Punjab, Pakistan

Coordinates: 31°N 72°E / 31°N 72°E / 31; 72
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Punjab
پنجاب
Province of Punjab
Official seal of Punjab
Etymology: Panj (means "five") and āb (means "waters")
Location of Punjab within Pakistan
Location of Punjab within Pakistan
Coordinates: 31°N 72°E / 31°N 72°E / 31; 72
Country Pakistan
Established1 July 1970
Before wasPart of West Pakistan
Capital
and largest city
Lahore
Government
 • TypeSelf-governing province subject to the federal government
 • BodyGovernment of Punjab
 • GovernorMuhammad Baligh-ur-Rehman
 • Chief MinisterMohsin Raza Naqvi (caretaker)
 • Chief SecretaryZahid Akhtar Zaman
 • LegislatureProvincial Assembly
 • High CourtLahore High Court
Area
 • Total205,344 km2 (79,284 sq mi)
 • Rank2nd
Population
 • Total127,688,922
 • Rank1st
 • Density622/km2 (1,610/sq mi)
GDP (nominal)
 • Total (2022)$225 billion (1st)[a]
 • Per Capita$2,003 (2nd)
GDP (PPP)
 • Total (2022)$925 billion (1st)[a]
 • Per Capita$8,027 (2nd)
Time zoneUTC+05:00 (PKT)
ISO 3166 codePK-PB
Languages
Provincial sports teams
HDI (2021)0.550Increase[4]
medium
Literacy rate (2020)66.3%[5]
National Assembly seats183
Provincial Assembly seats371[6]
Divisions10
Districts41
Tehsils148
Union councils7602
Websitepunjab.gov.pk

Punjab (/pʌnˈɑːb/; Punjabi, Urdu: پنجاب, pronounced [pəɳˈdʒɑːb] ; abbr. PB) is a province of Pakistan. Located in central-eastern region of the country, Punjab is the second-largest province of Pakistan by land area and the largest by population. Lahore is the capital and the largest city of the province. Other major cities include Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Gujranwala and Multan.

It is bordered by the Pakistani provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the north-west, Balochistan to the south-west and Sindh to the south, as well as Islamabad Capital Territory to the north-west and Azad Kashmir to the north. It shares an international border with the Indian states of Rajasthan and Punjab to the east and Indian-administered Kashmir to the north-east. Punjab is the most fertile province of the country as River Indus and its four major tributaries Ravi, Jhelum, Chenab and Sutlej flow through it.

The province forms the bulk of the transnational Punjab region, now divided among Pakistan and India.[7] The provincial capital is Lahore — a cultural and cosmopolitan centre of Pakistan. Punjab is also the world's fifth-most populous subnational entity, and the most populous outside of China and India.

Punjab is Pakistan's most industrialized province, with the industrial sector comprising 24 percent of the province's gross domestic product.[8] It is known for its relative prosperity,[9] and has the lowest rate of poverty among all Pakistani provinces.[10][b] However, a clear divide is present between the northern and southern regions of the province;[9] with northern Punjab being more prosperous than south Punjab.[11][12] Punjab is also one of the most urbanized regions of South Asia, with approximately 40 percent of its population being concentrated in urban areas.[13]

The Punjabic peoples are native to the province, comprising over 90 percent of the total population. The culture of Punjab has been strongly influenced by Sufism, with numerous Sufi shrines spread across the province.[14] Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, was born in the town of Nankana Sahib, near Lahore.[15][16][17] Punjab is also the site of the Katas Raj Temples, which feature prominently in Hindu mythology.[18] Several of the World Heritage Sites listed by UNESCO are located in Punjab, including the Shalimar Gardens, the Lahore Fort, the archaeological excavations at Taxila, and the Rohtas Fort, among others.[19]

Etymology[edit]

Though the name Punjab is of Persian origin, its two parts (پنج, panj, 'five' and آب, āb, 'water') are cognates of the Sanskrit words, पञ्‍च, pañca, 'five' and अप्, áp, 'water', of the same meaning.[20][21] The word pañjāb thus means 'The Land of Five Waters', referring to the rivers Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, and Beas.[22] All are tributaries of the Indus River, the Sutlej being the largest. References to a land of five rivers may be found in the Mahabharata, which calls one of the regions in ancient Bharat Panchanada (Sanskrit: पञ्चनद, romanizedpañca-nada, lit.'five rivers').[23][24] Persian place names are very common in Northwest India and Pakistan. The ancient Greeks referred to the region as Pentapotamía (Greek: Πενταποταμία),[25][26][27] which has the same meaning as the Persian word.

History[edit]

Ancient period[edit]

It is believed that the earliest evidence of human habitation in Punjab traces to the Soan Valley of the Pothohar, between the Indus and the Jhelum rivers, where Soanian culture developed between 774,000 BC and 11,700 BC. This period goes back to the first interglacial period in the second Ice Age, from which remnants of stone and flint tools have been found.[28] The Punjab region was the site of one of the earliest cradle of civilizations, the Bronze Age Harrapan civilization that flourished from about 3000 B.C. and declined rapidly 1,000 years later, following the Indo-Aryan migrations that overran the region in waves between 1500 and 500 B.C.[29] The migrating Indo-Aryan tribes gave rise to the Iron Age Vedic civilization, which lasted till 500 BC. During this era, the Rigveda was composed in Punjab,[30] laying the foundation of Hinduism. Frequent intertribal wars in the post-Vedic period stimulated the growth of larger groupings ruled by chieftains and kings, who ruled local kingdoms known as Mahajanapadas.[29] Achaemenid emperor Darius the Great, in 518 BCE crossed the Indus and annex the regions up to the Jhelum River.[31] Taxila is considered to be site of one of the oldest education centre of south asia and was part of the Achaemenid province of Hindush.[32][33]

One of the early kings in Punjab was Porus, who fought the famous Battle of the Hydaspes against Alexander the Great.[34] The battle is thought to have resulted in a decisive Greek victory; however, A. B. Bosworth warns against an uncritical reading of Greek sources who were obviously exaggerative.[34] Porus refused to surrender and wandered about atop an elephant, until he was wounded and his force routed.[34] When asked by Alexander how he wished to be treated, Porus replied "Treat me as a king would treat another king".[35] Despite the apparently one-sided results, Alexander was impressed by Porus and chose to not depose him.[36][37][38] Not only was his territory reinstated but also expanded with Alexander's forces annexing the territories of Glausaes, who ruled to the northeast of Porus' kingdom.[36] The battle is historically significant because it resulted in the syncretism of ancient Greek political and cultural influences to the Indian subcontinent, yielding works such as Greco-Buddhist art, which continued to have an impact for the ensuing centuries.

