Near-open central vowel

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Near-open central vowel
ɐ
IPA number 324
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɐ
Unicode (hex) U+0250
X-SAMPA 6
Kirshenbaum &"
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠁ (braille pattern dots-1)
Sound

The near-open central vowel, or near-low central vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɐ, a rotated lowercase letter a.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
ɐ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic[1] قطة [qɪtˤ.tˤɐ] 'cat' Allophone of long and short /a/ for Persian Gulf speakers. See Arabic phonology
Bulgarian ъгъл [ˈɤ̞ɡɐɫ] 'angle'
Catalan Barcelona
metropolitan area
[2][3]
emmagatzemar [ɐm(ː)ɐɰɐd͡z̺ɐˈmä] 'to store' Local realization of /ə/.[2][3] See Catalan phonology
Chinese Cantonese sam1 [sɐm˥] 'heart' See Cantonese phonology
Danish Standard[4] ånd [ɐ̠nˀ] 'spirit' Somewhat retracted, often transcribed /ʌ/. See Danish phonology
Dawsahak [nɐ] 'to give'
Dutch Limburg letter [ˈlɛtɐ] 'letter' Not all dialects. Corresponds to /ər/ in standard Dutch.
Eastern
Flemish Brabant
The Hague
Twente
English California[5] nut [nɐt] 'nut' ʌ may be used to transcribe this vowel. For most Australians it's fully open [ä], the same is true for some South Africans. In New Zealand it may be fronted [ɐ̟] or somewhat lower [ä].[6] See English phonology
Cultivated Australian
New Zealand[6][7]
Received Pronunciation[8]
South African
Scottish[9] stack [stɐ̟k] 'stack' Fronted; corresponds to [æ] in other dialects, and also [ɑː] in some other dialects.
Cockney[10][11] stuck 'stuck' Fronted; may be [a] instead.
Inland Northern American[12] bet [bɐt] 'bet' Variation of /ɛ/ used in some places whose accents have undergone the Northern cities vowel shift.
German Standard[13] oder About this sound [ˈʔoːdɐ]  'or' Allophone of /ər/ used in many dialects. See German phonology
Greek[14] ακακία akaa [ɐkɐˈci.ɐ] 'acacia' Most often transcribed /a/ for simplicity. See Modern Greek phonology
Korean[15] bal [pɐl] 'foot' Somewhat lowered. Typically transcribed as /a/. See Korean phonology
Lombard Sant [ˈsɐnt] 'saint'
Luxembourgish[16] Mauer [ˈmɑʊ̯ɐ̠] 'wall' Somewhat retracted. Allophone of word-final /əʀ/.
Portuguese Fluminense açúcar [ɐˈsukɐχ] 'sugar' In complementary distribution with /a/.[17] Raised to [ɜ̝] in other variants (where it is a phoneme). See Portuguese phonology
General Brazilian[17] cana [ˈkɐ̃n̪ɐ] 'cane'
European[18] pão [pɐ̃w̃] 'bread' Stressed vowel, mostly as a phonemic nasal vowel (when not followed by a nasal stop). Raised otherwise.
Russian[19] голова About this sound [ɡəɫ̪ɐˈva]  'head' Occurs mostly immediately before stressed syllables. See Russian phonology
Slovene Standard[20][21] brat [bɾɐ́t̪] 'brother' Corresponds to short /a/ in traditional pronunciation.[21] See Slovene phonology
Ukrainian дитина [dɪ'tɪnɐ] 'kid, child' Unstressed a. See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese ăn [ɐn] 'to eat' See Vietnamese phonology

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Thelwall (1990), p. 39.
  2. ^ a b Rafel (1999), p. 14.
  3. ^ a b Harrison (1997), pp. 2.
  4. ^ Grønnum (1998), pp. 100–101.
  5. ^ Ladefoged (1999), p. ?.
  6. ^ a b Bauer et al. (2007), p. 98.
  7. ^ Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).
  8. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 186.
  9. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 7.
  10. ^ Wells (1982), p. 305.
  11. ^ Hughes & Trudgill (1979), p. 35.
  12. ^ Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles (1997), A National Map of the Regional Dialects of American English, Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania, retrieved March 15, 2013 
  13. ^ Mangold (2005), p. 37.
  14. ^ Arvaniti (2007), p. 25.
  15. ^ Lee (1999), p. 121.
  16. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 70.
  17. ^ a b Barbosa & Albano (2004), p. 229.
  18. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), pp. 91–92.
  19. ^ Padgett & Tabain (2005), p. 16.
  20. ^ Jurgec (2007), p. 2.
  21. ^ a b Jurgec (2005), pp. 9 and 12.

References[edit]