Indur

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Indur
Endor1890.jpg
Indur in the 1890s.
Indur is located in Mandatory Palestine
Indur
Indur
Arabic إندور/عين دور
Name meaning Endor[1]
Also spelled Endor
Subdistrict Nazareth
Coordinates 32°38′11.32″N 35°22′52.55″E / 32.6364778°N 35.3812639°E / 32.6364778; 35.3812639Coordinates: 32°38′11.32″N 35°22′52.55″E / 32.6364778°N 35.3812639°E / 32.6364778; 35.3812639
Palestine grid 186/227
Population 620 (1945)
Area 12,444 dunams
12.4 km²
Date of depopulation 24 May 1948[2]
Cause(s) of depopulation Military assault by Yishuv forces
Secondary cause Influence of nearby town's fall
Current localities None

Indur (Arabic: إندور‎‎) was a Arab village, located 10.5 kilometres (6.5 mi) southeast of Nazareth. Its name preserves that of ancient Endor, a Canaanite city thought to have been located 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) to the northeast.[3] The village was depopulated during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War and its inhabitants became refugees, some of whom were internally displaced. In Israel today, there are a few thousand internally displaced Palestinians who hail from Indur, and continue to demand their right of return.

Etymology[edit]

The name of this village is thought to preserve that of the ancient Canaanite city of Endor mentioned in the Bible as the place King Saul encountered a known medium. While a few scholars believe that Indur is the actual site of ancient Endor, no ancient remains have been found at the site, and many believe that Khirbet Safsafa, located 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) to the northeast, is a more likely candidate.[3][4][5]

History[edit]

In 1596, Indur was a part of the Ottoman nahiya ("subdistrict") of Shafa under the liwa' ("district") of Lajjun with a population of twenty-two. It paid taxes on a number of crops, including wheat, barley and olives, as well as goats and beehives.[6] A map by Pierre Jacotin from Napoleon's invasion of 1799 showed the place, named as Handourah.[7]

By the late nineteenth century, the village was made of adobe bricks, built against a steep hillside. To the east of the village there were several caves.[8]

British Mandate era[edit]

In Ottoman era Palestine, an elementary school was founded in Indur, but closed during the British Mandate in Palestine.[9]

According to the 1922 census of Palestine, Mujaidel had 311 inhabitants; 310 Muslims and 1 Christian,[10] where the one Christian was Orthodox.[11] By the 1931 census the population had increased to 445; 444 Muslims and 1 Christian, in a total of 75 houses.[12]

Sheikh Tawfiq Ibrahim, one of the leaders of the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine and an associate of Izz ad-Din al-Qassam, was from Indur.[9]

In 1945 the population of Indur was 620 Arabs, with a total of 12,444 dunams of land, according to an official land and population survey.[13] Of this, 24 dunams were for citrus and bananas, 394 for plantations and irrigable land, 10,061 for cereals,[14] while 29 dunams were built-up land.[15]

1948, and aftermath[edit]

The village was occupied by Israel's Golani Brigade on May 16, 1948.[16] Most of the population probably fled at the start of the battle, and several who "tried to escape" were shot.[16] A small garrison was left, which reported that the remaining population were being expelled in the direction of Nazareth.[16]

During the 2004 commemorations of Nakba Day held by Palestinian Arab citizens of Israel, the annual right of return march led to Indur.[17] Jewish Israelis joined in the march and the event received coverage by Israeli cable and Arab satellite TV stations.[17]

Indur's former residents and their descendants number a few thousand from among the tens of thousands of internally displaced Palestinians within Israel today.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 161
  2. ^ Morris, 2004, p. xvii, village #110. Also gives causes of depopulation.
  3. ^ a b Mazar, 1971, p. 318.
  4. ^ Negev and Gibson, 2005, p. 166.
  5. ^ Freedman, et al., 2006, p. 406
  6. ^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 157. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p. 344.
  7. ^ Karmon, 1960, p. 167.
  8. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1882, SWP II, pp. 83 - 84. Quoted in Khalidi, 1992, p.346
  9. ^ a b Khalidi, 1992, p. 346
  10. ^ Barron, 1923, Table XI, Sub-district of Nazareth, p. 38
  11. ^ Barron, 1923, Table XVI, p. 50
  12. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 74
  13. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 62
  14. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 109
  15. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 159
  16. ^ a b c Morris, 2004, p. 260
  17. ^ a b c Annual Return March in the Galilee (PDF), Issue No. 22, Badil, June 2004, p. 8. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]