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19th century

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An 1835 illustration of power loom weaving, as part of the Industrial Revolution

The 19th century began on 1 January 1801 (represented by the Roman numerals MDCCCI), and ended on 31 December 1900 (MCM). It was characterized by vast social upheaval. Slavery was abolished in much of Europe and the Americas. The First Industrial Revolution, though it began in the late 18th century, expanded beyond its British homeland for the first time during the 19th century, particularly remaking the economies and societies of the Low Countries, the Rhineland, Northern Italy, and the Northeastern United States. A few decades later, the Second Industrial Revolution led to ever more massive urbanization and much higher levels of productivity, profit, and prosperity, a pattern that continued into the 20th century.

In the Middle East, it was an era of change and reform. The Islamic gunpowder empires fell into decline and European imperialism brought much of South Asia, Southeast Asia, and almost all of Africa under colonial rule. Reformers were opposed at every turn by conservatives who strove to maintain the centuries-old Islamic laws and social order.[1] The 19th century also saw the collapse of the large Spanish and Mughal empires, which paved the way for the growing influence of the British, French, German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian, Italian, and Japanese empires along with the United States.

Following the defeat of France in the Napoleonic Wars, the British and Russian empires expanded considerably, becoming two of the world's leading powers. Russia expanded its territory to the Caucasus and Central Asia. The Ottoman Empire underwent a period of Westernization and reform known as the Tanzimat, vastly increasing its control over core territories in the Middle East. However, it remained in decline and became known as the sick man of Europe, losing territory in the Balkans and North Africa.

The remaining powers in the Indian subcontinent, such as the Maratha and Sikh empires, suffered a massive decline, and their dissatisfaction with the British East India Company's rule led to the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and the company's dissolution. India was later ruled directly by the British Crown through the establishment of the British Raj. During the post-Napoleonic era (after 1815), Britain enforced what became known as the Pax Britannica, which ushered in unprecedented globalization on a massive scale. Britain's overseas possessions grew rapidly in the first half of the century, especially with the expansion of vast territories in Canada, Australia, India, and in the last two decades of the century in Africa. By the end of the 19th century, the British controlled a fifth of the world's land and a quarter of the world's population.

By the end of the century, Britain, France, Germany, and the United States had colonized almost all of Oceania. In East Asia, China under the Qing dynasty endured its century of humiliation by foreign powers that lasted until the first half of the 20th century. The last surviving man and woman, respectively, verified to have been born in the 19th century were Jiroemon Kimura (1897–2013) and Nabi Tajima (1900–2018), both Japanese.


Official portrait of Queen Victoria, 1859

The first electronics appeared in the 19th century, with the introduction of the electric relay in 1835, the telegraph and its Morse code protocol in 1837, the first telephone call in 1876,[2] and the first functional light bulb in 1878.[3]

The 19th century was an era of rapidly accelerating scientific discovery and invention, with significant developments in the fields of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, electricity, and metallurgy that laid the groundwork for the technological advances of the 20th century.[4] The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain and spread to continental Europe, North America, and Japan.[5] The Victorian era was notorious for the employment of young children in factories and mines, as well as strict social norms regarding modesty and gender roles.[6] Japan embarked on a program of rapid modernization following the Meiji Restoration, before defeating China, under the Qing dynasty, in the First Sino-Japanese War. Advances in medicine[broken anchor] and the understanding of human anatomy and disease prevention took place in the 19th century, and were partly responsible for rapidly accelerating population growth in the Western world. Europe's population doubled during the 19th century, from approximately 200 million to more than 400 million.[7] The introduction of railroads provided the first major advancement in land transportation for centuries, changing the way people lived and obtained goods, and fuelling major urbanization movements in countries across the globe. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of a million or more during this century. London became the world's largest city and capital of the British Empire. Its population increased from 1 million in 1800 to 6.7 million a century later. The last remaining undiscovered landmasses of Earth, including vast expanses of interior Africa and Asia, were explored during this century, and with the exception of the extreme zones of the Arctic and Antarctic, accurate and detailed maps of the globe were available by the 1890s. Liberalism became the pre-eminent reform movement in Europe.[8]