Multan was the noted centre of excellence of the region which was attacked by the Greek army led by Alexander the Great. The Malli tribe together with nearby tribes gathered an army of 90,000 personnel to face the Greek army. This was the largest army faced by the Greeks in the entire subcontinent.[39] During the siege of the city's citadel, Alexander leaped into the inner area of the citadel, where he faced the Mallians' leader. Alexander was wounded by an arrow that had penetrated his lung, leaving him severely injured. The city was conquered after a fierce battle.[40][41]

The region was then divided between the Maurya Empire and the Greco-Bactrian kingdom in 302 B.C.E. Menander I Soter conquered Punjab and made Sagala (present-day Sialkot) the capital of the Indo-Greek Kingdom.[42][43] Menander is noted for becoming a patron and converting to Greco-Buddhism and he is widely regarded as the greatest of the Indo-Greek kings.[44]

Medieval period[edit]

Arab Islamic conquest

Islam emerged as the major power in Punjab after the Umayyad caliphate led by Muhammad bin Qasim conquered the region in 711 AD.[29] The city of Multan became a center of the Ismaili sect of Islam. After the Umayyads conquered the key cities of Uch and Multan, thousands of Arabs inhabited Multan. These Arabs ruled the vast areas of Punjab for the next 3 centuries. From their capital in Multan they ruled the far areas of Kashmir. Islam spread rapidly.[39][45]

In the ninth century, the Hindu Shahi dynasty originating from the region of Oddiyana replaced the Taank kingdom in the Punjab, ruling much of Punjab along with eastern Afghanistan.[29][46][47] In the 10th century, the tribe of the Gakhars/Khokhars, formed a large part of the Hindu Shahi army according to the Persian historian Firishta.[48]

Ghaznavid

The Turkic Ghaznavids in the tenth century attacked the regions of Punjab. Multan and Uch were conquered after 3 attacks and Multan's Arab ruler Abul Fateh Daud was defeated,[49] famous Sun Temple was destroyed. This attack ended the 3 centuries of Arab rule over Punjab.[39] Ghaznavids overthrew the Hindu Shahis and consequently ruled for 157 years, gradually declining as a power until the Ghurid conquests of key Punjab cities of Uch, Multan and Lahore by Muhammad of Ghor in 1186, deposing the last Ghaznavid ruler Khusrau Malik.[39][50]

Following the death of Muhammad of Ghor in 1206, the Ghurid state fragmented and was replaced in northern India by the Delhi Sultanate and for some time independent sultanates ruled by various Sultans.[39] The Delhi Sultanate ruled Punjab for the next three hundred years, led by five unrelated dynasties, the Mamluks, Khalajis, Tughlaqs, Sayyids and Lodis.

Tughlaqs

Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq, the former governor of Multan and Dipalpur founded the Tughlaq dynasty in Delhi and ruled the subcontinent region. Earlier, he served as the governor of Multan and fought 28 battles against Mongols from there and saved Punjab and Sindh regions from advances of Mongols and survived. After his death, his son Muhammad Tughlaq became the emperor.[39]

Mongol invasion

The 15th century saw the rise of many prominent Muslims from Punjab. Khizr Khan established the Sayyid dynasty, the fourth dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate after the fall of the Tughlaqs.[51]

Silver copper coin of Khizr Khan, founder of the Sayyid dynasty.[52]

In 1398, Timur attacked the Punjab region. After his invasion, Khizr Khan established the fourth dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. According to Richard M. Eaton, Khizr Khan was the son of a Punjabi chieftain.[51] He was a Khokhar chieftain who travelled to Samarkand and profited from the contacts he made with the Timurid society[53] Later on, Delhi Sultanate, weakened by the invasion of Emir Timur, could not control all regions of the Empire and different local kingdoms appeared.

Langah Sultanate

In 1445, Sultan Qutbudin, chief of Langah, a Jat Zamindar tribe[54][55][56][57] established the Langah Sultanate in Multan. The Sultanate included regions of southern and central Punjab and areas of Khyber and Balochistan. A large number of Baloch settlers arrived and the towns of Dera Ghazi Khan and Dera Ismail Khan were founded.[58]

During the most of 15th century, the Khokhars and Gakhars tribes were in general revolt in the Pothohar region. Jasrath Khokhar was one of their major chiefs who helped Sultan Zain Ul Abideen of Kashmir to gain his throne and ruled over vast tracts of Jammu and North Punjab. He also conquered Delhi for a brief period in 1431 but was driven out by Mubarak Shah.[59]

Modern period[edit]

Mughal Era

The Mughals came to power in the early sixteenth century and gradually expanded to control all of Punjab.[60] During Mughal period Punjab region was divided into two provinces; Province of Multan and Province of Lahore. The Mughal Empire ruled the region until it was severely weakened in the eighteenth century.[29] As Mughal power weakened, Afghan rulers took control of the region.[29] Contested by Marathas and Afghans, the region was the center of the growing influence of the Sikhs, who expanded and established the Sikh empire as the Mughals and Afghans weakened, ultimately ruling the Punjab and territories north into the Himalayas.[29]

Illustration of Ranjit Singh, founder of the Sikh Empire.

