Sidna Ali Mosque in Al-Haram
|Name meaning||The sanctuary of ’Aly Ibn ’Aleim|
|Date of depopulation||3 February 1948|
|Cause(s) of depopulation||Fear of being caught up in the fighting|
Al-Haram, also Sayyiduna Ali' or Sidna Ali, was a Palestinian Arab village in the Jaffa Subdistrict in Mandatory Palestine. It was located 16 km north of Jaffa, adjacent to the ruins of the ancient city of Arsuf, also known as Apollonia. It was depopulated during the 1948 war.
In 1880, it was described as a mud village of moderate size on high ground, with springs to the north, and on the west a mosque. The full name was recorded as El Haram 'Aly Ibn 'Aleim, after 'Aly Ibn 'Aleim said to have vainly defended the town when it was attacked by Sultan Barbars in 1265. Probably this tradition was transferred from neighboring Arsuf.
British Mandate era
In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Al-Haran had a population of 172, all Muslims increasing the 1931 census to 313, still all Muslims, in a total of 83 houses.
In 1945 the village had a population of 880, with 360 Jewish inhabitants. al-Haram had an elementary school for boys founded in 1921, and in 1945 it had an enrollment of 68 students. The village also contained a mosque and a shrine for al-Hasan ibn 'Ali (d. A.D. 1081), who was a descendant of the second Muslim Caliph 'Umar ibn al-Khattab.
In the 1920s and 1930s, the American Zion Commonwealth bought land from the effendi of the village, and the towns of Herzliya, Kfar Shmaryahu and Rishpon were established there. According to some testimonies, the relationship between the villagers of Al-Haram and the Jews of Herzliya and Rishpon was very friendly. The early settlers of Herzliya mention Arab peddlers in the streets of the town. Some of the villagers were employed in construction. Former Arab residents of al-Haram testified that before the war, representatives of the Jewish towns assured them they were safe.
1948, and aftermath
- Palmer, 1881, p. 174
- Hadawi, 1970, p.52
- Morris, 2004, p. xviii, village #195
- Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 140
- Karmon, 1960, p. 170
- Conder and Kitchener, SWP II, p. 134.
- Barron, 1923, Table VII, Sub-district of Jaffa, p. 20
- Mills, 1932, p. 13.
- Khalidi, 1992, pp. 240-241
- Herzliya, "Mother of the Kibbutzim and the Communal Groups", by Dan Yahav. Yaron Golan Publishers.
- Morris, 2004, p. 129, note 514.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sidna Ali Mosque.|
- Barron, J. B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of the Census of 1922 (PDF). Government of Palestine.
- Canaan, Tawfiq (1927). Mohammedan Saints and Sanctuaries in Palestine. London: Luzac & Co. (p. 215; cited in Petersen, 2001)
- Conder, Claude Reignier; Kitchener, H. H. (1882). The Survey of Western Palestine: Memoirs of the Topography, Orography, Hydrography, and Archaeology 2. London: Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Hadawi, Sami (1970). Village Statistics of 1945: A Classification of Land and Area ownership in Palestine. Palestine Liberation Organization Research Center.
- Hütteroth, Wolf-Dieter; Abdulfattah, Kamal (1977). Historical Geography of Palestine, Transjordan and Southern Syria in the Late 16th Century. Erlanger Geographische Arbeiten, Sonderband 5. Erlangen, Germany: Vorstand der Fränkischen Geographischen Gesellschaft. ISBN 3-920405-41-2.
- Karmon, Y. (1960). "An Analysis of Jacotin's Map of Palestine" (PDF). Israel Exploration Journal 10 (3,4): 155–173; 244–253.
- Khalidi, Walid (1992). All That Remains: The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. Washington D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies. ISBN 0-88728-224-5.
- Mills, E., ed. (1932). Census of Palestine 1931. Population of Villages, Towns and Administrative Areas (PDF). Jerusalem: Government of Palestine.
- Morris, Benny (2004). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-00967-6.
- Palmer, E. H. (1881). The Survey of Western Palestine: Arabic and English Name Lists Collected During the Survey by Lieutenants Conder and Kitchener, R. E. Transliterated and Explained by E.H. Palmer. Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund.
- Petersen, Andrew (2001). A Gazetteer of Buildings in Muslim Palestine (British Academy Monographs in Archaeology) 1. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-727011-0. (Al-Haram: p. 146-148)
- Welcome To al-Haram
- Survey of Western Palestine, Map 10: IAA, Wikimedia commons
- Al-Haram at Khalil Sakakini Cultural Center
- Tour of al-Haram/Sidna Ali 11.11.05, Zochrot
- Al-Haram (Sidna Ali) in the memory of Herzliya, by Eitan Bronstein, with Norma Musih, from Zochrot
- Maram Massarweh, al-Haram/Sidna Ali, testimony, from Zochrot
- Issam Hijazi Masarwa, age 11, al-Haram/Sidna Ali, testimony, from Zochrot