Arab slave traders and their captives along the Ruvuma River, 19th century

Slavery was greatly reduced around the world. Following a successful slave revolt in Haiti, Britain and France stepped up the battle against the Barbary pirates and succeeded in stopping their enslavement of Europeans. The UK's Slavery Abolition Act charged the British Royal Navy with ending the global slave trade.[9] The first colonial empire in the century to abolish slavery was the British, who did so in 1834. America's Thirteenth Amendment following their Civil War abolished slavery there in 1865, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888 (see abolitionism). Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia in 1861.

The 19th century was remarkable in the widespread formation of new settlement foundations which were particularly prevalent across North America and Australia, with a significant proportion of the two continents' largest cities being founded at some point in the century. Chicago in the United States and Melbourne in Australia were non-existent in the earliest decades but grew to become the 2nd largest cities in the United States and British Empire respectively by the end of the century. In the 19th century, approximately 70 million people left Europe, with most migrating to the United States.[10]

The 19th century also saw the rapid creation, development, and codification of many sports, particularly in Britain and the United States. Association football, rugby union, baseball, and many other sports were developed during the 19th century, while the British Empire facilitated the rapid spread of sports such as cricket to many different parts of the world. Also, women's fashion was a very sensitive topic during this time, as women showing their ankles was viewed to be scandalous.

The boundaries set by the Congress of Vienna, 1815

It also marks the fall of the Ottoman rule of the Balkans which led to the creation of Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro, and Romania as a result of the second Russo-Turkish War, which in itself followed the great Crimean War.


Map of the world from 1897. The British Empire (marked in pink) was the superpower of the 19th century.



Napoleonic Wars

Napoleon's retreat from Russia in 1812. The war is turning decisively against the French Empire.

The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts from 1803 to 1815 pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict.

In the aftermath of the French Revolution, Napoleon Bonaparte gained power in France in 1799. In 1804, he crowned himself Emperor of the French.

In 1805, the French victory over an Austrian-Russian army at the Battle of Austerlitz ended the War of the Third Coalition. As a result of the Treaty of Pressburg, the Holy Roman Empire was dissolved.

Later efforts were less successful. In the Peninsular War, France unsuccessfully attempted to establish Joseph Bonaparte as King of Spain. In 1812, the French invasion of Russia had massive French casualties, and was a turning point in the Napoleonic Wars.

Napoleon Bonaparte, Emperor of the First French Empire

In 1814, after defeat in the War of the Sixth Coalition, Napoleon abdicated and was exiled to Elba. Later that year, he escaped exile and began the Hundred Days before finally being defeated at the Battle of Waterloo and exiled to Saint Helena, an island in the South Atlantic Ocean.

After Napoleon's defeat, the Congress of Vienna was held to determine new national borders. The Concert of Europe attempted to preserve this settlement was established to preserve these borders, with limited impact.

Latin American independence

Portrait of the Chilean declaration of independence
The Chilean Declaration of Independence, 18 February 1818

Mexico and the majority of the countries in Central America and South America obtained independence from colonial overlords during the 19th century. In 1804, Haiti gained independence from France. In Mexico, the Mexican War of Independence was a decade-long conflict that ended in Mexican independence in 1821.

Due to the Napoleonic Wars, the royal family of Portugal relocated to Brazil from 1808 to 1821, leading to Brazil having a separate monarchy from Portugal.

The Federal Republic of Central America gained independence from Spain in 1821 and from Mexico in 1823. After several rebellions, by 1841 the federation had dissolved into the independent countries of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.[11]

In 1830, the post-colonial nation of Gran Colombia dissolved and the nations of Colombia (including modern-day Panama), Ecuador, and Venezuela took its place.

Revolutions of 1848

Liberal and nationalist pressure led to the European revolutions of 1848.