The Sikh Empire ruled Punjab from 1799 until the British annexed it in 1849 following the First and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars.[61]

British Rule

Punjab Region on World Map under the British Rule in 1909

Most of the Punjabi homeland formed a province of British India, though a number of small princely states retained local rulers who recognized British authority.[29] The Punjab with its rich farmlands became one of the most important colonial assets.[29] Lahore was a noted center of learning and culture, and Rawalpindi became an important military installation.[29]

Most Punjabis supported the British during World War I, providing men and resources to the war effort even though the Punjab remained a source of anti-colonial activities.[62] Disturbances in the region increased as the war continued.[29] At the end of the war, high casualty rates, heavy taxation, inflation, and a widespread influenza epidemic disrupted Punjabi society.[29] In 1919 a British officer ordered his troops to fire on a crowd of demonstrators, mostly Sikhs in Amritsar. The Jallianwala massacre fueled the indian independence movement.[29] Nationalists declared the independence of India from Lahore in 1930 but were quickly suppressed.[29]

When the Second World War broke out, nationalism in British India had already divided into religious movements.[29] Many Sikhs and other minorities supported the Hindus, who promised a secular multicultural and multireligious society, and Muslim leaders in Lahore passed a resolution to work for a Muslim Pakistan, making the Punjab region a center of growing conflict between Indian and Pakistani nationalists.[29] At the end of the war, the British granted separate independence to India and Pakistan, setting off massive communal violence as Muslims fled to Pakistan and Hindu and Sikh Punjabis fled east to India.[29]

The British Raj had major political, cultural, philosophical, and literary consequences in the Punjab, including the establishment of a new system of education. During the independence movement, many Punjabis played a significant role, including Madan Lal Dhingra, Sukhdev Thapar, Ajit Singh Sandhu, Bhagat Singh, Udham Singh, Kartar Singh Sarabha, Bhai Parmanand, Choudhry Rahmat Ali, and Lala Lajpat Rai.

After Independence

At the time of partition in 1947, the province was split into East and West Punjab. East Punjab (48%) became part of India, while West Punjab (52%) became part of Pakistan.[63] The Punjab bore the brunt of the civil unrest following partition, with casualties estimated to be in the millions.[64][65][66][67]

Another major consequence of partition was the sudden shift towards religious homogeneity that occurred in all districts across Punjab owing to the new international border that cut through the province. This rapid demographic shift was primarily due to wide-scale migration but also caused by large-scale religious cleansing riots which were witnessed across the region at the time. According to historical demographer Tim Dyson, in the eastern regions of Punjab that ultimately became Indian Punjab following independence, districts that were 66% Hindu in 1941 became 80% Hindu in 1951; those that were 20% Sikh became 50% Sikh in 1951. Conversely, in the western regions of Punjab that ultimately became Pakistani Punjab, all districts became almost exclusively Muslim by 1951.[68]

Geography[edit]

Punjab is Pakistan's second largest province by area after Balochistan with an area of 205,344 square kilometres (79,284 square miles).[69] It occupies 25.8% of the total landmass of Pakistan.[69] Punjab province is bordered by Sindh to the south, the province of Balochistan to the southwest, the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, and the Islamabad Capital Territory and Azad Kashmir in the north. Punjab borders Jammu and Kashmir in the north, and the Indian states of Punjab and Rajasthan to the east.

The capital and largest city is Lahore which was the capital of the wider Punjab region since 17th century. Other important cities include Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Gujranwala, Sargodha, Multan, Sialkot, Bahawalpur, Gujrat, Sheikhupura, Jhelum, Rahim Yar Khan and Sahiwal. The undivided Punjab region was home to six rivers, of which five flow through Pakistan's Punjab province. From west to east, the rivers are: the Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Sutlej. It is the nation's only province that touches every other province; it also surrounds the federal enclave of the national capital city at Islamabad.[70][71]

Topography[edit]

Punjab features mountainous terrain near the hill station of Murree.
The route from Dera Ghazi Khan to Fort Munro

Punjab's landscape consists mostly consists of fertile alluvial plains of the Indus River and its four major tributaries in Pakistan, the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, and Sutlej rivers which traverse Punjab north to south – the fifth of the "five waters" of Punjab, the Beas River, lies exclusively in the Indian state of Punjab. The landscape is amongst the most heavily irrigated on earth and canals can be found throughout the province. Punjab also includes several mountainous regions, including the Sulaiman Mountains in the southwest part of the province, the Margalla Hills in the north near Islamabad, and the Salt Range which divides the most northerly portion of Punjab, the Pothohar Plateau, from the rest of the province. Sparse deserts can be found in southern Punjab near the border with Rajasthan and near the Sulaiman Range. Punjab also contains part of the Thal and Cholistan deserts. In the South, Punjab's elevation reaches 2,327 metres (7,635 ft)[citation needed] near the hill station of Fort Munro in Dera Ghazi Khan.

Climate[edit]

Sunset in Punjab, during summer

Most areas in Punjab experience extreme weather with foggy winters, often accompanied by rain. By mid-February the temperature begins to rise; springtime weather continues until mid-April, when the summer heat sets in. The onset of the southwest monsoon is anticipated to reach Punjab by May, but since the early 1970s, the weather pattern has been irregular. The spring monsoon has either skipped over the area or has caused it to rain so hard that floods have resulted. June and July are oppressively hot. Although official estimates rarely place the temperature above 46 °C, newspaper sources claim that it reaches 51 °C and regularly carry reports about people who have succumbed to the heat. Heat records were broken in Multan in June 1993, when the mercury was reported to have risen to 54 °C. In August the oppressive heat is punctuated by the rainy season, referred to as barsat, which brings relief in its wake. The hardest part of the summer is then over, but cooler weather does not come until late October.

In early 2007, the province experienced one of the coldest winters in the last 70 years.[72]

Punjab's region temperature ranges from −2° to 45 °C, but can reach 50 °C (122 °F) in summer and can touch down to −10 °C in winter.

Climatically, Punjab has three major seasons:[73]

  • Hot weather (April to June) when temperature rises as high as 123 °F (51 °C).
  • Rainy season (July to September). Average rainfall annual ranges between 96 cm sub-mountain region and 46 cm in the plains.
  • Cold / Foggy / mild weather (October to March). Temperature goes down as low as 35.6 °F (2.0 °C).

Weather extremes are notable from the hot and barren south to the cool hills of the north. The foothills of the Himalayas are found in the extreme north as well, and feature a much cooler and wetter climate, with snowfall common at higher altitudes.[citation needed]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population figures[74][75][c][d][e]
Census Population Urban Rural

1921 11,888,985
1931 14,040,798
1941 17,350,103
1951 20,540,762 3,568,076 16,972,686
1961 25,463,974 5,475,922 19,988,052
1972 37,607,423 9,182,695 28,424,728
1981 47,292,441 13,051,646 34,240,795
1998 73,621,290 23,019,025 50,602,265
2017 110,012,615 40,401,164 70,008,451

Population[edit]

The province is home to over half the population of Pakistan, and is the world's second-most populous subnational entity, and the most populous outside of India.

