a b Eaton (2006), p. 237.
  53. ^ Teo (2012), p. 368.
  54. ^ Teo (2014), p. 28.
  55. ^ Valenzuela, Márquez Pinedo & Maddieson (2001), p. 282.
  56. ^ Pavlík (2004), p. 95.
  57. ^ Pavlík (2004), pp. 94–95.
  58. ^ Jurgec (2007), p. 2.
  59. ^ a b Jurgec (2005), pp. 9, 12.
  60. ^ a b Riehl & Jauncey (2005), p. 257.
  61. ^ a b Kanu & Tucker (2010), p. 249.
  62. ^ a b Šewc-Schuster (1984), p. 31.
  63. ^ Hoang (1965), p. 24.
  64. ^ Chirkova & Chen (2013), pp. 369–370.
  65. ^ Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), p. 388.
  66. ^ Urquía Sebastián & Marlett (2008), p. 366.

Bibliography[edit]