The Revolutions of 1848 were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. The revolutions were essentially democratic and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent nation states.

The first revolution began in January in Sicily.[clarification needed] Revolutions then spread across Europe after a separate revolution began in France in February. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no coordination or cooperation among their respective revolutionaries.

According to Evans and von Strandmann (2000), some of the major contributing factors were widespread dissatisfaction with political leadership, demands for more participation in government and democracy, demands for freedom of the press, other demands made by the working class, the upsurge of nationalism, and the regrouping of established government forces.[12]

Abolition and the American Civil War

Politician and philanthropist William Wilberforce (1759–1833) was a leader of the movement to abolish the slave trade.

The abolitionism movement achieved success in the 19th century. The Atlantic slave trade was abolished in the United States in 1808, and by the end of the century, almost every government had banned slavery. The Slavery Abolition Act of 1833 banned slavery throughout the British Empire, and the Lei Áurea abolished slavery in Brazil in 1888.

Abolitionism in the United States continued until the end of the American Civil War. Frederick Douglass and Harriet Tubman were two of many American abolitionists who helped win the fight against slavery. Douglass was an articulate orator and incisive antislavery writer, while Tubman worked with a network of antislavery activists and safe houses known as the Underground Railroad.

The American Civil War took place from 1861 to 1865. Eleven southern states seceded from the United States, largely over concerns related to slavery. In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. Lincoln issued a preliminary[13] on September 22, 1862, warning that in all states still in rebellion (Confederacy) on January 1, 1863, he would declare their slaves "then, thenceforward, and forever free."[14] He did so.[15] The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution,[16] ratified in 1865, officially abolished slavery in the entire country.

Five days after Robert E. Lee surrendered at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, Lincoln was assassinated by actor and Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth.

Decline of the Ottoman Empire

Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt, leader of the Egyptian Army in the Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–1833)[17]

In 1830, Greece became the first country to break away from the Ottoman Empire after the Greek War of Independence. In 1831, the Bosnian Uprising against Ottoman rule occurred. In 1817, the Principality of Serbia became suzerain from the Ottoman Empire, and in 1867, it passed a constitution that defined its independence from the Ottoman Empire. In 1831, The First Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–1833) occurred, between the Ottoman Empire and Egypt brought about by Muhammad Ali Pasha's demand to the Sublime Porte for control of Greater Syria, as reward for aiding the Sultan during the Greek War of Independence. As a result, Egyptian forces temporarily gained control of Syria, advancing as far north as Kütahya.[18] In 1876, Bulgarians instigated the April Uprising against Ottoman rule. Following the Russo-Turkish War, the Treaty of Berlin recognized the formal independence of the Serbia, Montenegro, and Romania. Bulgaria became autonomous.

China: Taiping Rebellion

A scene of the Taiping Rebellion

The Taiping Rebellion was the bloodiest conflict of the 19th century, leading to the deaths of around 20–30 million people. Its leader, Hong Xiuquan, declared himself the younger brother of Jesus Christ and developed a new Chinese religion known as the God Worshipping Society. After proclaiming the establishment of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in 1851, the Taiping army conquered a large part of China, capturing Nanjing in 1853. In 1864, after the death of Hong Xiuquan, Qing forces recaptured Nanjing and ended the rebellion.[19]

Japan: Meiji Restoration


During the Edo period, Japan largely pursued an isolationist foreign policy. In 1853, United States Navy Commodore Matthew C. Perry threatened the Japanese capital Edo with gunships, demanding that they agree to open trade. This led to the opening of trade relations between Japan and foreign countries, with the policy of Sakoku formally ended in 1854.

By 1872, the Japanese government under Emperor Meiji had eliminated the daimyō system and established a strong central government. Further reforms included the abolition of the samurai class, rapid industrialization and modernization of government, closely following European models.[20]


Arrival of Marshal Randon in Algiers, French Algeria in 1857
The Maratha Confederacy and the East India Company sign the Treaty of Bassein in 1802.