Religions[edit]

Religion in Punjab, Pakistan (2017 Census)[78][79][80]

  Islam (97.7%)
  Christianity (1.9%)
  Hinduism (0.2%)
  Others (0.2%)

According to the 2017 census, the population of Punjab, Pakistan was 109,989,655.[78] With 107,541,602 adherents, Muslims comprise the largest religious group, with a Sunni Hanafi majority and a Shia Ithna 'ashariyah minority, forming approximately 97.8 percent of the population.[78] The largest non-Muslim minority is Christians with 2,063,063 adherents, forming roughly 1.9 percent of the population.[78] Hindus form 211,641 people, comprising approximately 0.2 percent of the population.[78] The other minorities include Sikhs, Parsis and Baháʼís.[78][80]

Religion in Punjab, Pakistan (1921–2017)
Religious
group
1921[77]: 29 [e] 1931[76]: 277 [d] 1941[81][c] 1951[82]: 12–21  1998[83] 2017[78][80]
Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. % Pop. %
Islam 8,975,288 75.49% 10,570,029 75.28% 13,022,160 75.1% 20,200,794 97.89% 71,574,830 97.22% 107,541,602 97.77%
Hinduism [f] 1,797,141 15.12% 1,957,878 13.94% 2,373,466 13.69% 33,052 0.16% 116,410 0.16% 211,641 0.19%
Sikhism 863,091 7.26% 1,180,789 8.41% 1,520,112 8.77%
Christianity 247,030 2.08% 324,730 2.31% 395,311 2.28% 402,617 1.95% 1,699,843 2.31% 2,063,063 1.88%
Jainism 5,930 0.05% 6,921 0.05% 9,520 0.05%
Zoroastrianism 309 0.003% 413 0.003% 312 0.002% 195 0.001%
Buddhism 172 0.001% 32 0.0002% 87 0.001% 9 0%
Judaism 16 0.0001% 6 0% 7 0%
Ahmadiyya Muslims 181,428 0.25% 158,021 0.14%
Others[g] 8 0% 0 0% 19,534 0.11% 35 0% 48,779 0.07% 15,328 0.01%
Total Population 11,888,985 100% 14,040,798 100% 17,340,103 100% 20,636,702 100% 73,621,290 100% 109,989,655 100%

Languages[edit]

Languages of Punjab, Pakistan
(2017 Census)[84]

  Punjabi (69.67%)
  Saraiki (20.68%)
  Urdu (4.87%)
  Pashto (1.98%)
  Balochi (0.83%)
  Sindhi (0.15%)
  Others (5.82%)

The major native language spoken in the Punjab is Punjabi, representing the largest language spoken in the country. Punjabi is recognized as the provincial language of Punjab but is not given any official recognition in the Constitution of Pakistan at the national level.

Several Punjabic dialects and languages are spoken in vast region of Punjab namely Majhi, Pothwari, Saraiki among many others. In the southern half of Punjab, the major language is Lahnda or western Punjabi consisting of many varieties of Punjabic dialects and languages including Multani, Derawali, Riyasati, which are sometimes labelled as Saraiki. In Central Punjab Majhi dialect is most spoken. While in the north there are speakers of Hindko and Pothwari dialects.[85]

Pashto is also spoken in some parts of Punjab, especially in Attock, Mianwali and Rawalpindi districts.[86]

The proportion of people with Punjabi as their mother tongue in each Pakistani District as of the 2017 Pakistan Census

Provincial government[edit]

Punjab assembly, Lahore

The Government of Punjab is a provincial government in the federal structure of Pakistan, is based in Lahore, the capital of the Punjab Province. The Chief Minister of Punjab (CM) is elected by the Provincial Assembly of the Punjab to serve as the head of the provincial government in Punjab, Pakistan. The current Chief Minister is Mohsin Raza Naqvi, serving as a caretaker. The Provincial Assembly of the Punjab is a unicameral legislature of elected representatives of the province of Punjab, which is located in Lahore in eastern Pakistan. The Assembly was established under Article 106 of the Constitution of Pakistan as having a total of 371 seats, with 66 seats reserved for women and eight reserved for non-Muslims.

There are 48 departments in Punjab government. Each Department is headed by a Provincial Minister (Politician) and a Provincial Secretary (A civil servant of usually BPS-20 or BPS-21). All Ministers report to the Chief Minister, who is the Chief Executive. All Secretaries report to the Chief Secretary of Punjab, who is usually a BPS-22 Civil Servant. The Chief Secretary in turn, reports to the Chief Minister. In addition to these departments, there are several Autonomous Bodies and Attached Departments that report directly to either the Secretaries or the Chief Secretary.

Divisions[edit]

Map of the Pakistani Punjab divisions
Sr. No. Division Headquarters Area
(km2)
Population
(2017)
1 Bahawalpur Bahawalpur 45,588 11,464,031
2 Dera Ghazi Khan Dera Ghazi Khan 38,778 11,014,398
3 Faisalabad Faisalabad 17,917 14,177,081
4 Gujranwala Gujranwala 8,975 10,616,702
5 Lahore Lahore 16,104 19,398,081
6 Multan Multan 21,137 12,265,161
7 Rawalpindi Rawalpindi 22,255 10,007,821
8 Sahiwal Sahiwal 10,302 7,380,386
9 Sargodha Sargodha 26,360 8,181,499
10 Gujrat Gujrat 8,231 5,507,282

Districts[edit]

