|Name meaning||possibly from the Arabic form of “a full well”|
|Date of depopulation||April 6, 1948|
|Cause(s) of depopulation||Abandonment on Arab orders|
Awlam was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517, and by 1596 it was a village of 83 inhabitants under the administration of the nahiya ("subdistrict") of Tiberias, part of the sanjak of Safad. It paid taxes on wheat, barley, goats, and beehives. A map by Pierre Jacotin from Napoleon's invasion of 1799 showed the place, named as El Awalem.
In 1859 there were 120 souls in the village, and the cultivation was 14 feddans, according to the British consul Rogers. However, when Victor Guérin visited in 1875, he described the village as “abandoned”. He further noted;
“Ancient materials are plentiful there. I noticed in particular a number of column stumps and various fragments of sculptures coming from some building now destroyed. A church, converted later into a mosque, then into a stable, is quite well preserved. It had been built with alternately white and black stones, the former limestone, the latter basalt. On the lintel of the main entrance door one may observe, in the centre, a small circle, which formerly enclosed a cross, today completely effaced. Inside, some column shafts are lying on the ground, with their capitals broken.
British Mandate era
In the 1922 census of Palestine, Ulam had a population of 496; 487 Muslims, 8 Jews and 1 Christian, where the one Christian was of the Orthodox faith. The population had increased to 555 in the 1931 census, all Muslims, in a total of 139 houses. The villagers cultivated grain, figs, grapes, and pomegranates. They drew their drinking and domestic water from six different springs.
By 1945, the village population was 720, and the total land area was 18,546 dunums of land. 360 dunams were irrigated or used for orchards, 11,139 used for cereals, while 28 dunams were classified as built-up (urban) land.
1948, and aftermath
During the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Awlam's villagers were ordered to leave on April 6, 1948, by the Arab Higher Committee who feared they might aid "Zionist forces". But the Haganah states that its Golani Brigade entered the village on May 12, and the inhabitants fled upon their arrival. Awlam became the final village in the eastern Lower Galilee emptied of its Arab inhabitants. According to Walid Khalidi, "nothing remains of the village buildings except stone rubble; only a spring that was used by the villagers has been left unchanged".
- Palmer, 1881, p. 159
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 73
- Morris, 2004, p. xvii, village #107. Also gives cause of depopulation
- Khalidi, 1992, p. 514
- Röhricht, 1893, RRH, p. 136, No 515; cited in Pringle, 1998, p. 372
- Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 189. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p. 514
- Note that Rhode, 1979, p. 6 writes that the register that Hütteroth and Abdulfattah studied was not from 1595/6, but from 1548/9
- Karmon, 1960, p. 167.
- Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, p. 82
- Guérin, 1880, pp. 136- 137; as translated in Pringle, 1998, p. 372
- Barron, 1923, Table xi, Sub-district of Tiberias, p. 39
- Barron, 1923, Table xvi, p. 51
- Mills, 1932, p. 85
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 123
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 173
- Barron, J. B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922. Government of Palestine.
- Conder, Claude Reignier; Kitchener, H. H. (1882). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology. 2. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Dauphin, Claudine (1998). La Palestine byzantine, Peuplement et Populations. BAR International Series 726 (in French). III : Catalogue. Oxford: Archeopress. ISBN 0-860549-05-4. (p. 732)
- Guérin, Victor (1880). Description Géographique Historique et Archéologique de la Palestine (in French). 3: Galilee, pt. 1. Paris: L'Imprimerie Nationale.
- Hadawi, Sami (1970). Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine. Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center.
- Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter; Abdulfattah, Kamal (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. ISBN 3-920405-41-2.
- Karmon, Y. (1960). "An Analysis of Jacotin's Map of Palestine" (PDF). Israel Exploration Journal. 10 (3,4): 155–173; 244–253.
- Khalidi, Walid (1992). All That Remains: The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. Washington D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies. ISBN 0-88728-224-5.
- Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas. Jerusalem: Government of Palestine.
- Morris, Benny (2004). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00967-6.
- Palmer, E. H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Pringle, Denys (1998). The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: L-Z (exluding Tyre). II. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0 521 39037 0.
- Rhode, Harold (1979). Administration and Population of the Sancak of Safed in the Sixteenth Century. Columbia University.
- Röhricht, Reinhold (1893). (RRH) Regesta regni Hierosolymitani (MXCVII-MCCXCI) (in Latin). Berlin: Libraria Academica Wageriana.