Comparison of Africa in the years 1880 and 1913

In Africa, European exploration and technology led to the colonization of almost the entire continent by 1898. New medicines such as quinine and more advanced firearms allowed European nations to conquer native populations.[21]

Motivations for the Scramble for Africa included national pride, desire for raw materials, and Christian missionary activity. Britain seized control of Egypt to ensure control of the Suez Canal, but Ethiopia defeated Italy in the First Italo–Ethiopian War at the Battle of Adwa. France, Belgium, Portugal, and Germany also had substantial colonies. The Berlin Conference of 1884–1885 attempted to reach agreement on colonial borders in Africa, but disputes continued, both amongst European powers and in resistance by the native populations.[21]

In 1867, diamonds were discovered in the Kimberley region of South Africa. In 1886, gold was discovered in Transvaal. This led to colonization in Southern Africa by the British and business interests, led by Cecil Rhodes.[21]

Other wars


Science and technology

Leslie - physicsFrancis Baily - astronomerPlayfair - UniformitarianismRutherford - NitrogenDollond - OpticsYoung - modulus etcBrown - Brownian motionGilbert - Royal Society presidentBanks - BotanistKater - measured gravity??Howard - Chemical EngineerDundonald - propellorsWilliam Allen - PharmacistHenry - Gas lawWollaston - Palladium and RhodiumHatchett - NiobiumDavy - ChemistMaudslay - modern latheBentham - machinery?Rumford - thermodynamicsMurdock - sun and planet gearRennie - Docks, canals & bridgesJessop - CanalsMylne - Blackfriars bridgeCongreve - rocketsDonkin - engineerHenry Fourdrinier - Paper making machineThomson - atomsWilliam Symington - first steam boatMiller - steam boatNasmyth - painter and scientistNasmyth2Bramah - HydraulicsTrevithickHerschel - UranusMaskelyne - Astronomer RoyalJenner - Smallpox vaccineCavendishDalton - atomsBrunel - Civil EngineerBoulton - SteamHuddart - Rope machineWatt - Steam engineTelfordCrompton - spinning machineTennant - Industrial ChemistCartwright - Power loomRonalds - Electric telegraphStanhope - InventorUse your cursor to explore (or Click icon to enlarge)
Distinguished Men of Science.[23] Use the cursor to see who is who.[24]

The 19th century saw the birth of science as a profession; the term scientist was coined in 1833 by William Whewell,[25] which soon replaced the older term of natural philosopher. Among the most influential ideas of the 19th century were those of Charles Darwin (alongside the independent researches of Alfred Russel Wallace), who in 1859 published the book The Origin of Species, which introduced the idea of evolution by natural selection. Another important landmark in medicine and biology were the successful efforts to prove the germ theory of disease. Following this, Louis Pasteur made the first vaccine against rabies, and also made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, including the asymmetry of crystals. In chemistry, Dmitri Mendeleev, following the atomic theory of John Dalton, created the first periodic table of elements. In physics, the experiments, theories and discoveries of Michael Faraday, André-Marie Ampère, James Clerk Maxwell, and their contemporaries led to the creation of electromagnetism as a new branch of science. Thermodynamics led to an understanding of heat and the notion of energy was defined. Other highlights include the discoveries unveiling the nature of atomic structure and matter, simultaneously with chemistry – and of new kinds of radiation. In astronomy, the planet Neptune was discovered. In mathematics, the notion of complex numbers finally matured and led to a subsequent analytical theory; they also began the use of hypercomplex numbers. Karl Weierstrass and others carried out the arithmetization of analysis for functions of real and complex variables. It also saw rise to new progress in geometry beyond those classical theories of Euclid, after a period of nearly two thousand years. The mathematical science of logic likewise had revolutionary breakthroughs after a similarly long period of stagnation. But the most important step in science at this time were the ideas formulated by the creators of electrical science. Their work changed the face of physics and made possible for new technology to come about including a rapid spread in the use of electric illumination and power in the last two decades of the century and radio wave communication at the end of the 1890s.