Sr. No. District Headquarters Area
(km2)
Population
(2017)
Density
(people/km2)
Division
1 Attock Attock 6,858 1,883,556 274 Rawalpindi
2 Bahawalnagar Bahawalnagar 8,878 2,981,919 335 Bahawalpur
3 Bahawalpur Bahawalpur 24,830 3,668,106 147 Bahawalpur
4 Bhakkar Bhakkar 8,153 1,650,518 202 Sargodha
5 Chakwal Chakwal 6,524 1,495,982 229 Rawalpindi
6 Chiniot Chiniot 2,643 1,369,740 518 Faisalabad
7 Dera Ghazi Khan Dera Ghazi Khan 11,922 2,872,201 240 Dera Ghazi Khan
8 Faisalabad Faisalabad 5,856 7,873,910 1344 Faisalabad
9 Gujranwala Gujranwala 3,622 5,014,196 1384 Gujranwala
10 Gujrat Gujrat 3,192 2,756,110 863 Gujrat
11 Hafizabad Hafizabad 2,367 1,156,957 488 Gujrat
12 Jhang Jhang 8,809 2,743,416 311 Faisalabad
13 Jhelum Jhelum 3,587 1,222,650 340 Rawalpindi
14 Kasur Kasur 4,796 3,454,996 720 Lahore
15 Khanewal Khanewal 4,349 2,921,986 671 Multan
16 Khushab Jauharabad 6,511 1,281,299 196 Sargodha
17 Lahore Lahore 1,772 11,126,285 6278 Lahore
18 Layyah Layyah 6,291 1,824,230 290 Dera Ghazi Khan
19 Lodhran Lodhran 2,778 1,700,620 612 Multan
20 Mandi Bahauddin Mandi Bahauddin 2,673 1,593,292 596 Gujrat
21 Mianwali Mianwali 5,840 1,546,094 264 Sargodha
22 Multan Multan 3,720 4,745,109 1275 Multan
23 Muzaffargarh Muzaffargarh 8,249 4,322,009 523 Dera Ghazi Khan
24 Narowal Narowal 2,337 1,709,757 731 Gujranwala
25 Nankana Sahib[87] Nankana Sahib 2,960 1,356,374 458 Lahore
26 Okara Okara 4,377 3,039,139 694 Sahiwal
27 Pakpattan Pakpattan 2,724 1,823,687 669 Sahiwal
28 Rahim Yar Khan Rahim Yar Khan 11,880 4,814,006 405 Bahawalpur
29 Rajanpur Rajanpur 12,319 1,995,958 162 Dera Ghazi Khan
30 Rawalpindi Rawalpindi 5,286 5,405,633 1322 Rawalpindi
31 Sahiwal Sahiwal 3,201 2,517,560 786 Sahiwal
32 Sargodha Sargodha 5,854 3,703,588 632 Sargodha
33 Sheikhupura Sheikhupura 5,960 3,460,426 580 Lahore
34 Sialkot Sialkot 3,016 3,893,672 1291 Gujranwala
35 Toba Tek Singh Toba Tek Singh 3,252 2,190,015 673 Faisalabad
36 Vehari Vehari 4,364 2,897,446 663 Multan
37 Talagang Talagang 3,122 572,818 198 Rawalpindi
38 Murree Murree Rawalpindi
39 Taunsa Taunsa Dera Ghazi Khan
40 Kot Addu Kot Addu Dera Ghazi Khan
41 Wazirabad Wazirabad 1,206 830,396 689 Gujrat

Major cities[edit]

List of major cities in Punjab
Rank City District Population Image
1 Lahore Lahore 11,126,285
2 Faisalabad Faisalabad 3,204,726
3 Rawalpindi Rawalpindi 2,098,231
4 Gujranwala Gujranwala 2,027,001
5 Multan Multan 1,871,843
6 Bahawalpur Bahawalpur 762,111
7 Sargodha Sargodha 659,862
8 Sialkot Sialkot 655,852
9 Sheikhupura Sheikhupura 473,129
10 Rahim Yar Khan Rahim Yar Khan 420,419
11 Jhang Jhang 414,131
12 Dera Ghazi Khan Dera Ghazi Khan 399,064
13 Gujrat Gujrat 390,533
14 Sahiwal Sahiwal 389,605
15 Wah Cantonment Rawalpindi 380,103
Source: pbscensus 2017[88]
This is a list of city proper populations and does not indicate metro populations.

Economy[edit]

GDP by Province

Punjab has the largest economy in Pakistan, contributing most to the national GDP. The province's economy has quadrupled since 1972.[89] Its share of Pakistan's GDP was 54.7% in 2000 and 59% as of 2010. It is especially dominant in the service and agriculture sectors of Pakistan's economy. With its contribution ranging from 52.1% to 64.5% in the Service Sector and 56.1% to 61.5% in the agriculture sector. It is also a major manpower contributor because it has the largest pool of professionals and highly skilled (technically trained) manpower in Pakistan. It is also dominant in the manufacturing sector, though the dominance is not as huge, with historical contributions ranging from a low of 44% to a high of 52.6%.[90] In 2007, Punjab achieved a growth rate of 7.8%[91] and during the period 2002–03 to 2007–08, its economy grew at a rate of between 7% and 8% per year.[92] and during 2008–09 grew at 6% against the total GDP growth of Pakistan at 4%.

Despite the lack of a coastline, Punjab is the most industrialised province of Pakistan;[8] its manufacturing industries produce textiles, sports goods, heavy machinery, electrical appliances, surgical instruments, vehicles, auto parts, metals, sugar mill plants, aircraft, cement, agricultural machinery, bicycles and rickshaws, floor coverings, and processed foods. In 2003, the province manufactured 90% of the paper and paper boards, 71% of the fertilizers, 69% of the sugar and 40% of the cement of Pakistan.[93]

Industrial Zones Punjab, Source:[94]

Lahore and Gujranwala Divisions have the largest concentration of small light engineering units. The district of Sialkot excels in sports goods, surgical instruments and cutlery goods. Industrial estates are being developed by Punjab government to boost industrialization in province, Quaid e Azam Business Park Sheikhupura is one of the industrial area which is being developed near Sheikhupura on Lahore-Islamabad motorway.[95]

Punjab has the lowest poverty rates in Pakistan, although a divide is present between the northern and southern parts of the province.[9] Sialkot District in the prosperous northern part of the province has a poverty rate of 5.63%,[96] while Rajanpur District in the poorer south has a poverty rate of 60.05%.[12]

Education[edit]

Government College University, Lahore

The literacy rate has increased greatly over the last 40 years (see the table below). Punjab has the highest Human Development Index out of all of Pakistan's provinces at 0.564.[97]

Year Literacy Rate
1972 20.7%
1981 27.4%
1998 46.56%
2009 59.6%
2021 66.3%[5]

Sources:[98][99]

This is a chart of the education market of Punjab estimated by the government in 1998.

