المرّ / المحمودية
Molendina desubter Mirabellum
Remains of Mill building
|Etymology: "The passage".|
|Geopolitical entity||Mandatory Palestine|
|Date of depopulation||February or March, 1948|
|• Total||51 dunams (5.1 ha or 13 acres)|
|Cause(s) of depopulation||Fear of being caught up in the fighting|
Al-Mirr, also named Mahmudiyeh ("the property of Mahmud"), was a Palestinian Arab village in the Jaffa Subdistrict, which was depopulated during the 1947–1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine on February 1, 1948.
The village was located 16.5 kilometers (10.3 mi) northeast of Jaffa, on the southern bank of the al-'Awja river. A short, secondary track linked it to the railway line running between Ras al-Ayn and Petah Tikva.
British Mandate era
During the British Mandate for Palestine, the population was recorded as 75 Muslims in the 1922 census, and the village was classified as a hamlet in the Palestine Index Gazetteer. In the 1931 census Mahmudiya had 101 inhabitants, still all Muslims, in 25 houses.
In the 1945 statistics the population numbered 170 Muslims, who worked in agriculture and with transportation. Cultivated lands in the village in 1944-45 included 2 dunums planted with citrus and bananas, and 31 dunums planted with cereals. 2 dunams were classified as built-up areas.
1948, and aftermath
Before the outbreak of the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, al-Mirr's inhabitants left on February 3, 1948, out of fear of Jewish attack. According to Benny Morris, some of the inhabitants returned on February 15, but fled for the final time one month later. However, according to Walid Khalidi, citing The New York Times, the villagers apparently returned yet again, as Jewish forces attacked the village in mid-May. The 13 May attack would have occurred around the same time as an attack into the area by Irgun.
The remains of a Turkish bridge lies where the village was.
Andrew Petersen, an archaeologist specializing in Islamic architecture, visited the mill in 1991. He found that it had probably been built in several phases. Presently, it consists of a rectangular building, 60 m. NS x 10 m EW, on two levels. At the lower level are at least 13 parallel water inlets. These inlets are of two different types, (indicating different construction date); a flat slab roof, and pointed vaulted roof. Between the two levels are holes in the floor, presumably this is where the millstones were connected to the turbines.
- Palmer, 1881, p.216
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 27
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 52
- Morris, 2004, p. xviii, village #199. Also gives cause of depopulation
- Khalidi, 1992, p.250.
- Röhricht, 1893, RRH No 330; cited in Pringle, 1997, p. 72
- Shkolnik, 1994, p32. Cited in Petersen, 2001, p. 222
- Socin, 1879, p. 157
- Hartmann, 1883, p. 137, noted 26 houses
- Conder and Kitchener, 1882, II:252
- Barron, 1923, Table VII, Sub-district of Jaffa, p. 20
- Mills, 1932, p. 14
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 96
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 146
- Morris, 2004, p. 129
- Khalidi, 1992, p. 250, citing The New York Times, 13.05.1948 and 13.05.1948. The NYT statement is based on British Army statement, which, according to Khalidi, incorrectly refers to the village of Antipatris
- Petersen, 2001, p. 222-223
- Barron, J.B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922. Government of Palestine.
- Conder, C.R.; Kitchener, H.H. (1882). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology. 2. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics (1945). Village Statistics, April, 1945.
- Hadawi, S. (1970). Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine. Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center. Archived from the original on 2018-12-08. Retrieved 2009-08-18.
- Hartmann, M. (1883). "Die Ortschaftenliste des Liwa Jerusalem in dem türkischen Staatskalender für Syrien auf das Jahr 1288 der Flucht (1871)". Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins. 6: 102–149.
- Khalidi, W. (1992). All That Remains: The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. Washington D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies. ISBN 0-88728-224-5. ISBN 0-88728-224-5.
- Morris, B. (2004). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-00967-7.
- Palmer, E.H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Petersen, Andrew (2001). A Gazetteer of Buildings in Muslim Palestine (British Academy Monographs in Archaeology). 1. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-727011-0.
- Pringle, Denys (1997). Secular buildings in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: an archaeological Gazetter. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521 46010 7.
- Röhricht, R. (1893). (RRH) Regesta regni Hierosolymitani (MXCVII-MCCXCI) (in Latin). Berlin: Libraria Academica Wageriana.
- Shkolnik, Y. (1994); Urban River, EGMI, 34, March–April, pp. 16–34, 71. Cited in Petersen, 2001.
- Socin, A. (1879). "Alphabetisches Verzeichniss von Ortschaften des Paschalik Jerusalem". Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins. 2: 135–163.