Michael Faraday (1791–1867)
Charles Darwin (1809–1882)


Robert Koch discovered the tuberculosis bacilli. In the 19th century, the disease killed an estimated 25% of the adult population of Europe.[26]


Thomas Edison was an American inventor, scientist, and businessman who developed many devices that greatly influenced life around the world, including the motion picture camera, phonograph and long-lasting, practical electric light bulb.
Built for the Netphener bus company in 1895, the Benz Omnibus was the first motor bus in history.


Brigham Young led the LDS Church from 1844 until his death in 1877.


The Great Exhibition in London. Starting during the 18th century, the UK was the first country in the world to industrialize.


Russian writer Leo Tolstoy, author of War and Peace and Anna Karenina

On the literary front the new century opens with romanticism, a movement that spread throughout Europe in reaction to 18th-century rationalism, and it develops more or less along the lines of the Industrial Revolution, with a design to react against the dramatic changes wrought on nature by the steam engine and the railway. William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge are considered the initiators of the new school in England, while in the continent the German Sturm und Drang spreads its influence as far as Italy and Spain. French arts had been hampered by the Napoleonic Wars but subsequently developed rapidly. Modernism began.[30]

The Goncourts and Émile Zola in France and Giovanni Verga in Italy produce some of the finest naturalist novels. Italian naturalist novels are especially important in that they give a social map of the new unified Italy to a people that until then had been scarcely aware of its ethnic and cultural diversity. There was a huge literary output during the 19th century. Some of the most famous writers included the Russians Alexander Pushkin, Nikolai Gogol, Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekhov and Fyodor Dostoyevsky; the English Charles Dickens, John Keats, Alfred, Lord Tennyson and Jane Austen; the Scottish Sir Walter Scott, Thomas Carlyle and Arthur Conan Doyle (creator of the character Sherlock Holmes); the Irish Oscar Wilde; the Americans Edgar Allan Poe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Mark Twain; and the French Victor Hugo, Honoré de Balzac, Jules Verne, Alexandre Dumas and Charles Baudelaire.[31]

Some American literary writers, poets and novelists were: Walt Whitman, Mark Twain, Harriet Ann Jacobs, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Herman Melville, Frederick Douglass, Harriet Beecher Stowe, Joel Chandler Harris, and Emily Dickinson to name a few.


One of the first photographs, produced by Nicéphore Niépce in 1826
Nadar, self-portrait, c. 1860

Visual artists, painters, and sculptors

Francisco Goya, The Third of May 1808, 1814, Museo del Prado
Eugène Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830, Louvre
Vincent van Gogh, Self-portrait, 1889, National Gallery of Art
Biscuits Lefèvre-Utile poster artwork by Alphonse Mucha, 1897

The Realism and Romanticism of the early 19th century gave way to Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in the later half of the century, with Paris being the dominant art capital of the world. In the United States the Hudson River School was prominent. 19th-century painters included:


Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827)
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840–1893)

Sonata form matured during the Classical era to become the primary form of instrumental compositions throughout the 19th century. Much of the music from the 19th century was referred to as being in the Romantic style. Many great composers lived through this era such as Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, and Richard Wagner. The list includes:






1819: 29 January, Stamford Raffles arrives in Singapore with William Farquhar to establish a trading post for the British East India Company; 8 February, the treaty is signed between Sultan Hussein of Johor, Temenggong Abdul Rahman and Stamford Raffles. Farquhar is installed as the first Resident of the settlement.
Decembrists at the Senate Square
Emigrants leaving Ireland. From 1830 to 1914, almost 5 million Irish people emigrated to the U.S.
Historical territorial expansion of the United States


The first vessels sail through the Suez Canal.
A barricade in the Paris Commune, 18 March 1871. Around 30,000 Parisians were killed, and thousands more were later executed.
Black Friday, 9 May 1873, Vienna Stock Exchange. The Panic of 1873 and Long Depression followed.
Studio portrait of Ilustrados in Europe, c. 1890