Qualification Urban Rural Total Enrollment Ratio(%)
23,019,025 50,602,265 73,621,290
Below Primary 3,356,173 11,598,039 14,954,212 100.00
Primary 6,205,929 18,039,707 24,245,636 79.68
Middle 5,140,148 10,818,764 15,958,912 46.75
Matriculation 4,624,522 7,119,738 11,744,260 25.07
Intermediate 1,862,239 1,821,681 3,683,920 9.12
BA, BSc... degrees 110,491 96,144 206,635 4.12
MA, MSc... degrees 1,226,914 764,094 1,991,008 3.84
Diploma, Certificate... 418,946 222,649 641,595 1.13
Other qualifications 73,663 121,449 195,112 0.26

List of universities[edit]

University Location Established Campuses Specialization Type
1 King Edward Medical University Lahore 1860 Medicine Public
2 Government College University, Lahore Lahore 1864 General Public
3 Forman Christian College Lahore 1864 General Private
4 National College of Arts Lahore 1875 Rawalpindi Art and design Public
5 University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Lahore 1882 Jhang, Pattoki, Narowal, Layyah Veterinary and animal sciences Public
6 University of the Punjab Lahore 1882 Gujranwala, Jhelum, Khanspur General Public
7 Punjab Tianjin University of Technology Lahore 2018 Engineering and technology Public
8 University of Agriculture, Faisalabad Faisalabad 1906 Burewala, Toba Tek Singh, Depalpur Agriculture Public
9 Namal Institute Mianwali 2008 Engineering and technology Private
10 Kinnaird College for Women University Lahore 1913 General Public
11 University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore Lahore 1921 Faisalabad, Sheikhupura, Gujranwala, Narowal Engineering and technology Public
12 Lahore College for Women University Lahore 1922 Jhang General Public
13 Government College University, Faisalabad Faisalabad 1897 Layyah, Sahiwal, Chiniot General Public
14 Fatima Jinnah Medical University Lahore 1948 Medicine Public
15 National Textile University Faisalabad 1959 Karachi Textile engineering and design Public
16 Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi 1970 Agriculture Public
17 Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan 1975 Layyah, Vehari General Public
18 The Islamia University of Bahawalpur Bahawalpur 1975 Bahawalnagar, Rahim Yar Khan General Public
19 University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila Taxila 1975 Engineering and technology Public
20 Lahore University of Management Sciences Lahore 1984 General Private
21 NFC Institute of Engineering and Technology Multan 1985 Engineering and technology Public
22 Institute of Management Sciences, Lahore Lahore 1987 General Private
23 University of Management and Technology, Lahore Lahore 1990 Sialkot General Private
24 National College of Business Administration and Economics Lahore 1994 Multan, Bahawalpur, Rahim Yar Khan General Private
25 Lahore School of Economics Lahore 1997 General Private
26 Fatima Jinnah Women University Rawalpindi 1998 General Public
27 University of Sargodha Sargodha 2002 Bhakkar General Public
28 University of Health Sciences, Lahore Lahore 2002 Health sciences Public
29 University of Education Lahore 2002 Attock, Dera Ghazi Khan, Faisalabad, Jauharabad, Multan, Vehari Education Public
30 GIFT University Gujranwala 2002 General Private
31 Hajvery University Lahore 2002 Sheikhupura General Private
32 University of Central Punjab Lahore 2002 General Private
33 University of Faisalabad Faisalabad 2002 General Private
34 University of Lahore Lahore 1999 Gujrat, Sargodha, Pakpattan General Private
35 Beaconhouse National University Lahore 2003 General Private
36 University of South Asia Lahore 2003 General Private
37 University of Gujrat Gujrat 2004 Lahore, Rawalpindi, Narowal, Mandi Bahauddin General Public
38 Superior University Lahore 2004 General Private
39 Minhaj University, Lahore Lahore 2005 General Private
40 HITEC University Taxila 2007 General Private
41 University of Wah Wah 2009 General Private
42 Pakistan Institute of Fashion and Design Lahore 1994 Fashion and design Public
43 Women University Multan Multan 2010 General Public
44 Institute of Southern Punjab Multan 2010 General Private
45 Qarshi University Lahore 2011 General Private
46 Government College Women University, Sialkot Sialkot 2012 General Public
47 Government Sadiq College Women University Bahawalpur 2012 General Public
48 Ghazi University Dera Ghazi Khan 2012 General Public
49 Government College Women University, Faisalabad Faisalabad 2012 General Public
50 Information Technology University (Lahore) Lahore 2012 General Public
51 Muhammad Nawaz Sharif University of Agriculture Multan 2012 General Public
52 Muhammad Nawaz Sharif University of Engineering and Technology Multan 2012 General Public
53 Virtual University of Pakistan Lahore 2002 Across the entire Pakistan General Public
54 Lahore Garrison University Lahore 2012 General Private
55 Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences Bahawalpur 2014 Veterinary and animal sciences Public
56 Khawaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology Rahim Yar Khan 2014 Engineering and technology Public
57 University of Engineering and Technology, Rasul Mandi Bahauddin 1873 Engineering and technology Public
58 University of Sahiwal Sahiwal 2015 General Public
59 University of Okara Okara 2015 General Public
60 University of Jhang Jhang 2015 General Public
61 NUR International University Lahore 2015 General Private
62 University of Sialkot Sialkot 2013 General Private
63 Faisalabad Medical University Faisalabad 1973 Medicine Public
64 Rawalpindi Medical University Rawalpindi 1974 Medicine Public
65 Nishtar Medical University Multan 1951 Medicine Public
66 National University of Medical Sciences Rawalpindi 2015 Medicine Public
67 University of Home Economics Lahore Lahore 1955 Home economics Public
68 Mir Chakar Khan Rind University of Technology Dera Ghazi Khan 2019 Engineering and technology Public
69 Rawalpindi Women University Rawalpindi 1950 General Public
70 Institute for Art and Culture Lahore 2019 Art and design Public
71 University of Narowal Narowal 2014 General Public
72 Al-Qadir University[100][101] Sohawa 2021 Sufism Public
73 Baba Guru Nanak University Nankana Sahib 2021 General Public
74 University of Chakwal Chakwal 2020 General Public
75 University of Mianwali Mianwali 2020 General Public
76 University of Chenab Gujrat 2021 General Private
76 Thal University Bhakkar 2021 General Public
77 Green International University Lahore 2020 General Private
78 Kohsar University Murree Murree 2021 General Public
79 Lahore Institute of Science and Technology Lahore 2022 General Private
80 Grand Asian University Sialkot Sialkot 2022 General Private
81 Government Viqar-un-Nisa Women University Rawalpindi 2022 General Public

Culture[edit]

Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam, Multan (1320 AD)
A man from Pakistani Punjab, where handing down rifles from generation to generation for hunting and celebratory fire is a very strong tradition[102]

The culture in Punjab grew out of the settlements along the five rivers, which served as an important route to the Near East as early as the ancient Indus Valley civilization, dating back to 3000 BCE.[103] Agriculture has been the major economic feature of the Punjab and has therefore formed the foundation of Punjabi culture, with one's social status being determined by landownership.[103] The Punjab emerged as an important agricultural region, especially following the Green Revolution during the mid-1960's to the mid-1970's, has been described as the "breadbasket of both India and Pakistan".[103]

Fairs and festivals[edit]

The Islamic festivals are typically observed.[104][105] Non-Islamic festivals include Lohri, Basant and Vaisakhi, which are usually celebrated as seasonal festivals.[106] The Islamic festivals are set according to the lunar Islamic calendar (Hijri), and the date falls earlier by 10 to 13 days from year to year.[107]

Some Islamic clerics and some politicians have attempted to ban the participation of non-Islamic festivals because of the religious basis,[108] and they being declared haram (forbidden in Islam).[109]

Tourism[edit]

The Lahore Fort, a landmark built during the Mughal era, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Rohtas Fort, a UNESCO world heritage site, was built upon a hill overlooking the Pothohar Plateau.
Derawar Fort in Cholistan Desert, a UNESCO World Heritage Site

Tourism in Punjab is regulated by the Tourism Development Corporation of Punjab.[110] The province has a number of large cosmopolitan cities, including the provincial capital Lahore. Major visitor attractions there include Lahore Fort and Shalimar Gardens, which are now recognised World Heritage Sites. The Walled City of Lahore, Badshahi Mosque, Wazir Khan Mosque, Tomb of Jahangir and Nur Jahan, Tomb of Asaf Khan, Chauburji and other major sites visited by tourists each year.

Murree is a famous hill station stop for tourists.[111] The Pharwala Fort, which was built by an ancient Hindu civilisation, is on the outskirts of the city. The city of Sheikhupura also has a number of sites from the Mughal Empire, including the World Heritage-listed Rohtas Fort near Jhelum. The Katasraj temple in the city of Chakwal is a major destination for Hindu devotees. The Khewra Salt Mines is one of the oldest mines in South Asia. Faisalabad's clock tower and eight bazaars were designed to represent the Union Jack.[112]

Noor Mahal, Bahawalpur

The province's southward is arid. Multan is known for its mausoleums of saints and Sufi pirs. The Multan Museum, Multan fort, DHA 360° zoo and Nuagaza tombs are significant attractions in the city. The city of Bahawalpur is located near the Cholistan and Thar deserts. Derawar Fort in the Cholistan Desert is the site for the annual Cholistan Jeep Rally. The city is also near the ancient site of Uch Sharif which was once a Delhi Sultanate stronghold. The Noor Mahal, Sadiq Ghar Palace, Darbar Mall were built during the reign of the Nawabs. The Lal Suhanra National Park is a major zoological garden on the outskirts of the city.[citation needed]

Social issues[edit]

A demonstration by Punjabis at Lahore, Pakistan, demanding to make Punjabi as official language of instruction in schools of the Punjab.

The use of Urdu and English as the near exclusive languages of broadcasting, the public sector, and formal education have led some to fear that the Punjabi language in the province is being relegated to a low-status language and that it is being denied an environment where it can flourish.[113][114][115][116]

In August 2015, the Pakistan Academy of Letters, International Writer's Council (IWC) and World Punjabi Congress (WPC) organised the Khawaja Farid Conference and demanded that a Punjabi-language university should be established in Lahore and that Punjabi language should be declared as the medium of instruction at the primary level.[117][118] In September 2015, a case was filed in Supreme Court of Pakistan against Government of Punjab, Pakistan as it did not take any step to implement the Punjabi language in the province.[119][120] Additionally, several thousand Punjabis gather in Lahore every year on International Mother Language Day.

Hafiz Saeed, chief of Jama'at-ud-Da'wah (JuD), has questioned Pakistan's decision to adopt Urdu as its national language in a country where majority of people speak Punjabi language, citing his interpretation of Islamic doctrine as encouraging education in the mother-tongue.[121] Some of the organisations and activists that demand the promotion of the Punjabi language include:

  • Cultural and research institutes: Punjabi Adabi Board, the Khoj Garh Research Centre, Punjabi Prachar, Institute for Peace and Secular Studies, Adbi Sangat, Khaaksaar Tehreek, Saanjh, Maan Boli Research Centre, Punjabi Sangat Pakistan, Punjabi Markaz, Sver International
  • Trade unions and youth groups: Punjabi Writers Forum, National Students Federation, Punjabi Union-Pakistan, Punjabi National Conference, National Youth Forum, Punjabi Writers Forum, National Students Federation, Punjabi Union, Pakistan, and the Punjabi National Conference.
  • Notable activists include Tariq Jatala, Farhad Iqbal, Diep Saeeda, Khalil Ojla, Afzal Sahir, Jamil Ahmad Paul, Mazhar Tirmazi, Mushtaq Sufi, Biya Je, Tohid Ahmad Chattha and Bilal Shaker Kahaloon, Nazeer Kahut[122][123][124]