Last survivors


Born on 19 April 1897, Japanese Jiroemon Kimura died on 12 June 2013, marking the death of the last man verified to have been born in the century.[35][36][37] Kimura remains the to date date oldest verified man in history.[38] Subsequently, on 21 April 2018, Japanese Nabi Tajima (born 4 August 1900) died as the last person to verifiably have been born in the century.[39]


See also



  1. ^ Cleveland, William L.; Bunton, Martin (2016). A History of the Modern Middle East. doi:10.4324/9780429495502. ISBN 9780429495502. S2CID 153025861. The 19th century is frequently characterized as a period of tension between forces of continuity and change. The reformers who advocated the adoption of European institutions and technology, have often been portrayed as the progressive elements of society courageously charting the course toward an inevitably Westernized twentieth century. Conversely, the adherents of continuity, who viewed with alarm the dismantling of the Islamic order and sought to preserve tradition and retain the values and ideals that had served Ottoman and Islamic society so well for so long, are sometimes portrayed as nothing but archaic reactionaries. But we should avoid these simplistic characterizations if we are to appreciate the agonizing and dangerous process of transforming an established religious, social and political worldview.
  2. ^ "The First Telephone Call". www.americaslibrary.gov. Archived from the original on 2015-10-22. Retrieved 2015-10-25.
  3. ^ "Dec. 18, 1878: Let There Be Light — Electric Light". WIRED. 18 December 2009. Archived from the original on 21 October 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2017.
  4. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica's Great Inventions. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  5. ^ "The United States and the Industrial Revolution in the 19th Century". Americanhistory.about.com. 2012-09-18. Archived from the original on 2012-07-28. Retrieved 2012-10-31.
  6. ^ Laura Del Col, West Virginia University, The Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth-Century England Archived 2008-03-13 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ "Modernization – Population Change". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on April 6, 2009.
  8. ^ Liberalism in the 19th century Archived 2009-02-18 at the Wayback Machine. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  9. ^ Sailing against slavery. By Jo Loosemore Archived 2009-01-08 at the Wayback Machine. BBC.
  10. ^ The Atlantic: Can the US afford immigration? Archived 2010-07-04 at the Wayback Machine. Migration News. December 1996.
  11. ^ Perez-Brignoli, Hector (1989). A Brief History of Central America. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520909762.
  12. ^ R. J. W. Evans and Hartmut Pogge von Strandmann, eds., The Revolutions in Europe 1848–1849 (2000) pp. v, 4
  13. ^ "The Emancipation Proclamation". National Archives. October 6, 2015. Archived from the original on February 6, 2017. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
  14. ^ McPherson, J. M. (2014). "Emancipation Proclamation and Thirteenth Amendment", in E. Foner and J. A. Garraty (eds.), The Reader's Companion to American History. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. [1] Retrieved from Archived 2018-11-06 at the Wayback Machine
  15. ^ "Transcript of the Proclamation". National Archives. October 6, 2015.
  16. ^ "13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery". National Archives. January 27, 2016. Archived from the original on February 16, 2017. Retrieved February 15, 2017.
  17. ^ Aksan, Virginia (2014-01-14). Ottoman Wars, 1700–1870: An Empire Besieged. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-88403-3.
  18. ^ Westera, Rick. "Historical Atlas of Europe (17 February 1832): First Egyptian-Ottoman War". Omniatlas. Retrieved 2024-02-18.
  19. ^ Reilly, Thomas H. (2004). The Taiping heavenly kingdom rebellion and the blasphemy of empire (1 ed.). Seattle: University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0295801926.
  20. ^ W. G. Beasley, The Meiji Restoration (1972),
  21. ^ a b c Kerr, Gordon (2012). A Short History of Africa: From the Origins of the Human Race to the Arab Spring. Harpenden, Herts [UK]: Pocket Essentials. pp. 85–101. ISBN 9781842434420.
  22. ^ "Killing ground: photographs of the Civil War and the changing American landscape Archived 2017-02-28 at the Wayback Machine". John Huddleston (2002). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-6773-8
  23. ^ Engraving after 'Men of Science Living in 1807-8', John Gilbert engraved by George Zobel and William Walker, ref. NPG 1075a, National Portrait Gallery, London, accessed February 2010
  24. ^ Smith, HM (May 1941). "Eminent men of science living in 1807-8". J. Chem. Educ. 18 (5): 203. doi:10.1021/ed018p203.
  25. ^ Snyder, Laura J. (2000-12-23). "William Whewell". Stanford University. Archived from the original on 2010-01-04. Retrieved 2008-03-03.
  26. ^ "Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2018-12-31. Archived from the original on April 21, 2009.
  27. ^ "Arc Lamps – How They Work & History". edisontechcenter.org.
  28. ^ Jonathan Daly, The Rise of Western Power – A Comparative History of Western Civilization, Bloomsbury Publishing · 2013, page 310
  29. ^ Turan Gonen, Electric Power Distribution Engineering, CRC Press · 2015, page 1
  30. ^ David Damrosch and David L. Pike, eds. The Longman Anthology of World Literature, Volume E: The Nineteenth Century (2nd ed. 2008)
  31. ^ M. H. Abrams et al., eds., The Norton Anthology of English Literature (9th ed. 2012)
  32. ^ Oppenheimer, Clive (2003). "Climatic, environmental and human consequences of the largest known historic eruption: Tambora volcano (Indonesia) 1815". Progress in Physical Geography. 27 (2): 230–259. Bibcode:2003PrPG...27..230O. doi:10.1191/0309133303pp379ra. S2CID 131663534.
  33. ^ a b c Vickers (2005), page xii
  34. ^ Wahyu Ernawati: "Chapter 8: The Lombok Treasure", in Colonial collections Revisited: Pieter ter Keurs (editor) Vol. 152, CNWS publications. Issue 36 of Mededelingen van het Rijksmuseum voor Volkenkunde, Leiden. CNWS Publications, 2007. ISBN 978-90-5789-152-6. 296 pages. pp. 186–203
  35. ^ "World's oldest man ever turns 116 in Kyoto as his health is studied". The Japan Daily Press. 15 April 2013. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  36. ^ "World's oldest person turns 116 in Japan". France 24 International News. 19 April 2013. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  37. ^ "World's oldest person Jiroemon Kimura turns 116 in Japan". The Economic Times. Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 19 April 2013.
  38. ^ Matsuyama, Kanoko (27 December 2012). "Japanese 115-Year-Old Becomes Oldest Man in History". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 29 December 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2012.
  39. ^ Politi, Daniel (22 April 2018). "The Last Known Person Born in the 19th Century Dies in Japan at 117". Slate. Archived from the original on 12 September 2023. Retrieved 4 October 2019.