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Punjab's contribution to national economy was 60.58%, or $925 billion (PPP) and $225 billion (nominal) in 2022.[2][3]
  2. ^ Islamabad Capital Territory is Pakistan's least impoverished administrative unit, but ICT is not a province. Azad Kashmir also has a rate of poverty lower than Punjab, but is not a province.
  3. ^ a b 1941 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Gujrat, Shahpur, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, Attock, Mianwali, Montgomery, Lyallpur, Jhang, Multan, Muzaffargargh, Dera Ghazi Khan), one tehsil (Shakargarh – then part of Gurdaspur District), one princely state (Bahawalpur), and one tract (Biloch Trans–Frontier) in Punjab Province, British India that ultimately fell on the western side of the Radcliffe Line. See 1941 census data here: [75]
    Immediately following the partition of India in 1947, these districts and tract would ultimately make up the subdivision of West Punjab, which also later included Bahawalpur. The state that makes up this region in the contemporary era is Punjab, Pakistan.
  4. ^ a b 1931 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Gujrat, Shahpur, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, Attock, Mianwali, Montgomery, Lyallpur, Jhang, Multan, Muzaffargargh, Dera Ghazi Khan), one tehsil (Shakargarh – then part of Gurdaspur District), one princely state (Bahawalpur), and one tract (Biloch Trans–Frontier) in Punjab Province, British India that ultimately fell on the western side of the Radcliffe Line. See 1931 census data here: [76]: 277 
    Immediately following the partition of India in 1947, these districts and tract would ultimately make up the subdivision of West Punjab, which also later included Bahawalpur. The state that makes up this region in the contemporary era is Punjab, Pakistan.
  5. ^ a b 1921 figure taken from census data by combining the total population of all districts (Lahore, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, Gujrat, Shahpur, Jhelum, Rawalpindi, Attock, Mianwali, Montgomery, Lyallpur, Jhang, Multan, Muzaffargargh, Dera Ghazi Khan), one tehsil (Shakargarh – then part of Gurdaspur District), one princely state (Bahawalpur), and one tract (Biloch Trans–Frontier) in Punjab Province, British India that ultimately fell on the western side of the Radcliffe Line. See 1921 census data here: [77]: 29 
    Immediately following the partition of India in 1947, these districts and tract would ultimately make up the subdivision of West Punjab, which also later included Bahawalpur. The state that makes up this region in the contemporary era is Punjab, Pakistan.
  6. ^ 1931-1941 census: Including Ad-Dharmis
  7. ^ 1921-1941 census: Including Tribals, others, or not stated
    2017 census: Also includes Sikhs, Parsis, Baháʼís, others, and not stated

References[edit]

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  3. ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects".
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  7. ^ "'Wrong number' couple fight India deportation". BBC News. 4 September 2023.
  8. ^ a b Government of the Punjab – Planning & Development Department (March 2015). "PUNJAB GROWTH STRATEGY 2018 Accelerating Economic Growth and Improving Social Outcomes" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 March 2017. Retrieved 14 July 2016. The industrial sector of Punjab employs around 23% of the province's labour force and contributes 24% to the provincial GDP
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  10. ^ Arif, G. M. "Poverty Profile of Pakistan" (PDF). Benazir Income Support Programme. Government of Pakistan. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016. Among the four provinces, the highest incidence of poverty is found in Sindh (45%), followed by Balochistan (44%), Khyber Pakhtukhaw (KP) (37%) and Punjab (21%)
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  12. ^ a b Arif, G. M. "Poverty Profile of Pakistan" (PDF). Benazir Income Support Programme. Government of Pakistan. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016. See Table 5, Page 12 "Rajanpur District"
  13. ^ Government of the Punjab – Planning & Development Department (March 2015). "PUNJAB GROWTH STRATEGY 2018 Accelerating Economic Growth and Improving Social Outcomes" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 March 2017. Retrieved 14 July 2016. Punjab is among the most urbanized regions of South Asia and is experiencing a consistent and long-term demographic shift of the population to urban regions and cities, with around 40% of the province's population living in urban areas
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  23. ^ Kenneth Pletcher, ed. (2010). The Geography of India: Sacred and Historic Places. Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 199. ISBN 978-1-61530-202-4. The word's origin can perhaps be traced to panca nada, Sanskrit for "five rivers" and the name of a region mentioned in the ancient epic the Mahabharata.
  24. ^ Rajesh Bala (2005). "Foreign Invasions and their Effect on Punjab". In Sukhdial Singh (ed.). Punjab History Conference, Thirty-seventh Session, March 18–20, 2005: Proceedings. Punjabi University. p. 80. ISBN 978-81-7380-990-3. The word Punjab is a compound of two words-Panj (Five) and aab (Water), thus signifying the land of five waters or rivers. This origin can perhaps be traced to panch nada, Sanskrit for 'Five rivers' the word used before the advent of Muslims with a knowledge of Persian to describe the meeting point of the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej rivers, before they joined the Indus.
  25. ^ Lassen, Christian. 1827. Commentatio Geographica atque Historica de Pentapotamia Indica [A Geographical and Historical Commentary on Indian Pentapotamia]. Weber. p. 4: "That part of India which today we call by the Persian name ''Penjab'' is named Panchanada in the sacred language of the Indians; either of which names may be rendered in Greek by Πενταποταμια. The Persian origin of the former name is not at all in doubt, although the words of which it is composed are both Indian and Persian.... But, in truth, that final word is never, to my knowledge, used by the Indians in proper names compounded in this way; on the other hand, there exist multiple Persian names which end with that word, e.g., Doab and Nilab. Therefore, it is probable that the name Penjab, which is today found in all geographical books, is of more recent origin and is to be attributed to the Muslim kings of India, among whom the Persian language was mostly in use. That the Indian name Panchanada is ancient and genuine is evident from the fact that it is already seen in the Ramayana and Mahabharata, the most ancient Indian poems, and that no other exists in addition to it among the Indians; for Panchála, which English translations of the Ramayana render with Penjab...is the name of another region, entirely distinct from Pentapotamia...."[whose translation?]
  26. ^ Latif, Syad Muhammad (1891). History of the Panjáb from the Remotest Antiquity to the Present Time. Calcultta Central Press Company. p. 1. The Panjáb, the Pentapotamia of the Greek historians, the north-western region of the empire of Hindostán, derives its name from two Persian words, panj (five), an áb (water, having reference to the five rivers which confer on the country its distinguishing features."
  27. ^ Khalid, Kanwal (2015). "Lahore of Pre Historic Era" (PDF). Journal of the Research Society of Pakistan. 52 (2): 73. The earliest mention of five rivers in the collective sense was found in Yajurveda and a word Panchananda was used, which is a Sanskrit word to describe a land where five rivers meet. [...] In the later period the word Pentapotamia was used by the Greeks to identify this land. (Penta means 5 and potamia, water ___ the land of five rivers) Muslim Historians implied the word "Punjab " for this region. Again it was not a new word because in Persian-speaking areas, there are references of this name given to any particular place where five rivers or lakes meet.
  28. ^ Singh 1989, p. 1.
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  30. ^ Flood 1996, p. 37.
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  52. ^ Richard M. Eaton (2019). India in the Persianate Age: 1000–1765. University of California Press. p. 117. ISBN 978-0520325128. The career of Khizr Khan, a Punjabi chieftain belonging to the Khokar clan...
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