Further reading

  • Langer, William. An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed. 1973); highly detailed outline of events online free
  • Morris, Richard B. and Graham W. Irwin, eds. Harper Encyclopedia of the Modern World: A Concise Reference History from 1760 to the Present (1970) online frr
  • New Cambridge Modern History (13 vol 1957–79), old but thorough coverage, mostly of Europe; strong on diplomacy
    • Bury, J. P. T. ed. The New Cambridge Modern History: Vol. 10: the Zenith of European Power, 1830–70 (1964) online
    • Crawley, C. W., ed. The New Cambridge Modern History Volume IX War and Peace In An Age of Upheaval 1793–1830 (1965) online
    • Darby, H. C. and H. Fullard The New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. 14: Atlas (1972)
    • Hinsley, F.H., ed. The New Cambridge Modern History, vol. 11, Material Progress and World-Wide Problems 1870–1898 (1979) online

Diplomacy and international relations



  • Anderson, M. S. The Ascendancy of Europe: 1815–1914 (3rd ed. 2003)
  • Blanning, T. C. W. ed. The Nineteenth Century: Europe 1789–1914 (Short Oxford History of Europe) (2000) 320 pp
  • Bruun, Geoffrey. Europe and the French Imperium, 1799–1814 (1938) online.
  • Cameron, Rondo. France and the Economic Development of Europe, 1800–1914: Conquests of Peace and Seeds of War (1961), awide-ranging economic and business history.
  • Evans, Richard J. The Pursuit of Power: Europe 1815–1914 (2016), 934 pp
  • Gildea, Robert. Barricades and Borders: Europe 1800–1914 (3rd ed. 2003) 544 pp, online 2nd ed, 1996
  • Grab, Alexander (2003). Napoleon and the Transformation of Europe. London: Macmillan Education UK. doi:10.1007/978-1-4039-3757-5. ISBN 978-0-333-68275-3.
  • Mason, David S. A Concise History of Modern Europe: Liberty, Equality, Solidarity (2011), since 1700
  • Merriman, John, and J. M. Winter, eds. Europe 1789 to 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of Industry and Empire (5 vol. 2006)
  • Steinberg, Jonathan. Bismarck: A Life (2011)
  • Salmi, Hannu. 19th Century Europe: A Cultural History (2008).

Africa and Asia

  • Ajayi, J. F. Ade, ed. UNESCO General History of Africa, Vol. VI, Abridged Edition: Africa in the Nineteenth Century until the 1880s (1998)
  • Akyeampong, Emmanuel; Bates, Robert H; Nunn, Nathan; Robinson, James A, eds. (2014). Africa's Development in Historical Perspective. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139644594. ISBN 9781139644594.
  • Chamberlain, M. E. The Scramble for Africa (3rd ed. 2010)
  • Collins, Robert O. and James M. Burns, eds. A History of Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Davidson, Basil Africa In History, Themes and Outlines. (2nd ed. 1991).
  • Holcombe, Charles (2017). A History of East Asia. doi:10.1017/9781316340356. ISBN 9781107118737. S2CID 140138294.
  • Ludden, David. India and South Asia: A Short History (2013).
  • McEvedy, Colin. The Penguin Atlas of African History (2nd ed. 1996). excerpt
  • Mansfield, Peter, and Nicolas Pelham, A History of the Middle East (4th ed, 2013).
  • Murphey, Rhoads (2016). A History of Asia. doi:10.4324/9781315509495. ISBN 9781315509495.
  • Pakenham, Thomas. The Scramble for Africa: 1876 to 1912 (1992)

North and South America

  • Bakewell, Peter, A History of Latin America (Blackwell, 1997)
  • Beezley, William, and Michael Meyer, eds. The Oxford History of Mexico (2010)
  • Bethell, Leslie, ed. (1984). The Cambridge History of Latin America. doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521232234. ISBN 9781139055161.
  • Black, Conrad. Rise to Greatness: The History of Canada From the Vikings to the Present (2014)
  • Burns, E. Bradford, Latin America: A Concise Interpretive History, paperback, Prentice Hall 2001, 7th edition
  • Howe, Daniel Walker. What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815–1848 (2009), Pulitzer Prize
  • Kirkland, Edward C. A History Of American Economic Life (3rd ed. 1960) online
  • Lynch, John, ed. Latin American revolutions, 1808–1826: old and new world origins (University of Oklahoma Press, 1994)
  • McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom The CIvil War Era (1988) Pulitzer Prize for US history
  • Parry, J. H. A Short History of the West Indies (1987)
  • Paxson, Frederic Logan. History of the American frontier, 1763–1893 (1924) online, Pulitzer Prize
  • White, Richard. The Republic for Which It Stands: The United States during Reconstruction and the Gilded Age, 1865–1896 (2017)

Primary sources

  • de Bary, Wm. Theodore, ed. Sources of East Asian Tradition, Vol. 2: The Modern Period (2008), 1192 pp
  • Kertesz, G. A. ed Documents in the Political History of the European Continent 1815–1939 (1968), 507 pp; several hundred short documents